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Best Architectural structure owner of All Time

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    1
    Karol Szymanowski

    Karol Szymanowski

    Karol Maciej Szymanowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˌkarɔl ˌmat͡ɕɛj ʂɨmaˈnɔfskʲi]; 3 October 1882 – 28 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist. Szymanowski was born into a wealthy land-owning Polish gentry family (of the Korwin/Ślepowron coat-of-arms) in Tymoszówka, then in the Russian Empire, now in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine. He studied music privately with his father before going to Gustav Neuhaus' Elisavetgrad School of Music from 1892. From 1901 he attended the State Conservatory in Warsaw, of which he was later director from 1926 until retiring in 1930. Musical opportunities in Russian-occupied Poland being quite limited at the time, he travelled widely throughout Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and the United States. These travels, especially those to the Mediterranean area, provided much inspiration to the composer and esthete. The fruits of these trips included not only musical works, but poetry and his novel on Greek love Efebos, parts of which were subsequently lost in a fire in 1939. The central chapter was translated by him into Russian and given as a gift in 1919 to Boris Kochno, who was his beloved at the time. Szymanowski also wrote a number of love poems,
    9.60
    5 votes
    2
    Kingdom of Portugal

    Kingdom of Portugal

    The Kingdom of Portugal (Portuguese: Reino de Portugal, Latin: Regnum Portugalliae), or the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves, Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbia), was Portugal's general designation under the monarchy. The kingdom was located in the west of the Iberian Peninsula, Europe and existed from 1139 to 1910. It was replaced by the Portuguese First Republic after the 5 October 1910 revolution. The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal (1093–1139). The Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of Leon. Independence from Leon took place in three stages: Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links. With the turn of the 19th to 20th century, republicanism would grow in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press. However a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of
    7.29
    7 votes
    3
    National Archives and Records Administration

    National Archives and Records Administration

    The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential proclamations and executive orders, and federal regulations. The chief administrator of NARA is the Archivist of the United States, who not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U.S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, and therefore when an act has become an amendment. Originally, each branch and agency of the U.S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which often resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as its chief administrator. The National Archives was
    9.40
    5 votes
    4
    CalPERS

    CalPERS

    The California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) is an agency in the California executive branch that "manages pension and health benefits for more than 1.6 million California public employees, retirees, and their families". In fiscal year 2007-2008, $10.88 billion was paid in retirement benefits, and in calendar year 2009 it is estimated that over $5.7 billion will be paid in health benefits. As of December 2008, CalPERS managed the largest public pension fund in the United States with $179.2 billion in assets; however, that represented a 31% decrease from the peak value of its assets of $260.6 billion in October 2007. CalPERS is known for its shareholder activism; stocks placed on its "Focus List" may perform better than other stocks, which has given rise to the term "CalPERS effect". Outside the U.S., CalPERS has been called "a recognized global leader in the investment industry", and "one of America's most powerful shareholder bodies". Discussion about providing for the retirement of California state employees began in 1921, but only in 1930 did California voters approve an amendment to the State Constitution to allow pensions to be paid to state workers, and only
    6.25
    8 votes
    5
    William Wrigley Jr.

    William Wrigley Jr.

    William Wrigley Jr. (September 30, 1861–January 26, 1932) was a U.S. chewing gum industrialist. He was founder and eponym of the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company in 1891. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Wrigley played an instrumental role in the history of Catalina Island, off the shore of Los Angeles, California. He bought controlling interest in the Santa Catalina Island Company in 1919 and with the company he received the island for free. Wrigley improved the island with public utilities, new steamships, a hotel, the Casino building, and extensive plantings of trees, shrubs and flowers. He also sought to create an enterprise which would help employ local residents. By using clay and minerals found on the island in 1927 William Wrigley Jr. created the Pebbly Beach quarry and tile plant, at a beach located near Avalon. Along with creating a job market for Avalon residents, the plant also provided materials for Wrigley's numerous building projects on the island. After the building of Avalon's Casino (see Avalon Theater (Catalina)) in 1929, the Catalina Clay Products Tile and Pottery Plant began churning out handmade glazed tiles, dinnerware and other practical household items
    7.67
    6 votes
    6
    Bill Gates

    Bill Gates

    William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate and philanthropist. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked among the world's wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009, excluding 2008, when he was ranked third; in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the second wealthiest person. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock. He has also authored or co-authored several books. Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Gates has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion which has in some cases been upheld by the courts. In the later stages of his career, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates
    8.60
    5 votes
    7
    Stage Entertainment

    Stage Entertainment

    The live entertainment company Stage Entertainment is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It has a very successful subsidiary in Germany based in Hamburg which almost has a monopoly in Germany. Stage Entertainment emerged from the Live Entertainment Division of Endemol to become its own company led by Joop van den Ende. The international group owns and licenses more than 70 productions worldwide, employs nearly 4000 employees and owns or runs theaters in eight countries, including the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy, Russia and the United States. In 2002 the German subsidiary took over the insolvent Stella AG. Through Stella AG they acquired many productions and theaters, including the Theater im Hafen and the Neue Flora in Hamburg. On June 1 2005 the German division took over the Ticket Online Software GmbH. Ticket Online run a booking system for tickets and is used by several hundred ticket agencies in Germany. In 2005 Stage Entertainment founded along with Dutch dance event organiser ID&T the company ID&T Germany. The first production welcomed about 15.000 visitors in July 2005 to Sensation White in Veltins-Arena (Gelsenkirchen), which was an
    6.43
    7 votes
    8
    Rembrandt

    Rembrandt

    Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin], 15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative. Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. In his paintings
    7.17
    6 votes
    9
    Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900) was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams and plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment which was followed by his early death. Wilde's parents were successful Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States and Canada on the new "English Renaissance in Art", and then returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress, and glittering conversation, Wilde had become one of the most well-known
    7.00
    6 votes
    10
    Charles II of England

    Charles II of England

    Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland in Edinburgh on 6 February 1649, the English Parliament instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if Charles had succeeded his father as king in
    6.83
    6 votes
    11
    Julius Shulman

    Julius Shulman

    Julius Shulman (October 10, 1910 – July 15, 2009) was an American architectural photographer best known for his photograph "Case Study House #22, Los Angeles, 1960. Pierre Koenig, Architect." The house is also known as The Stahl House. Shulman's photography spread California Mid-century modern around the world. Through his many books, exhibits and personal appearances his work ushered in a new appreciation for the movement beginning in the 1990s. His vast library of images currently reside at the Getty Center in Los Angeles. His contemporaries include Ezra Stoller and Hedrich Blessing Photographers. In 1947, Julius Shulman asked architect Raphael Soriano to build a mid-century steel home and studio in the Hollywood Hills. Some of his architectural photographs, like the iconic shots of Frank Lloyd Wright's or Pierre Koenig's remarkable structures, have been published countless times. The brilliance of buildings like those by Charles Eames, as well as those of his close friends, Richard Neutra and Raphael Soriano, was first brought to light by Shulman's photography. The clarity of his work demanded that architectural photography had to be considered as an independent art form. Each
    6.83
    6 votes
    12
    University of Glasgow

    University of Glasgow

    The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, United Kingdom, the university was founded in 1451 and is currently one of nineteen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the world. A major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century, in the 19th century (while continuing to educate the upper classes), Glasgow became a pioneer in British higher education by providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle classes. Glasgow served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, medicine, civil service, teaching, and the church. It also trained smaller numbers for careers in science and engineering. In 2007, the Sunday Times ranked it as "Scottish University of the Year." The university is a member of the elite Russell Group and of Universitas 21. Since 1870, the main University campus has been located on Gilmorehill in the West End of the city. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere: a facility at Loch Lomond, the University Marine Biological Station
    6.83
    6 votes
    13
    Parke-Davis

    Parke-Davis

    Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. Although no longer an independent corporation, it was once America's oldest and largest drug maker, and played an important role in medical history. Parke-Davis originally was founded in Detroit, Michigan by Dr. Samuel P. Duffield, a physician and pharmacist. A partnership of Dr. Duffield and Hervey Coke Parke was formed in 1866, with George S. Davis becoming a third partner in 1867. Duffield withdrew in 1869, and the name Parke, Davis & Company was formally adopted in 1871, being incorporated in 1875. It was once the world's largest pharmaceutical company, and is credited with building the first modern pharmaceutical laboratory and developing the first systematic methods of performing clinical trials of new medications. The Parke-Davis Research Laboratory is a National Historic Landmark; the surrounding Parke-Davis and Company Pharmaceutical Company Plant is on the National Register of Historic Places. The production facility on Parkdale Road in what was then Avon Township MI (site now in Rochester MI) was also a landmark in that vicinity, and is now used by JHP Pharmaceuticals. Parke-Davis was acquired by
    7.80
    5 votes
    14
    Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas

    Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas

    Archibald the Grim also known as Blak (Black) Archibald (c. 1328–1400), 3rd Earl of Douglas, Earl of Wigtown, Lord of Douglas, Lord of Bothwell and Lord of Galloway was a late medieval Scottish magnate. Archibald the Grim was a bastard son by an unknown mother of Sir James Douglas, Robert I's trusted lieutenant. A first cousin of William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas, he inherited the earldom of Douglas and its entailed estates as the third earl following the death without issue of James 2nd Earl of Douglas at the Battle of Otterburn. He was an infant when his father went on the crusades and was killed at the Battle of Teba whilst fighting the Moors. According to Walter Bower, "He was dark and ugly more like a coco [cook-boy] than a Noble". It has been suggested that the young Archibald spent time with his cousin William at the court in exile of King David II at Château Gaillard in Normandy. It was only natural for them to take service with the French King. This was in keeping with the spirit of the Auld Alliance. Archibald's first major appearance in history is recorded in 1356 at the Battle of Poitiers where he was captured by the English. Archibald had accompanied his cousin,
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Baltimore City Council

    Baltimore City Council

    The Baltimore City Council is the legislative branch that governs the City of Baltimore and its nearly 700,000 citizens. Baltimore has fourteen single-member City Council districts and representatives are elected for a four-year term. To qualify for a position on the Council, a person must be twenty-one years of age, a registered voter, a U.S. citizen, and a resident of Baltimore and the district. If a position on the Council is vacated, a new representative from the Council District is elected by a majority vote of the Council. As of 2007 the annual salary for city council member was $57,000. The Baltimore City Council holds its regular meetings on alternate Monday evenings on the fourth floor of the Baltimore City Hall. The presiding officer is the President of the City Council who is elected at-large. The compensation for the President is (as of 2009) $100,450 a year. The Council has 7 standing committees, all of which must have at least three members. In 1729, the Maryland General Assembly authorized the erection of Baltimoretown on the north side of the Patapsco and appointed a group of commissioners to govern it. In 1797, the General Assembly granted a charter that created
    7.60
    5 votes
    16
    Donald Trump

    Donald Trump

    Donald John Trump, Sr. (born June 14, 1946) is an American business magnate, television personality and author. He is the chairman and president of The Trump Organization and the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts. Trump's extravagant lifestyle, outspoken manner and role on the NBC reality show The Apprentice have made him a well-known celebrity who was No. 17 on the 2011 Forbes Celebrity 100 list. Trump is the son of Fred Trump, a wealthy New York City real-estate developer. He worked for his father's firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, while attending the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1968 officially joined the company. He was given control of the company in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization. In 2010, Trump expressed an interest in becoming a candidate for President of the United States in the 2012 election. In May 2011, he announced he would not be a candidate, but a few weeks later he said he had not completely ruled out the possibility. In December 2011, Trump was suggested as a possible Vice Presidential selection by Michele Bachmann. Bachmann has since suspended her presidential campaign. Trump is a son of Fred Trump and his wife, Mary Anne
    7.60
    5 votes
    17
    Hyde Park

    Hyde Park

    Hyde Park is a town in and the shire town (county seat) of Lamoille County, Vermont, United States. The town was named for Captain Jedediah Hyde, a landowner. The population was 2,847 at the 2000 census. There is also a village within the town by the same name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 39.0 square miles (101.0 km), of which 37.9 square miles (98.1 km) is land and 1.1 square miles (2.9 km) (2.87%) is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,847 people, 1,138 households, and 780 families residing in the town. The population density was 75.2 people per square mile (29.0/km). There were 1,220 housing units at an average density of 32.2/sq mi (12.4/km). The racial makeup of the town was 97.75% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.39% Asian, and 0.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 1,138 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.4% were non-families. 24.4% of all
    7.60
    5 votes
    18
    United States Military Academy

    United States Military Academy

    The United States Military Academy at West Point (also known as USMA, West Point, Army, The Academy or simply The Point) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. The entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites, buildings, and monuments. The majority of the campus's neogothic buildings are constructed from gray and black granite. The campus is a popular tourist destination complete with a large visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Senator or Representative. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as cadets or collectively as the United States Corps of Cadets (USCC). Tuition for cadets is fully funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July with about 1,000 cadets graduating. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that
    7.60
    5 votes
    19
    William Keppel, 4th Earl of Albemarle

    William Keppel, 4th Earl of Albemarle

    William Charles Keppel, 4th Earl of Albemarle GCH, PC (14 May 1772 – 30 October 1849), briefly styled Viscount Bury between May and October 1772, was a British Whig politician. Albemarle was the only child of General George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle, and Anne, daughter of Sir John Miller, 4th Baronet. He succeeded in the earldom in October 1772, aged five months, on the early death of his father. On the formation of the Ministry of All the Talents in 1806, Lord Albemarle was appointed Master of the Buckhounds by Lord Grenville,. Thereby he became an officer in the Master of the Horse's department in the Royal Household and also the equivalent of today's Representative of Her Majesty at Ascot. The Mastership of the Buckhounds being a political office, the holder changed with every government and because the Earl's patrons fell in March 1807 he lost his position after only one year. He remained out of office until 1830 when he was sworn of the Privy Council and made Master of the Horse by Lord Grey which was the third ranking officer at court (after the Lord Chamberlain and Lord Steward). He continued in this office until November 1834, the last few months under the premiership
    7.60
    5 votes
    20
    William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke

    William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke

    Sir William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Norman French: William le Mareschal), was an English (or Anglo-Norman) soldier and statesman. He was described as the "greatest knight that ever lived" by Stephen Langton. He served four kings — Henry II, Richard the Lionheart, John, and Henry III - and rose from obscurity to become a regent of England for the last of the four, and so one of the most powerful men in Europe. Before him, the hereditary title of "Marshal" designated head of household security for the king of England; by the time he died, people throughout Europe (not just England) referred to him simply as "the Marshal". He received the title of "1st Earl of Pembroke" through marriage during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. He is perhaps the most studied and therefore most famous of the Pembroke Earls in modern popular culture. William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to back the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy". When King Stephen
    7.40
    5 votes
    21
    William the Conqueror

    William the Conqueror

    William I (Old Norman: Williame I; circa 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes as William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. Descended from Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the title of William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy by his mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. His marriage in the 1050s to
    7.40
    5 votes
    22
    Wolf Dietrich Raitenau

    Wolf Dietrich Raitenau

    Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (March 26, 1559 – January 16, 1617) was Prince-Bishop of Salzburg from 1587 to 1612. Raitenau was born at Hofen Castle in Lochau near Bregenz in Further Austria, the son of the Habsburg colonel Hans Werner von Raitenau and Helene von Hohenems, a niece of Pope Pius IV, sister of Markus Sitticus von Hohenems Altemps as well as sister-in-law of Cardinal Charles Borromeo. Wolf Dietrich received an ecclesiastical education at the Collegium Germanicum in Rome and became a member of the Salzburg chapter in 1578. After his election in 1587 he continued the harsh measures of the Counter-Reformation initiated by his predecessors and in 1588 had all Protestants expelled from the city of Salzburg. In his later years however, Raitenau developed a milder attitude and won fame as an art collector and a builder who significantly promoted the spread of the Baroque architecture north of the Alps. Raitenau's rule was brought down after he had entered into a fierce conflict with his mighty neighbour Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria: In 1609 the Prince-Bishop refused to join Maximilian's Catholic League and in 1611 he invaded the Berchtesgaden Provostry, which was also claimed by
    8.50
    4 votes
    23
    Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. He was at the centre of the founding of Nazism, the start of World War II, and the Holocaust. A decorated veteran of World War I, Hitler joined the German Workers' Party, precursor of the Nazi Party, in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état, known as the Beer Hall Putsch, in Munich. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. After his appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and
    7.00
    5 votes
    24
    Edgar J. Kaufmann

    Edgar J. Kaufmann

    Edgar J. Kaufmann (November 1, 1885 – April 15, 1955) was a prominent Jewish German-American businessman and philanthropist. A graduate of Shady Side Academy and Yale University, he owned and directed Kaufmann's Department Store, the most prominent one in 20th-century Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania. Edgar Kaufmann was the owner of two architectural masterpieces; the eastern mountain 'Fallingwater' and western desert 'Kaufmann House.' In Pittsburgh, Edgar Kaufmann generously financed the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera Company, and donated US$1.5 million for the erection of the Civic Arena. Improving the infrastructure of the city was one of his concerns; another was art patronage. In 1926 Kaufmann commissioned American artist Boardman Robinson to create a series of nine murals for his flagship department store in Pittsburgh on the history of trade, completed with automobile paint. The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed his executive offices on the top floor, now installed at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England. Edgar Kaufmann was one of the 'city's leading citizens' who welcomed Albert Einstein when he visited Pittsburgh in 1934. Einstein was later a house guest
    8.00
    4 votes
    25
    Isokon

    Isokon

    The London-based Isokon firm was founded in 1929 to design and construct modernist houses and flats, and subsequently furniture and fittings for them. Originally called Wells Coates and Partners, the name was changed in 1931 to Isokon, a name derived from Isometric Unit Construction, bearing an allusion to Constructivism. Unusually for a design company, its directors were a bacteriologist Molly Pritchard, a solicitor Frederick Graham-Maw, son of the founder of the law firm, Rowe and Maw, Frederick James Maw and an economist Robert S Spicer. In actuality, the company was run by Molly's husband Jack Pritchard whose initial involvement was to handle the economics, publicity and marketing, but who later went on to hire designers and direct the company. However Isokon was never commercially successful. But the end came when World War II began and its supply of plywood was cut off. The Isokon Furniture Company ceased production in 1939. Isokon's key project was the Lawn Road Flats in Hampstead, sometimes called the Isokon building, which opened on 9 July 1934. Intended to be the last word in contemporary modernist living, the block of flats were aimed at the market of new young
    8.00
    4 votes
    26
    Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

    Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

    Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 – 5 April 1168) was Justiciar of England 1155–1168. The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French). Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois. He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont. There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical. The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey. They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy, to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119, when
    8.00
    4 votes
    27
    Robert Kraft

    Robert Kraft

    Robert K. Kraft (born June 5, 1941) is an American business magnate. He is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The Kraft Group, a diversified holding company with assets in paper and packaging, sports and entertainment, real estate development and a private equity portfolio. His holdings include the National Football League's New England Patriots and Major League Soccer's New England Revolution, and Gillette Stadium. Kraft attended Brookline High School in his hometown, graduating in 1959. He is a 1963 graduate of Columbia University, which he attended on scholarship, and received an MBA from Harvard Business School in 1965. While at Columbia, Kraft played on the school's lightweight football team. He began his professional career with the Rand-Whitney Group, a Worcester-based packaging company owned by Hiatt. He still serves as this company's chairman. In 1972, he founded International Forest Products, a trader of physical paper commodities. The two combined companies make up the largest privately held paper and packaging companies in the United States. International Forest Products is consistently among the top 100 US exporters/importers and in 2005 was No. 45 on the
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire

    William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire

    William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire KG PC (25 January 1640 – 18 August 1707) was an English soldier, politician and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1684 when he inherited the peerage as Earl of Devonshire. He was created Duke of Devonshire in 1694. Cavendish was the son of William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire and his wife Lady Elizabeth Cecil. In 1661, he was elected Member of Parliament for Derbyshire in the Cavalier Parliament. He was a Whig under Charles II of England and James II of England and was leader of the anti-court and anti-Catholic party in the House of Commons, where he served as Lord Cavendish. He was re-elected MP for Derbyshire in the two elections of 1679 and in 1681. In 1684 he succeeded to the peerace as Earl of Devonshire on the death of his father and then sat in the House of Lords. He was a strong supporter of the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 which brought William III of Orange to the throne, signing as one of the Immortal Seven the invitation to William. After the revolution, Cavendish was a leading Whig, serving as William's Lord Steward, and was created the Duke of Devonshire (1694) and also Marquess of Hartington
    8.00
    4 votes
    29
    Keio University

    Keio University

    Keio University (慶應義塾大学, Keiō Gijuku Daigaku),abbreviated as Keio (慶應, Keio) or Keidai (慶大, Keidai), is a Japanese university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo). It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy. The alumni include three Japanese prime ministers and prominent corporate leaders. Currently twelve Keio graduates serve as Fortune Global 500 CEOs. Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a
    6.00
    6 votes
    30
    British Waterways

    British Waterways

    British Waterways, often shortened to BW, was a statutory corporation wholly owned by the government of the United Kingdom. It served as the navigation authority for the majority of canals and a number of rivers and docks in England, Scotland and Wales. On 2 July 2012 all of British Waterways' assets and responsibilities in England and Wales were transferred to the newly founded charity the Canal & River Trust. In Scotland British Waterways continues to operate as a standalone public corporation under the trading name Scottish Canals. The British Waterways Board was initially established as a result of the Transport Act 1962 and took control of the inland waterways assets of the British Transport Commission in 1963. British Waterways was sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in England and Wales, and by the Scottish Government in Scotland. British Waterways managed and maintained 2,200 miles (3,541 km) of canals, rivers and docks within the United Kingdom including the buildings, structures and landscapes alongside these waterways. Due to the size of the canal network controlled, half of the United Kingdom population lives within five miles of
    6.80
    5 votes
    31
    Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre

    Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre

    Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre (ca. 1515 – 1541) was an English aristocrat notable for his conviction and execution for murder. Dacre was the son of Sir Thomas Fiennes and Jane Sutton daughter of Edward Sutton, 2nd Baron Dudley. When his father died in 1528 he became heir apparent to his grandfather's title and the family seat at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex, and he succeeded to the title at the age of approximately 19 in 1533. In 1536 he married Mary Nevill, daughter of George Nevill, 5th Baron Bergavenny. He was a member of the jury at the trial of Anne Boleyn in 1536, and of Thomas, Lord Darcy, and John, Lord Hussey in May 1537 (for their part in the Pilgrimage of Grace), and of Baron Montagu and the Marquess of Exeter in 1538 for the Exeter Conspiracy. On 30 April 1541 Dacre led a party of gentlemen including his brother-in-law John Mantell, John Frowds, George Roidon, Thomas Isleie, and two yeomen Richard Middleton and John Goldwell, to poach on the lands of Sir Nicholas Pelham of Laughton. During the escapade they encountered John Busbrig (or Busbridge), James Busbrig, and Richard Summer who were servants of Pelham. The encounter turned into an affray during which John
    6.80
    5 votes
    32
    W H Smith

    W H Smith

    WHSmith plc (known colloquially as Smith's) is a British retailer, headquartered in Swindon, Wiltshire, England. It is best known for its chain of high street, railway station, airport, hospital and motorway service station shops selling books, stationery, magazines, newspapers, and entertainment products. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. It has been innovative over the course of its history, being the first chain store company in the world and was responsible for the creation of the ISBN book catalogue system. In 1792, Henry Walton Smith and his wife Anna established the business as a news vendor in Little Grosvenor Street, London. After their deaths, the business — valued in 1812 at £1,280 —(about ~63764 in 2012, adjusted by inflation) was taken over by their youngest son William Henry Smith, and in 1846 the firm became W H Smith & Son when his only son, also William Henry, became a partner. The firm took advantage of the railway boom by opening newsstands on railway stations, starting with Euston in 1848. In 1850 the firm opened depots in Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool. The younger W H Smith used the success of the firm
    6.80
    5 votes
    33
    Alva Belmont

    Alva Belmont

    Alva Belmont (17 January 1853 – 26 January 1933), née Alva Erskine Smith, and known as Alva Vanderbilt from 1875 to 1896, was a prominent multi-millionaire American socialite and a major figure in the women's suffrage movement. Known for having an aristocratic manner that antagonized many people, she was also noted for her energy, intelligence, strong opinions, and willingness to challenge convention. She was married first to William Kissam Vanderbilt, with whom she had three children, and secondly to Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont. Alva Erskine Smith was born on January 17, 1853 in Mobile, Alabama to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, and Phoebe Ann Desha. Murray Smith was the son of George Smith and Delia Forbes of Dumfries, Virginia. Phoebe Desha was the daughter of US Representative Robert Desha and Eleanor Shelby, both originally from Sumner County, Tennessee. Alva was one of six children. Two of her sisters, Alice and Eleanor, both died as children before she was born. Her brother, Murray Forbes Smith, Jr. died in 1857 and was buried in Magnolia Cemetery in Mobile. Two other sisters, Armide Vogel Smith and Mary Virginia "Jennie" Smith, were her only siblings to survive
    9.00
    3 votes
    34
    Duleep Singh

    Duleep Singh

    This article is about Maharaja Dalip Singh. For other uses, see Dalip Singh Maharaja Dalip Singh, GCSI (6 September 1838, Lahore, Sikh Empire – 22 October 1893, Paris, France), commonly called Duleep Singh and later in life nicknamed the Black Prince of Perthshire, was the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire. He was the youngest son of the legendary "Lion of the Punjab" Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Maharani Jind Kaur, and came to power after a series of intrigues, in which several other claimants to the throne and to the Koh-i-Noor diamond, killed each other. After his exile to Britain at age 13 following the British annexation of the Punjab, he was befriended by Queen Victoria. In June 1850, Lord Dalhousie presented the Kohinoor Diamond by Dalip Singh after it was confiscated by the British. From that date on, the diamond became part of the Crown Jewels, set in the Crown of Queen Elizabeth and on display in the Jewel House in the Tower of London. Dalip Singh was much admired by Queen Victoria, who is reported to have written of the Punjabi maharajah "Those eyes and those teeth are too beautiful". The Queen was godmother to several of his children. Today Singh is considered as Britain's
    9.00
    3 votes
    35
    Pericles

    Pericles

    Pericles (Greek: Περικλῆς, Periklēs, "surrounded by glory"; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. Pericles had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides, his contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens". Pericles turned the Delian League into an Athenian empire and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War. The period during which he led Athens, roughly from 461 to 429 BC, is sometimes known as the "Age of Pericles", though the period thus denoted can include times as early as the Persian Wars, or as late as the next century. Pericles promoted the arts and literature; it is principally through his efforts that Athens holds the reputation of being the educational and cultural center of the ancient Greek world. He started an ambitious project that generated most of the surviving structures on the Acropolis (including the Parthenon). This project beautified
    7.75
    4 votes
    36
    William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas

    William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas

    William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas (c. 1327–1384) was a Scottish magnate. William Douglas was the son of Sir Archibald Douglas and Beatrice Lindsay, and nephew of "Sir James the Good", Robert the Bruce's trusted deputy. From the time of his father's death at Halidon Hill, he is described as being a ward of his kinsman and godfather, William Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale and was educated in France. In 1342, under pressure from Liddesdale, his uncle Hugh the Dull resigned the Lordship of Douglas to him, though Liddesdale rapaciously administered his estates while it was in his ward-ship, and assumed direct ownership of some of the Douglas territories. Douglas returned to Scotland, upon reaching his majority in 1348, and immediately started to put his house in order. In 1346-47 following the Battle of Neville's Cross, King David II, and other nobility, including Liddesdale, were held captive by the English. Edward Baliol used the opportunity to ravage the whole of the south of Scotland. Douglas gathered his men and drove the English out from his ancestral lands of Douglasdale. Douglas went in the style of his uncle, the Good Sir James, and for the following few years waged guerrilla
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    Barbaro family

    Barbaro family

    The Barbaro family was a patrician family of Venice. They were wealthy and influential and owned large estates in the Veneto above Treviso. Various members were noted as church leaders, diplomats, patrons of the arts, military commanders, philosophers, scholars, and scientists. Barbaro family tradition claims they were descended the Roman gens Catellia and more distantly from the Fabii. Like other Venetian patrician families, they also claimed descent from Roman families with similar names, in this case Ahenobarbus. Tradition also says they fled to Istria to avoid persecution during the reign of Emperor Diocletian. The family’s wealth came from the salt trade. Records show the family moved from Pula to Trieste in 706 and then to Venice in 868.
    8.67
    3 votes
    38
    George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle

    George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle

    General George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle KG PC (London, 8 April 1724 – 13 October 1772), styled Viscount Bury until 1754, was a British soldier nobleman best known for his capture of Havana in 1762 during the Seven Years' War. He came from a wealthy and powerful Dutch family from Gueldres close to the Princes of Orange that had moved to England in the seventeenth sentury. His father was Willem van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle. Through his mother, Lady Anne Lennox, he was a great-grandson of King Charles II of England. He started his military career in the Netherlands fighting against the French and in 1745 participated in the Battle of Fontenay as an aid to the Duke of Cumberland, the brother of King George II of England, becoming later a Field Marshal after the Battle of Culloden, April 1746. The European-American conflict known as the Seven years war brought his course to participate in July 1762, with two of his cadet brothers, Augustus Keppel and William Keppel, in the attempts by the British Crown to conquest, through a naval expedition headed by Sir George Pocock, (1706–1792), promoted to Admiral in 1761, the Caribbean Island of Cuba, i.e. the invasion and occupation of
    8.67
    3 votes
    39
    John Parker, 1st Earl of Morley

    John Parker, 1st Earl of Morley

    John Parker, 1st Earl of Morley FRS (3 May 1772-14 March 1840), known as Lord Boringdon from 1788 to 1815, was a British peer and politician. Morley was the only son of John Parker, 1st Baron Boringdon, and his second wife the Honourable Theresa Robinson, daughter of Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham. His mother died when he was three years old and his father when he was fifteen. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Morley took his seat in the House of Lords on his 21st birthday in 1793. He was an active member of the House of Lords, initially supporting government policies until the death of William Pitt the Younger in 1806. After Pitt's death he supported George Canning, with whom he corresponded on political matters for many years. In 1815 he was created Viscount Boringdon, of North Molton in the County of Devon, and Earl of Morley, in the County of Devon. After Canning's death in 1827 he began to support the Whigs, and voted for the Great Reform Act of 1832. Apart from his involvement in national politics, Morley was also a great benefactor to public works in his home county of Devon and was a Fellow of the Royal Society. Lord Morley married, firstly, Lady Augusta Fane,
    10.00
    2 votes
    40
    Liverpool F.C.

    Liverpool F.C.

    Liverpool Football Club is an English Premier League football club based in Liverpool. The club has won eighteen League titles, seven FA Cups and a record eight League Cups. Liverpool has won more European titles than any other English club, having won five European Cups, three UEFA Cups and three UEFA Super Cups. Liverpool was founded in 1892 and joined the Football League the following year. The club has played at Anfield since its formation. The most successful period in Liverpool's history was the 1970s and '80s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to eleven league titles and seven European trophies. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies. The first was the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985 in which charging Liverpool fans caused a wall to collapse, killing 39 Juventus supporters. In the 1989 Hillsborough disaster, 96 Liverpool supporters lost their lives in a crush against perimeter fencing. Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with neighbours Everton and with Manchester United. The team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F.C. was founded
    10.00
    2 votes
    41
    Roman Catholic Diocese of Belleville

    Roman Catholic Diocese of Belleville

    The Roman Catholic Diocese of Belleville is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the southern Illinois region of the United States. It comprises the southern counties of the state of Illinois and is administered from the City of Belleville. The prelate is a bishop serving as pastor of the mother church, the Cathedral of Saint Peter. Its current bishop is Bishop Edward Braxton. The Diocese of Belleville was created on January 7, 1887. There are 111,000 Catholics in the Diocese today. In October 2009, the diocese agreed to settle a lawsuit from a former altar boy over allegations that he had been sexually abused by priest Raymond Kownacki of Dupo, Illinois.
    10.00
    2 votes
    42
    Rudolf Schindler

    Rudolf Schindler

    Rudolph Michael Schindler (born Rudolf Michael Schindler (1887 Vienna - 1953 Los Angeles) was an American, born in Austria, architect whose most important works were built in or near Los Angeles during the early to mid-twentieth century. Although he worked and trained with some of its foremost practitioners, he often is associated with the fringes of the modern movement in architecture. His inventive use of complex three-dimensional forms, warm materials, and striking colors, as well as his ability to work successfully within tight budgets, however, have placed him as one of the true mavericks of early twentieth century architecture. Rudolf Michael Schindler was born on September 10, 1887, to a middle class family in Vienna, Austria. His father was a wood and metal craftsman and an importer; his mother was a dressmaker. He attended the Imperial and Royal High School, from 1899 to 1906, and enrolled in the Wagnersschule of Vienna Polytechnic University, being graduated in 1911 with a degree in architecture. Schindler was most influenced by professor Carl König, despite the presence of many other famous professors such as Otto Wagner and particularly, Adolf Loos. Most notably, in
    6.40
    5 votes
    43
    MGM Resorts International

    MGM Resorts International

    MGM Resorts International (NYSE: MGM) is a Paradise, Nevada based gaming and hospitality company. It is the second largest gaming company in the world by revenue - about $6 billion in 2009. It owns and operates 15 properties in Nevada, Mississippi and Michigan, and has 50% investments in four other properties in Nevada, Illinois and Macau, China. The company became MGM Mirage on May 31, 2000, with the merger of MGM Grand and Mirage Resorts. In the mid-2000s, growth of its non-gaming (lodging, food, retail) revenue began to outpace gaming receipts and demand for high-rise condominiums was surging, with median property prices in Las Vegas twice the national average. The company shifted its business model from fully owning and operating resorts and casinos, to being more real estate focused - launching the massive Citycenter mixed-use project. Unfortunately, the latter's development coincided with vast overbuilding on the Strip and a global financial crisis, causing large losses and writedowns in valuation. In June 2010, the company changed to its present name, to reflect its latest strategy of expanding worldwide, including licensing its brand and expertise to develop non-gaming
    7.25
    4 votes
    44
    Supreme Court of the United States

    Supreme Court of the United States

    The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate (but largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment. Under Chief Justices Jay, Rutledge, and Ellsworth (1789–1801), the Court heard few cases; its first decision was West v. Barnes (1791), a case involving a procedural issue. The Court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the highest-profile case of the era, Chisholm v. Georgia, which was immediately repudiated by the Eleventh Amendment. The Court's power and prestige waxed during the Marshall Court (1801–1835). Under Marshall, the Court established the principle of judicial review, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the
    7.25
    4 votes
    45
    Algernon Keith-Falconer, 9th Earl of Kintore

    Algernon Keith-Falconer, 9th Earl of Kintore

    Algernon Hawkins Thogond Keith-Falconer, 9th Earl of Kintore PC, GCMG (12 August 1852 – 3 March 1930), was a British politician and colonial governor. Born at Lixmount House, near Edinburgh, Keith-Falconer was the eldest son of Francis Keith Falconer, 8th Earl of Kintore and his wife Louisa Madaleine, née Hawkins. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1880, Lord Kintore was unsuccessful Conservative candidate for Chelsea. Also in 1880, he succeeded his father's titles after his death. He was appointed First Government Whip in the House of Lords in 1885 and was a Lord-in-Waiting from 1885 to 1886 and from 1895 to 1905. One year after his appointment, he became a member of the Privy Council. In 1913 he was made Deputy Speaker of the House of Lords. Lord Kintore was Governor of South Australia between 1889 and 10 April 1895. He arrived with his family at Adelaide in South Australia on 11 April 1889 aboard the Orient and was formally welcomed by the administrator, Chief Justice Samuel Way, who later resigned as Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of South Australia in his favour. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) on
    8.33
    3 votes
    46
    Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts

    Angela Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts

    Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, 1st Baroness Burdett-Coutts (21 April 1814 – 30 December 1906), born Angela Georgina Burdett, was a nineteenth-century philanthropist, the daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet and the former Sophia Coutts, daughter of banker Thomas Coutts. In 1837 she became the wealthiest woman in England when she inherited her grandfather's fortune of nearly three million pounds sterling, following the death of his second wife, Harriot Mellon, who had enjoyed a life interest in the estate. Angela joined the surnames of her father and grandfather, by royal licence, to become Burdett-Coutts. King Edward VII is reported to have described her as, "After my mother [Queen Victoria], the most remarkable woman in the kingdom." She was widely known as "the richest heiress in England". She was a great collector of paintings including many Old Masters. Amongst the contemporary paintings she purchased was Robert Scott Lauder's Christ Walking on the Sea. The Reverend Richard Harris Barham, in a ballad he wrote under the pen name "Thomas Ingoldsby" for the Victoria's coronation as part of the Ingoldsby Legends, referred to her as "Miss Anjaley Coutts". She became a
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Baltimore

    Baltimore

    Baltimore ( /ˈbɒltɨmɔr/, colloquially /ˈbɔl.mɔr/) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland and the 24th largest city in the country. It is located in the central area of the state along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. The independent city is often referred to as Baltimore City to distinguish it from surrounding Baltimore County. Founded in 1729, Baltimore is the largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic United States and is situated closer to Midwestern markets than any other major seaport on the East Coast. Baltimore's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States and a major manufacturing center. After a decline in manufacturing, Baltimore shifted to a service-oriented economy. At 620,961 residents in 2010, Baltimore's population has decreased by one-third since its peak in 1950. The Baltimore Metropolitan Area has grown steadily to approximately 2.7 million residents in 2010; the 20th largest in the country. Baltimore is also a principal city in the larger Baltimore–Washington combined statistical area of approximately 8.4 million residents. The city is named after Cecilius Calvert, Lord
    8.33
    3 votes
    48
    Government of the People's Republic of China

    Government of the People's Republic of China

    All power within the government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies: the political arm, the Communist Party of China; the administrative arm, the State Council; and the enforcement arm, People's Liberation Army (PLA). This article is concerned with the formal administrative structure of the state, its departments and their responsibilities. Most, but not all, positions of significant power in the state structure and in the army are occupied by members of the Communist Party of China which is controlled by the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, a group of 4 to 9 people, usually all older men, who make all decisions of national significance. As the role of the Army is to enforce these decisions, the support of the PLA is important in maintaining Party rule. Power is concentrated in the Paramount Leader, currently Hu Jintao, who heads all three bodies: He is General Secretary of the Communist Party and of the Central Committee, President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. Recently, experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount Leader's de facto control over the
    8.33
    3 votes
    49
    Alessandro Cardinal Farnese

    Alessandro Cardinal Farnese

    Alessandro Farnese (5 October 1520 – 2 March 1589), an Italian cardinal and diplomat and a great collector and patron of the arts, was the grandson of Pope Paul III (who also bore the name Alessandro Farnese), and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547. Born at Valentano (current province of Viterbo), he studied at Bologna, and was appointed administrator of the Diocese of Parma. On 18 December 1534, at the age of 14, he was appointed Cardinal Deacon of the Title of Sant'Angelo by Paul III, his grandfather, who had been elected to the papacy two months previously. The Gran Cardinale received many other offices and benefices, becoming Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, Governor of Tivoli, Archpriest of St. Mary Major Basilica, Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Administrator of Jaen, Spain, of Vizeu, Portugal, of Würzburg, Germany and of Avignon, France. In 1536 he became Bishop of Monreale, Sicily; after he inherited estate after the murder of his father (1547), in 1552 he founded a Jesuit college there. He became Bishop of Massa in 1538, Archbishop of Tours in 1553, and Bishop of Cahors; Archbishop of Benevento, and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia
    6.20
    5 votes
    50
    António Augusto Carvalho Monteiro

    António Augusto Carvalho Monteiro

    António Augusto Carvalho Monteiro (1848 – 1920), also known as Monteiro dos Milhões (Monteiro the Millionaire), was born to Portuguese parents in Rio de Janeiro. He inherited a huge family fortune, which he enlarged in Brazil by selling coffee and precious stones, which soon made it possible for him to leave for Portugal. He received a degree in Law from the University of Coimbra, and was a well-known collector and bibliophile, with a superb collection of the works of Camões. His cultural interests certainly influenced and guided the mysterious symbols and iconography of the palace that he had built on his estate nestled in the mountains of Sintra, the Palácio da Regaleira. Carvalho Monteiro was represented in the press of his time as both an altruist and an eccentric, exemplified by his famous Leroy 01, "the most complicated clock in the world." Carvalho Monteiro had the same architect who built the Palácio da Regaleira, Luigi Manini, build his tomb in the Cemitério dos Prazeres. The door of the tomb, also encrusted with symbolism, was opened with the same key that opened the Palácio da Regaleira and his palace in Lisbon, on the Rua do Alecrim. As visitors enter the cemetery
    6.20
    5 votes
    51
    Marco Casagrande

    Marco Casagrande

    Marco Casagrande, (born May 7, 1971), is a Finnish architect, environmental artist, architectural theorist, writer and professor of architecture. He graduated from Helsinki University of Technology department of architecture (2001). Casagrande was born in Turku, Finland, to a well-off Finnish-Italian Catholic family. He spent his childhood in Ylitornio in Finnish Lapland, but went to school in Karjaa, a southern Finland smalltown, before moving to Helsinki to study architecture. After his service in the Finnish Army, in 1993 Casagrande volunteered for the Bosnian Croat Defence Forces HVO. He wrote under name Luca Moconesi a controversial book Mostarin tien liftarit / Hitchhikers on the Road to Mostar (WSOY 1997) about his experiences in the Bosnian Civil War. Based on descriptions of war crimes committed by the main character in the autobiographical book, he came under suspicion as a possible war criminal. As a defence, he later stated that the book was in fact a work of fiction. Personally Casagrande shows zero tolerance to any war crimes what so ever. "Those troops know that they are doing wrong. This is the very opposite of constructive collectivity and group spirit. Anybody can
    6.20
    5 votes
    52
    David Azrieli

    David Azrieli

    David Joshua Azrieli, CM CQ (Hebrew: דוד עזריאלי‎; born May 10 in Maków Mazowiecki, 1922) is a Canadian-Israeli real estate tycoon, developer, designer, architect, and philanthropist. With an estimated net worth of $US 3.1 billion (as of March 2011), Azrieli was ranked by Forbes as the 8th wealthiest Canadian and 362nd in the world. Born in Maków Mazowiecki, Poland, he fled Europe during World War II for British Mandate Palestine. Between 1943 and 1946, Azrieli briefly studied architecture at the Technion, though did not complete his studies at that time. He fought in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. After immigrating to Montreal in 1954, he established his building business, beginning with the construction of small duplexes and working his way up to apartment buildings and, later on, shopping malls. This business is now called Canpro Investments. At the age of 75, he received his Master's degree in architecture from Carleton University. He married Stephanie Lefcourt in 1957 and the couple have four children: Rafael, Sharon, Naomi and Danna. Azrieli's building projects can be seen in the office buildings, high-rise residences, office towers and shopping centres he has built in Canada,
    9.50
    2 votes
    53
    Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings

    Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings

    Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings KG PC (9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826), styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762 and as The Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783 and known as The Earl of Moira between 1793 and 1816, was an Irish-British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. He took the additional surname 'Hastings' in 1790 in compliance with the will of his maternal uncle, Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon. Hastings was born at Moira, County Down, the son of John Rawdon, 1st Earl of Moira and Elizabeth Rawdon, 13th Baroness Hastings. He grew up there, and in Dublin, Ireland. He joined the British Army on 7 August 1771 as an ensign in the 15th Foot, (the going rate for purchasing a commission for this rank was ₤200). He was at Harrow School and matriculated at University College, Oxford, but dropped out. He became friends there with Banastre Tarleton. With his uncle Lord Huntington, he went on the Grand Tour On 20 October 1773, he was promoted to lieutenant in the 5th Foot. He returned to England, to join his regiment, and sailed for America on 7 May 1774. In May 1789 he acted as
    9.50
    2 votes
    54
    Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland

    Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland

    Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland (c. 1610 – 20 September 1643) was an English author and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 to 1642. He fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War and was killed in action at the First Battle of Newbury. Cary was born either in 1609 or 1610 as the son of Sir Henry Cary, afterwards 1st Viscount Falkland, and his wife Elizabeth Cary, Lady Falkland, whose father Sir Lawrence Tanfield was at that time Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Henry Cary, a member of an ancient Devon family, was lord deputy of Ireland from 1622 to 1629. In 1621 Lucius was admitted to St John's College, Cambridge but in the following year he migrated to Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated BA in 1625. In 1625 he inherited from his grandfather the manors of Great Tew and Burford in Oxfordshire, and, about the age of 21, married Lettice, daughter of Sir Richard Moryson, of Tooley Park in Leicestershire. Following a quarrel with his father, whom he failed to propitiate by offering to hand over to him his estate, he left England to take service in the Dutch army, but soon returned. In 1633, by the death of his father, he became Viscount Falkland.
    7.00
    4 votes
    55
    William Burges

    William Burges

    William Burges (2 December 1827 – 20 April 1881) was an English architect and designer. Among the greatest of the Victorian art-architects, he sought in his work to escape from both nineteenth-century industrialisation and the Neoclassical architectural style and re-establish the architectural and social values of a utopian medieval England. Burges stands within the tradition of the Gothic Revival, his works echoing those of the Pre-Raphaelites and heralding those of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Burges's career was short but illustrious; he won his first major commission for Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral in Cork in 1863, when he was 35, and he died at his Kensington home, The Tower House, in 1881, aged only 53. His architectural output was small but varied. Working with a long-standing team of craftsmen, he built churches, a cathedral, a warehouse, a university, a school, houses and castles. Burges's most notable works are Cardiff Castle, constructed between 1866 and 1928 and Castell Coch (1872–91), both of which were undertaken for John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute. Other notable buildings include Gayhurst House, Buckinghamshire (1858–65), Knightshayes Court (1867–74), the
    7.00
    4 votes
    56
    Frank Gehry

    Frank Gehry

    Frank Owen Gehry, CC (born Frank Owen Goldberg; February 28, 1929) is a Canadian-American Pritzker Prize-winning architect based in Los Angeles. His buildings, including his private residence, have become tourist attractions. His works are cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age". Gehry's best-known works include the titanium-covered Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain; MIT Ray and Maria Stata Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts; Walt Disney Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles; Experience Music Project in Seattle; Weisman Art Museum in Minneapolis; Dancing House in Prague; the Vitra Design Museum and MARTa Museum in Germany; the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto; the Cinémathèque française in Paris; and 8 Spruce Street in New York City. But it was his private residence in Santa Monica, California, which jump-started his career, lifting it from the status of "paper architecture"—a phenomenon that many famous architects have experienced in their formative decades through experimentation almost exclusively on paper before receiving
    8.00
    3 votes
    57
    Government of Victoria

    Government of Victoria

    The Government of Victoria, under the Constitution of Australia, ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to the Commonwealth, but retained complete independence in all other areas. The Victorian Constitution says: "the Legislature of Victoria has full power and authority." In practice, however, the independence of the Australian states has been greatly eroded by the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. Victoria is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Victoria, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of Victoria, and the two Houses, the Victorian Legislative Council (the upper house) and the Victorian Legislative Assembly (the lower house). Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers. In practice executive power is exercised by the Premier of Victoria and the Cabinet, who are appointed by the Governor, but who hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative
    8.00
    3 votes
    58
    San Francisco

    San Francisco

    San Francisco (/ˌsæn frənˈsɪskoʊ/), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the leading financial and cultural center of Northern California and the San Francisco Bay Area. The only consolidated city-county in California, it encompasses a land area of about 46.9 square miles (121 km) on the northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula, giving it a density of about 17,179 people per square mile (6,632 people per km). It is the most densely settled large city (population greater than 200,000) in the state of California and the second-most densely populated major city in the United States after New York City. San Francisco is the fourth most populous city in California and the 14th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 805,235 as of the 2010 Census. The city is also the financial and cultural hub of the larger San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland metropolitan area, with a population of 7.6 million. San Francisco (Spanish for "Saint Francis") was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for St. Francis of Assisi a few miles away. The California Gold Rush of 1849 propelled the city into a
    8.00
    3 votes
    59
    Trafalgar House

    Trafalgar House

    Trafalgar House Public Limited Company was a British conglomerate with interests in property investment, property development, engineering, construction, shipping, hotels, energy and publishing. Nigel Broackes acquired his investment in what was to become Trafalgar House in 1959. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but eventually foundered in the 1990s. Nigel Broackes’ interests in share dealing and small scale property development brought him into contact with the directors of the Eastern International Investment Trust, a small trust quoted on the London Stock Exchange. In 1959 Broackes acquired a 42 per cent holding in Eastern’s property subsidiary, Eastern International Property Investments. Two years later, Broackes formed a relationship with Commercial Union which bought shares in EIPI and prepared to act as a financial backer for new property developments. Almost immediately EIPI bought a 55 per cent stake in CU’s residential property subsidiary Westminster & Kensington Freeholds, thereby acquiring control of a property portfolio of £3.3m for an equity cost of only £550. The name of one of those properties, 'Trafalgar
    8.00
    3 votes
    60
    Berlin

    Berlin

    Berlin ( /bɜrˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city and is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has 6 million residents from over 180 nations. Due to its location in the European Plains, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes. First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945). Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city became divided into East Berlin—the capital of East Germany—and West Berlin, a West German exclave surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989). Following German reunification in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Mary Pickford

    Mary Pickford

    Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was a Canadian motion picture actress, co-founder of the film studio United Artists and one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Known as "America's Sweetheart," "Little Mary" and "The girl with the curls," she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting. Because her international fame was triggered by moving images, she is a watershed figure in the history of modern celebrity and, as one of silent film's most important performers and producers, her contract demands were central to shaping the Hollywood industry. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute named Pickford 24th among the greatest female stars of all time. Mary Pickford was born Gladys Marie Smith in Toronto, Ontario. Her father, John Charles Smith, was the son of English Methodist immigrants, and worked a variety of odd jobs. Her mother, Charlotte Hennessy, was Irish Catholic. Mary had two younger siblings, Jack and Lottie Pickford, who would also become actors. To please the relatives, Pickford's mother baptized her in
    6.75
    4 votes
    62
    McDonald's

    McDonald's

    McDonald's Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948 they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand using production line principles. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as a franchise agent in 1955. He subsequently purchased the chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its worldwide growth. A McDonald's restaurant is operated by either a franchisee, an affiliate, or the corporation itself. The corporation's revenues come from the rent, royalties and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. McDonald's revenues grew 27 percent over the three years ending in 2007 to $22.8 billion, and 9 percent growth in operating income to $3.9 billion. McDonald's primarily sells hamburgers, cheeseburgers, chicken, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes, the company has expanded its menu to include salads, wraps, smoothies and fruit. The
    6.75
    4 votes
    63
    National Westminster Bank

    National Westminster Bank

    National Westminster Bank Plc, commonly known as NatWest, is the largest retail and commercial bank in the United Kingdom and has been part of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc since 2000. The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS) is ranked as the second largest bank in the world by assets. NatWest was established in 1968 by the merger of National Provincial Bank (established 1833 as National Provincial Bank of England) and Westminster Bank (established 1834 as London County and Westminster Bank). Traditionally considered one of the Big Four clearing banks, NatWest has a large network of 1,600 branches and 3,400 cash machines across Great Britain and offers 24-hour Actionline telephone and online banking services. Today it has more than 7.5 million personal customers and 850,000 small business accounts. In Ireland it operates through its Ulster Bank subsidiary. The bank's origins date back to 1650 with the foundation of Smith's Bank of Nottingham. The creation of the modern bank was announced in 1968 and National Westminster Bank Limited commenced trading on 1 January 1970, after the statutory process of integration had been completed in 1969. The famous three arrowheads symbol was
    6.75
    4 votes
    64
    Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester

    Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester

    Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester and 1st Earl of Lincoln (1172–1232), known in some references as the 4th Earl of Chester (in the second lineage of the title after the original family line was broken after the 2nd Earl), was one of the "old school" of Anglo-Norman barons whose loyalty to the Angevin dynasty was consistent but contingent on the receipt of lucrative favours. He was described as "almost the last relic of the great feudal aristocracy of the Conquest". Ranulf, born in 1172, was the son of Hugh de Kevelioc and Bertrade de Montfort of Evreux. He was said to have been small in physical stature. He succeeded to the earldom of Chester (like his father before him) as a minor (aged nine) and attained his majority in 1187, which gave him control of his estates in England and Normandy. In 1189, aged seventeen, he was married to Constance of Brittany, the widow of Henry II’s son Geoffrey, and the mother of Arthur of Brittany, with whom King John contested the succession. Henry did not trust the Duchess and wanted her married to a magnate he could trust. The marriage gave Ranulf control of the earldom of Richmond and the duchy of Brittany, but was not a success and they
    6.75
    4 votes
    65
    Victor Duleep Singh

    Victor Duleep Singh

    Prince Victor Albert Jay Duleep Singh (10 July 1866- 7 June 1918) was the eldest son of Maharani Bamba Müller and Maharaja Duleep Singh, the last Maharaja of Lahore, and of the Sikh Empire, and the grandson of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Victor Duleep Singh was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he met Lady Anne Blanche Alice Coventry whom he would later marry. In 1887 he joined the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, getting a special Cadet-ship, and left it in the following December to be commissioned as Lieutenant in the 1st (Royal) Dragoons. In 1889 he was stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and a member of the staff of Gen. Sir John Ross, commander of British forces in British North America. In December, he was rumoured to be engaged with Jeanne Turnure, daughter of Lawrence Turnure, a New York banker, after staying in the their New Port home, the previous summer; the rumour was however denied by the banker. In February the following year, he took a three month leave of absence to meet his father in Paris, when rumours of creditors became afloat for the first time. In all he remained part of the Royal Dragoons till 1898, when he resigned. On the death of his father
    6.75
    4 votes
    66
    William Morris

    William Morris

    William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, artist, writer, and libertarian socialist associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English Arts and Crafts Movement. He founded a design firm in partnership with the artist Edward Burne-Jones, and the poet and artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti which profoundly influenced the decoration of churches and houses into the early 20th century. As an author, illustrator and medievalist, he helped to establish the modern fantasy genre, and was a direct influence on postwar authors such as J. R. R. Tolkien. He was also a major contributor to reviving traditional textile arts and methods of production, and one of the founders of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, now a statutory element in the preservation of historic buildings in the UK. Morris wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. His best-known works include The Defence of Guenevere and Other Poems (1858), The Earthly Paradise (1868–1870), A Dream of John Ball (1888), the utopian News from Nowhere (1890), and the fantasy romance The Well at the World's End (1896). He
    6.75
    4 votes
    67
    Chase Manhattan Bank

    Chase Manhattan Bank

    JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., doing business as Chase, is a national bank that constitutes the consumer and commercial banking subsidiary of financial services firm JPMorgan Chase. The bank was known as Chase Manhattan Bank until it merged with J.P. Morgan & Co. in 2000. Chase Manhattan Bank was formed by the merger of the Chase National Bank and the Bank of the Manhattan Company in 1955. The bank is headquartered in Chicago, since its merger with Bank One Corporation in 2004. In 2008, the bank acquired the deposits and most assets of Washington Mutual. Chase offers more than 5,100 branches and 16,100 ATMs nationwide. JP Morgan Chase has more than 240,000 employees and operates in more than 60 countries. JP Morgan Chase currently has assets of approximately $2.3 trillion. JP Morgan Chase, through its Chase subsidiary, is one of the Big Four banks of the United States. Chase traces its history back to the founding of The Manhattan Company by Aaron Burr on September 1, 1799, in a house at 40 Wall Street: Over two centuries after their duel, it can be said that the Bank of the Manhattan Company ultimately won the "business" side of the rivalry. In 2006, the modern-day Chase bought the
    9.00
    2 votes
    68
    Cornelius Vanderbilt II

    Cornelius Vanderbilt II

    Cornelius Vanderbilt II (November 27, 1843 – September 12, 1899) was an American socialite, heir, businessman, and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family. He was the favorite grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who left him $5 million, and the eldest son of William Henry Vanderbilt, who left him close to $70 million. In his turn he succeeded them as head of the New York Central and related railroad lines in 1885. He had a reputation as something of a workaholic, though a stroke in 1896 compelled him to reduce his active business involvement. In 1867 he married Alice Claypoole Gwynne (1845–1934) whom he met at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church where both taught Sunday School. Their eldest child, a daughter named Alice Gwynne Vanderbilt, was born in 1869 but died of a childhood illness in 1874 at the age of five. Their second child and eldest son William Henry Vanderbilt II (1870–1892) died of typhoid fever while a junior at Yale University, and Cornelius endowed a large dormitory there. He disinherited his second son Cornelius Vanderbilt III (1873–1942) for marrying without his approval. Third son Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt (1877–1915) went down with the RMS
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    2 votes
    69
    La Samaritaine

    La Samaritaine

    La Samaritaine (French pronunciation: [la samaʁitɛn]) was a large department store in Paris, France, located in the First Arrondissement. The nearest metro station is Pont-Neuf. It is currently owned by LVMH, a luxury-goods maker. The store, which had been operating at a loss since the 1970s, was finally closed in 2005 because the building did not meet safety codes. Plans for redeveloping the building involved lengthy complications, as the representatives of the store's founders argued with new owners LVMH over the building's future as a department store or a mixed-use development. In 2010 it was finally announced that a Japanese firm had been chosen to redesign the building as a combination hotel/apartments/offices, with a small retail component. The store was first opened in 1869 by Ernest Cognacq and Marie-Louise Jaÿ, his wife and incidentally the first clothing vendor at Le Bon Marché, a rival department store. Cognacq began his trade selling ties under an umbrella on the Pont Neuf, then took a space on the fr:rue de la Monnaie, starting out on a small scale with a very small boutique. By 1900, the couple had decided to expand their enterprise, giving birth to the large edifice
    9.00
    2 votes
    70
    Pennsylvania Railroad

    Pennsylvania Railroad

    The Pennsylvania Railroad (reporting mark PRR) was an American Class I railroad, founded in 1846. Commonly referred to as the "Pennsy," the PRR was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the U.S. for the first half of the twentieth century and was at one time the largest publicly traded corporation in the world. At the end of 1925 it operated 10,515 miles of rail line; in the 1920s it carried about three times the traffic (measured by ton-miles of freight) as other railroads of comparable length, such as Union Pacific or Santa Fe. The only rival was New York Central, which carried around three-quarters of PRR's ton-miles. During its history the PRR merged with or had an interest in at least 800 other rail lines and companies. The corporation still holds the record for the longest continuous dividend history: it paid out annual dividends to shareholders for more than 100 years in a row. At one point the budget for the PRR was larger than that of the U.S. government; at its peak it employed about 250,000 workers. In 1968 the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with its rival, the New York Central Railroad, to form the Penn
    9.00
    2 votes
    71
    William Kissam Vanderbilt

    William Kissam Vanderbilt

    William Kissam Vanderbilt (December 12, 1849 – July 22, 1920) was a member of the prominent American Vanderbilt family. He managed railroads and was a horse breeder. The second son of William Henry Vanderbilt, from whom he inherited $55 million, and grandson of "The Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt was for a time active in the management of the family railroads, though not much after 1903. His sons, William Kissam Vanderbilt II (1878–1944) and Harold Stirling Vanderbilt (1884–1970), were the last to be active in the railroads, the latter losing a proxy battle for the New York Central Railroad in the 1950s. In 1879 after taking over P.T. Barnum's Great Roman Hippodrome which was on railroad property by Madison Square Park he renamed the facility Madison Square Garden. Vanderbilt's first wife was Alva Erskine Smith (1853–1933), whom he married on April 20, 1875. She was born in 1853, in Mobile, Alabama to Murray Forbes Smith, a commission merchant, and Phoebe Ann Desha, daughter of US Representative Robert Desha. They had three children. Consuelo Vanderbilt was born on March 2, 1877, followed by William Kissam Vanderbilt II on March 2, 1878, and Harold
    9.00
    2 votes
    72
    Bmi

    Bmi

    British Midland Airways Limited (trading as bmi or British Midland International) is an airline with its head office in Donington Hall in Castle Donington, close to East Midlands Airport, in the United Kingdom. It was acquired by International Airlines Group (IAG) in April 2012 and is gradually being absorbed into British Airways (BA). The airline flies to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Central Asia from its operational base at London Heathrow Airport, where it held 11 per cent of all takeoff and landing slots and operates over 2,000 flights a week. The airline is a wholly owned subsidiary of IAG, the owners of BA, who announced an agreement in December 2011 to buy the airline from Lufthansa. The deal was completed on 20 April 2012 and also included subsidiaries Bmibaby and BMI Regional, although IAG did not wish to retain either. BMI Regional was sold to Sector Aviation Holdings in May 2012, and Bmibaby closed down in September 2012. BMI is expected to be fully merged into BA by the end of October 2012, at which point the use of the BMI brand for the main line business will cease. BMI was a member of Star Alliance until it withdrew on 20 April 2012. British
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    Pearl S. Buck

    Pearl S. Buck

    Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973), also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu (Chinese: 賽珍珠; pinyin: Sài Zhēnzhū), was an American writer who spent most of her time until 1934 in China. Her novel The Good Earth was the best-selling fiction book in the U.S. in 1931 and 1932, and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces." Pearl Buck was born in Hillsboro, West Virginia, to Caroline Stulting (1857–1921) and Absalom Sydenstricker. Her parents, Southern Presbyterian missionaries, traveled to China soon after their marriage on July 8, 1880, but returned to the United States for Pearl's birth. When Pearl was three months old, the family returned to China to be stationed first in Zhenjiang (then often known as Jingjiang or, in the Postal Romanization, Tsingkiang), (this is near Nanking). Pearl was raised in a bilingual environment, tutored in English by her mother and in classical Chinese by a Mr. Kung. The Boxer Uprising greatly affected Pearl and family; their Chinese friends deserted them, and Western visitors
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    American Woolen Company

    American Woolen Company

    The American Woolen Company was established in 1899 under the leadership of William M. Wood and his father-in-law Frederick Ayer through the consolidation of eight financially troubled New England woolen mills. At the company's height in the 1920s, it owned and operated 60 woolen mills across New England. It is most known for its role in the Lawrence textile strike of 1912. The American Woolen Company was the product of the era of trusts. Overproduction, competition and poor management had brought the New England textile industry to its knees by the 1890s. In particular, family trusts, the main shareholders of many of the mills, insisted on receiving high dividends instead of making necessary capital improvements. Frederick Ayer, successful Lowell merchant, purchased the Washington Mills in Lawrence, Massachusetts and hired his son-in-law, William M. Wood to run it. Wood had already successfully turned around a bankrupt mill in Fall River. With Ayer's financial backing, Wood brought together various under-performing mills in the aim of reducing competition and increasing prices. He convinced investors to permit profits to be reinvested into new plants and machinery. In 1901, the
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

    Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

    Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was a British soldier and statesman, a native of Ireland from the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy, and one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. He is often referred to as "the Duke of Wellington", even after his death, when there have been subsequent Dukes of Wellington. Wellesley was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787. Serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland he was also elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons. A colonel by 1796, Wellesley saw action in the Netherlands and later in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799, and as a newly appointed major-general won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803. Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, and was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French at the Battle of
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Edward Alleyn

    Edward Alleyn

    Edward Alleyn (/ˈælɪn/; 1566–1626) was an English actor who was a major figure of the Elizabethan theatre and founder of Dulwich College and Alleyn's School. He was born in Bishopsgate, London, a younger son of Edward Alleyn, an innkeeper and porter to the queen, and Margaret Townley. His mother's link to the Lancashire Townley family is somewhat of a mystery. Alleyn himself stated she was the daughter of John Townley of Townley, however this does not easily fit with the available information on the Townley family tree. Regardless the present-day road that passes his school was named after her in 1884. He was baptised at St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. He was known to contemporaries as "Ned"; his surname is variously spelled Allen or Alleyne. It is not known at what date he began to act, but in 1583 his name was on the list of the Earl of Worcester's players. He was eventually rated by common consent as the foremost actor of his time; his only close rival was Richard Burbage. He played the title roles in three of Christopher Marlowe's major plays: Faustus, Tamburlaine, and Barabas in The Jew of Malta. He created the parts, which were probably written especially for him. The
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Eric Koston

    Eric Koston

    Eric Koston (born April 29, 1975) is a Thai American professional skateboarder. He has been featured in the "Tony Hawk" video game series and "EA" Skate 2 and Skate 3. Koston co-owns Fourstar Clothing and also co-owns the skatepark "The Berrics" with professional skater Steve Berra. Koston was born in Bangkok, Thailand, in the same hospital as fellow professional skateboarder, Alphonso Rawls. Koston grew up in San Bernardino, California, United States (US), and began skating in 1986. Koston was first sponsored in 1991 and turned professional in 1993. Girl Skateboards, Nike SB, Independent Truck Company, Spitfire Wheels, Four Star, Diamond, theberrics.com, Oakley, Jessup, Skullcandy A Girl 8 deck, Independent trucks, 51mm Spitfire wheels, Diamond Hardware and Jessup grip. Koston has also been featured on television and in a number of films and video games. Koston has been described as the "Michael Jordan of skateboarding" by teammate and professional skateboarder, Brandon Biebel. Paul Rodriguez Jr. has identified Koston as the person that he would most like to model his career after. Rodriguez Jr. has also stated that his all-time favorite video parts belong to Koston.
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    Herman Miller

    Herman Miller

    Herman Miller, Inc., based in Zeeland, Michigan, is a major American manufacturer of office furniture, equipment and home furnishings. It is notable as one of the first companies to produce modern furniture and, under the guidance of Design Director George Nelson, is likely the most prolific and influential producer of furniture of the modernist style. Among classic Herman Miller products are the Equa chair, Aeron chair, Noguchi table, Marshmallow sofa, and the Eames Lounge Chair. Herman Miller is credited with the invention of the office cubicle (originally known as the "Action Office II") in 1968 under then-director of research Robert Propst. Herman Miller holds a unique position among furniture manufacturers for having cultivated the talents of a large number of modernist designers, producing a significant number of pieces that are now considered icons of industrial design. Herman Miller was founded in 1905 as the Star Furniture Co. in Zeeland, Michigan. Initially the company produced high quality furniture, especially bedroom suites, in historic revival styles. In 1909 Dirk Jan De Pree began working for the company as a clerk, and became its president by 1919, when it was
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Isabella Stewart Gardner

    Isabella Stewart Gardner

    Isabella Stewart Gardner (April 14, 1840 – July 17, 1924) – founder of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston – was an American art collector, philanthropist, and one of the foremost female patrons of the arts. Isabella Stewart, daughter of David and Adelia (Smith) Stewart, was born in New York City. Her Stewart ancestry, by tradition, has a descent from King Fergus. Isabella Stewart Gardner had a zest for life, an energetic intellectual curiosity and a love of travel. She was a friend of noted artists and writers of the day, including John Singer Sargent, James McNeill Whistler, Anders Zorn, Henry James, Okakura Kakuzo and Francis Marion Crawford. The Boston society pages called her by many names, including "Belle," "Donna Isabella," "Isabella of Boston," and "Mrs. Jack." Gardner created much fodder for the gossip tabloids of the day with her reputation for stylish tastes and unconventional behavior. Her surprising appearance at a 1912 concert (at what was then a very formal Boston Symphony Orchestra) wearing a white headband emblazoned with "Oh, you Red Sox" was reported at the time to have "almost caused a panic", and remains still in Boston one of the most talked about
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Richard Grenville

    Richard Grenville

    Sir Richard Grenville (6 June 1542 – 10 September 1591) (sp. var: Greynvile, Greeneville or Greenfield) was an English sailor, sea captain and explorer. He took part in the early English attempts to settle the New World, and also participated in the fight against the Spanish Armada. He died in 1591 at the Battle of Flores, characteristically fighting against overwhelming odds, and refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish. He was the grandfather of Sir Richard Grenville, of English Civil War fame. Grenville's birthplace is unknown, but he spent much of his childhood at Clifton Arundell House after his mother remarried Thomas Arundell following the death of his father Sir Roger Grenville, who was Captain of the Mary Rose when it sank in Portsmouth Harbour in 1545. He was a cousin of Sir Walter Raleigh and the privateer Sir Francis Drake. At age 17, Grenville began law studies at the Inner Temple. On 19 November 1562, he was in an affray in the Strand in which he ran Robert Bannister through with his sword and left him to die. He was pardoned for this crime. At age 18 he inherited his estates at Stowe in Cornwall, and Bideford and Buckland Abbey in Devon,
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

    Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

    The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a nonprofit organization founded in 1937 by philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim and his long-time art advisor, artist Hilla von Rebay. The foundation is a leading institution for the collection, preservation, and research of modern and contemporary art and operates several museums around the world. The first museum established by the foundation was The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, in New York City. This became The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, and the foundation moved the collection into its first permanent museum building, in New York City, in 1959. The foundation next opened the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy, in 1980. Its international network of museums expanded in 1997 to include the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain and the Deutsche Guggenheim, Berlin, and it expects to open a new museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, in 2017. The mission of the foundation is "to promote the understanding and appreciation of art, architecture, and other manifestations of visual culture, primarily of the modern and contemporary periods, and to collect, conserve, and study" modern and contemporary art. The Foundation seeks, in
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    St John's College, Oxford

    St John's College, Oxford

    St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, one of the larger Oxford colleges with approximately 390 undergraduates, 250 postgraduates and over 100 academic staff. It was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas White, a merchant. St John's is the wealthiest college in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £313 million as of 2010. On 1 May 1555, Sir Thomas White, lately Lord Mayor of London, obtained a Royal Patent of Foundation to create an eleemosynary institution for the education of students within the University of Oxford. White, a Roman Catholic, originally intended St John's to provide a source of educated Roman Catholic clerics to support the Counter-Reformation under Queen Mary, and indeed Edmund Campion, the Roman Catholic martyr, studied here. White acquired buildings on the east side of St Giles', north of Balliol and Trinity Colleges, which had belonged to the former College of St Bernard, a monastery and house of study of the Cistercian order that had been closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Initially the new St John's College was rather small and not well endowed financially. During the reign of Elizabeth I the fellows lectured in
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Barry Manilow

    Barry Manilow

    Barry Manilow (born June 17, 1943) is an American singer-songwriter and producer. He is best known for such recordings as "Could It Be Magic", "Mandy", "Can't Smile Without You", and "Copacabana (At the Copa)". In 1978, five of his albums were on the best-selling charts simultaneously, a feat equalled only by Frank Sinatra, Michael Jackson, Bruce Springsteen and Johnny Mathis. He has recorded a string of Billboard hit singles and multi-platinum albums that have resulted in his being named Radio & Records number one Adult Contemporary artist and winning three straight American Music Awards for Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist. Between 1974 and 1983 Manilow had three number 1 singles and 25 that reached the top 40. Several well-known entertainers have praised Manilow, including Sinatra, who was quoted in the 1970s saying, "He's next." In 1988, Bob Dylan stopped Manilow at a party, hugged him and said, "Don't stop what you're doing, man. We're all inspired by you." As well as producing and arranging albums for other artists, including Bette Midler and Dionne Warwick, Manilow has written songs for musicals, films, and commercials. From February 2005 to December 30, 2009, he was the
    6.50
    4 votes
    84
    George Pardee

    George Pardee

    George Cooper Pardee (July 25, 1857 – September 1, 1941) was an American doctor of medicine and politician. As the 21st Governor of California, holding office from January 7, 1903, to January 9, 1907, Pardee was the second native-born Californian to assume the governorship, after Romualdo Pacheco, and the first governor born in California after statehood. Pardee was born on July 25, 1857, in San Francisco, California, the only child of Enoch H. Pardee and Mary Pardee. The Pardee family was well known in the San Francisco Bay Area. His father was a prominent oculist in San Francisco and Oakland. Enoch's stature within the community helped him get elected to the California State Assembly in the early 1870s, and later as the Mayor of Oakland for a single term from 1876 to 1878. Raised in the Pardee Home in Oakland, George Pardee closely followed in his father's medical background. He attended the nearby University of California, Berkeley, then studied medicine at the Cooper Medical College in San Francisco. In 1885, Pardee traveled abroad to receive his medical degree at the University of Leipzig in the German Empire. After his return from Germany, Pardee joined his father's medical
    6.50
    4 votes
    85
    P. T. Barnum

    P. T. Barnum

    Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, scam artist and entertainer, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. Although Barnum was also an author, publisher, philanthropist, and for some time a politician, he said of himself, "I am a showman by profession...and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me," and his personal aims were "to put money in his own coffers." Barnum is widely, but erroneously, credited with coining the phrase "There's a sucker born every minute." Born in Bethel, Connecticut, Barnum became a small-business owner in his early twenties, and founded a weekly newspaper, before moving to New York City in 1834. He embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater," and soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum, which he renamed after himself. Barnum used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the '"Feejee" mermaid' and "General Tom Thumb." In 1850 he promoted the American tour of singer Jenny Lind, paying her an
    5.60
    5 votes
    86
    Cork City Council

    Cork City Council

    Cork City Council (Irish: Comhairle Cathrach Chorcaí) is the authority responsible for local government in the city of Cork in Ireland. As a city council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001. The council is responsible for housing and community, roads and transportation, urban planning and development, amenity and culture, and environment. The council has 31 elected members. Elections are held every five years and are by single transferable vote. The head of the council has the honorific title of Lord Mayor of Cork. The city administration is headed by a City Manager, currently Tim Lucey. The council meets at Cork City Hall. Prior to the enactment of the 2001 Act, the council was known as Cork Corporation. For the purpose of elections the city is divided into six local electoral areas: Cork North Central (5), Cork North East (4), Cork North West (4), Cork South Central (5), Cork South East (7) and Cork South West (6). This list reflects the order in which councillors were elected on 5 June 2009. Replaced during term, see table below for details. Changed party, see table below for details.
    8.50
    2 votes
    87
    Francis Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford

    Francis Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford

    Francis Charles Hastings Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford KG (16 October 1819 – 14 January 1891) was an English politician and agriculturalist. The son of Major-General Lord George William Russell and Lady William Russell, and the grandson of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, Russell was born in Curzon Street, London, and commissioned into the Scots Fusilier Guards in 1838, retiring in 1844. He was Liberal Member of Parliament for Bedfordshire between 1847 and 1872 when he succeeded to his dukedom and took his place in the House of Lords. In 1886, he broke with the party leadership of William Ewart Gladstone over the First Irish Home Rule Bill and became a Unionist. He took an active interest in agriculture and experimentation on his Woburn Abbey estate and was President of the Royal Agricultural Society in 1880. On 1 December 1880, he was made a Knight of the Garter. From 1884 until his death he was Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire. He died in 1891, aged 71 at 81 Eaton Square, London, by shooting himself as a result of insanity, while suffering from pneumonia. After being cremated at Woking Crematorium, his ashes were buried at the ‘Bedford Chapel’ of St. Michael’s Church in
    8.50
    2 votes
    88
    House of Habsburg

    House of Habsburg

    The House of Habsburg ( /ˈhæps.bɜrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːps.bʊʁk]), also Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built around 1020–1030 in present day Switzerland by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who chose to name his fortress Habsburg. His grandson, Otto II, was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "von Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. By 1276, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant, Rudolph of Habsburg, had moved the family's power base from Habsburg Castle to the Archduchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany/Holy Roman Emperor in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became sovereign ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled for the next six centuries. A series of dynastic marriages enabled the
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Nakheel Properties

    Nakheel Properties

    Nakheel (Arabic: نخيل‎ palms or palm trees) is a real estate developer in Dubai and creator of several land reclamation projects, including the Palm Islands, the Dubai Waterfront, The World and The Universe Islands. Its residential projects include The Gardens, International City, Jumeirah Islands and Jumeirah Lake Towers. Its shopping projects include The Dragon Mart (at International City) and Ibn Battuta Mall. Its main competitor in residential development in Dubai is Emaar Properties. Nakheel's flagship properties are the three man-made palm tree shaped islands on the coast of Dubai. Nakheel operates under the umbrella of Dubai World, which manages various businesses on behalf of the Dubai government. The executive chairman of Al Nakheel is Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum. Nakheel's portfolio of real estate include the Palm Islands (Palm Jumeirah, Palm Jebel Ali, Palm Deira), The World Islands, The Universe Islands, Dubai Waterfront, The Gardens, Jumeirah Lake Towers, Discovery Gardens, Lost City, Jumeirah Islands, Jumeirah Heights (a residential complex within Jumeirah Islands), Jumeirah Village, Jumeirah Park, Al Furjan, International City, Jewel of the Palm, The Golden
    8.50
    2 votes
    90
    Oklahoma State University–Stillwater

    Oklahoma State University–Stillwater

    Oklahoma State University–Stillwater (also referred to informally as Oklahoma State, O-K-State, O-State and OSU) is a land-grant, sun-grant, coeducational public research university located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. OSU was founded in 1890 under the Morrill Act. Originally known as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (Oklahoma A&M), it is the flagship institution of the Oklahoma State University System. Official enrollment for the fall 2010 semester system-wide was 35,073, with 23,459 students enrolled at OSU-Stillwater. Enrollment shows the Freshman class of 2012 was the largest on record with 4,298 students. OSU is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity. Oklahoma State University is listed by the Princeton Review as one of 120 “Best Western Colleges” for 2011, and as one of 50 "Best Value Colleges – Public" for 2010. Oklahoma State University is one of the highest rated veterinarian colleges in the US. It is ranked by U.S. News & World Report No. 66 among "Top Public Schools:National Universities" and No. 132 among all National Universities for 2011. For 2009–10, Kiplinger listed OSU among its "100 Best Values in
    8.50
    2 votes
    91
    Great Eastern Railway

    Great Eastern Railway

    The Great Eastern Railway (GER) was a pre-grouping British railway company, whose main line linked London Liverpool Street to Norwich and which had other lines through East Anglia. The company was grouped into the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923. The GER was formed in 1862 by amalgamation of the Eastern Counties Railway with smaller railways: the Norfolk Railway, the Eastern Union Railway, the Newmarket and Chesterford Railway, the East Norfolk Railway, the Harwich Railway, the East Anglian Railway and the East Suffolk Railway among others. In 1902 the Northern and Eastern Railway was absorbed by the GER, although it had been worked by the Eastern Counties Railway under a 999-year lease taken on 1 January 1844 whereby the Eastern Counties would work the Northern and Eastern in return for an annual rent and division of the profits. Among the towns served were Cambridge, Chelmsford, Colchester, Great Yarmouth, Ipswich, King's Lynn, Lowestoft, Norwich, Southend-on-Sea, and East Anglian seaside resorts such as Hunstanton (whose prosperity was largely a result of the GER's line being built) and Cromer. It also served a suburban area, including Enfield, Chingford, Loughton and
    7.33
    3 votes
    92
    House of Chigi

    House of Chigi

    Chigi is a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca, which possessed castles in the Maremma, southern Tuscany. The earliest authentic mention of them is in the 13th century, with one Alemanno, counsellor of the Republic of Siena. The first very prominent member was Mariano (1439–1504), a banker and two times ambassador of Siena to the Popes Alexander VI and Julius II. He founded the Roman branch of the family, the other branch was started by his brother, Benedetto. Agostino Chigi (1465–1520) was the most famous member of the family during the Renaissance. He became an immensely rich banker, and built the palace and gardens afterwards known as the Farnesina, decorated by Raphael, and was noted for the splendour of his entertainments. Pope Julius II made him practically his finance minister and gave him the privilege of quartering his own (Della Rovere) arms with those of the Chigi. Cardinal Fabio Chigi, on being elected pope (Pope Alexander VII) at the Conclave of 1655, conferred the Roman patriciate on his family. His brother Mario continued the branch of the family in Siena. His brother Augusto continued the line in Rome. Augosto's son
    7.33
    3 votes
    93
    John Hays Hammond, Jr.

    John Hays Hammond, Jr.

    John Hays Hammond, Jr. (April 13, 1888 – February 12, 1965) was an American inventor known as "The Father of Radio Control" and son of mining engineer John Hays Hammond, Sr.. Born in San Francisco, California, his family moved to South Africa and the Transvaal in 1893. His father was active as a mining engineer in the fabulous mines of South Africa. In 1898, the family moved to England, where young Hammond fell in love with castles and life in earlier times. The family returned to the United States at the turn of the 19th to 20th century. At the age of twelve, Hammond accompanied his father on a business trip to Thomas Edison’s laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey. Upon being introduced to Edison, the boy asked so many questions that the inventor gave him a personal tour of the complex and assumed the role of mentor. The two would remain in contact for the rest of Edison’s life. While studying at the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, Hammond became interested in the new study of radio waves and he was taken under the wing of Alexander Graham Bell. Bell also became his mentor and the two would remain close friends until Bell’s death. After graduation from Yale in
    7.33
    3 votes
    94
    Vassar College

    Vassar College

    Vassar College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, in the United States. The Vassar campus comprises over 1,000 acres (4.0 km) and more than 100 buildings, including four National Historic Landmarks, ranging in style from Collegiate Gothic to International, designed over the course of the college’s history by a range of prominent architects, including James Renwick Jr., Eero Saarinen, Marcel Breuer, and Cesar Pelli. A designated arboretum, the campus features more than 200 species of trees, a native plant preserve, and a 400-acre (1.6 km) ecological preserve. Vassar was founded as a women's college in 1861 and became coeducational in 1969. Vassar was the first of the Seven Sisters colleges, higher education schools then strictly for women, and historically sister institutions to the Ivy League. It was founded by its namesake, brewer Matthew Vassar, in 1861 in the Hudson Valley, about 70 mi (115 km) north of New York City. The first person appointed to the Vassar faculty was the astronomer Maria Mitchell, in 1865. Vassar adopted coeducation in 1969. However, immediately following World War II, Vassar accepted a very small number of
    7.33
    3 votes
    95
    Coutts

    Coutts

    Coutts & Co. (commonly abbreviated to Coutts) is one of the UK's private banking houses and the world's 7th oldest bank. It is wholly owned by the The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (itself 84% owned by UK Financial Investments Limited, an investment arm of the British government) through its National Westminster Bank subsidiary. RBS acquired the Coutts business when it bought NatWest in 2000. Coutts acquired Zurich based Bank von Ernst & Cie in 2003. In 2008, Coutts Bank von Ernst and Coutts other international subsidiaries became RBS Coutts Bank, trading as RBS Coutts International, aligning them more closely with the parent RBS Group. In 2011, RBS Coutts was renamed Coutts & Co. Limited. Coutts & Co. offer a full range of private banking services, including retail banking, investment, wealth management, taxation and advisory services. The bank which was to become Coutts & Co, was originally known as Campbells Bank. It was formed in 1692 by a young Scots goldsmith-banker, John Campbell of Lundie, Scotland. He set up business in The Strand, London, under a sign of the Three Crowns. Today, the Coutts logo still has the three crowns, and its headquarters is still in The
    6.25
    4 votes
    96
    London, Midland and Scottish Railway

    London, Midland and Scottish Railway

    The London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) was a British railway company. It was formed on 1 January 1923 under the Railways Act of 1921, which required the grouping of over 120 separate railway companies into just four. The companies merged into the LMS included the London and North Western Railway, Midland Railway, several Scottish railway companies (including the Caledonian Railway), and numerous other, smaller ventures. The resulting company was an unwieldy construction, with numerous interests other than railway operations. Besides being the world's largest transport organisation, it was also the largest commercial undertaking in the British Empire and the United Kingdom's second largest employer, after the Post Office. The LMS also claimed to be the largest joint stock organisation in the world. In 1938, the LMS operated 6,870 miles (11,056 km) of railway (excluding its lines in Northern Ireland), but its profitability was generally disappointing, with a rate of return of only 2.7%. Along with the other members of the "Big Four" British railway companies (GWR, LNER and SR), the LMS was nationalised on 1 January 1948, becoming part of the state-owned British Railways. The
    6.25
    4 votes
    97
    The Walt Disney Company

    The Walt Disney Company

    The Walt Disney Company (NYSE: DIS), commonly referred to as Disney, is an American multinational diversified mass media corporation headquartered in Walt Disney Studios, Burbank, California, United States. It is the largest media conglomerate in the world in terms of revenue. Founded on October 16, 1923, by Walt and Roy Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, Walt Disney Productions established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production, television, and travel. Taking on its current name in 1986, The Walt Disney Company expanded its existing operations and also started divisions focused upon theatre, radio, music, publishing, and online media. In addition, it has created new divisions of the company in order to market more mature content than it typically associates with its flagship family-oriented brands. The company is best known for the products of its film studio, the Walt Disney Studios, and today one of the largest and best-known studios in Hollywood. Disney also owns and operates the ABC broadcast television network; cable television networks such as Disney Channel, ESPN, A+E Networks, and ABC Family;
    6.25
    4 votes
    98
    United States Government Printing Office

    United States Government Printing Office

    The United States Government Printing Office (GPO) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office prints documents produced by and for the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, and independent agencies. GPO was created on June 23, 1860 by Congressional Joint Resolution 25. It began operations March 4, 1861, with 350 employees and reached a peak employment of 8,500 in 1972. The agency began transformation to computer technology in 1980s; along with the gradual replacement of paper with electronic document distribution, this has led to a steady decline in the number of staff at the agency. For its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia. The activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code. The Public Printer, who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Public Printer selects a Superintendent of Documents. The Superintendent of Documents (SuDocs) is in
    6.25
    4 votes
    99
    Alfred Waterhouse

    Alfred Waterhouse

    Alfred Waterhouse (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905) was a British architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is perhaps best known for his design for the Natural History Museum in London, and Manchester Town Hall, although he also built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the country. Financially speaking, Waterhouse was probably the most successful of all Victorian architects. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival, and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse never limited himself to a single architectural style. Waterhouse was born on 19 July 1830 in Aigburth, Liverpool, the son of wealthy mill-owning Quaker parents. His brothers were accountant Edwin Waterhouse, co-founder of the Price Waterhouse partnership that now forms part of PriceWaterhouseCoopers and solicitor Theodore Waterhouse, who founded the law firm Waterhouse & Co. that is now part of Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP in the City of London. Alfred Waterhouse was educated at the Quaker run Grove School in Tottenham near London. He studied architecture under Richard Lane in Manchester, and spent much of his youth travelling in Europe and studying in France,
    7.00
    3 votes
    100
    Bridge House Estates

    Bridge House Estates

    The Bridge House Estates are a charitable trust, established in 1282 by the City of London Corporation in the English city of London. It was originally established to maintain London Bridge and, subsequently, other bridges. Funded by bridge tolls and charitable donations, the trust acquired an extensive property portfolio which made it more than self-sufficient. As well as maintaining the bridges, the estates also make other charitable grants through the City Bridge Trust, their grant-making arm. Since it was established, the trust has maintained, and on several occasions replaced, London Bridge. The trust also built Blackfriars Bridge and Tower Bridge, and purchased Southwark Bridge from the toll-exacting private company that built it. Most recently it took over ownership and maintenance of the new pedestrian-only Millennium Bridge, having provided a large amount of the funding for its construction. Until 1995, the trust was only permitted to use its income for expenditure on its bridges. However with a surplus of income over expenditure, a cy-près scheme was adopted in that year to allow any surplus income to be used for other charitable purposes benefiting Greater London. These
    7.00
    3 votes
    101
    Digital Equipment Corporation

    Digital Equipment Corporation

    Digital Equipment Corporation was a major American company in the computer industry and a leading vendor of computer systems, software and peripherals from the 1960s to the 1990s. Also known as DEC and using the trademark DIGITAL, its PDP and VAX products were the most successful (in terms of sales) minicomputers. From 1957 until 1992 its headquarters was located in a former wool mill at Clock Tower Place, Maynard, Massachusetts. DEC was acquired in June 1998 by Compaq, which subsequently merged with Hewlett-Packard in May 2002. Some parts of DEC, notably the compiler business and the Hudson, Massachusetts facility, were sold to Intel. Digital Equipment Corporation should not be confused with the unrelated companies Digital Research, Inc or Western Digital (despite the latter manufacturing the LSI-11 chipsets used in DEC's low end PDP-11/03 computers). Initially focusing on the small-end of the computer market allowed DEC to grow without its potential competitors making serious efforts to compete with them. Their PDP series of machines became popular in the 1960s, especially the PDP-8, widely considered to be the first successful minicomputer. Looking to simplify and update their
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

    Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

    The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial is in St. Louis, Missouri, near the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It was designated as a National Memorial by Executive Order 7523, on December 21, 1935, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS). The park was established to commemorate: The memorial consists of a 91-acre (36.8 ha) park along the Mississippi River on the site of the earliest buildings of St. Louis; the Old Courthouse, a former state and federal courthouse that saw the origins of the Dred Scott case; the 45,000 sq ft (4,200 m) Museum of Westward Expansion; and most notably, the Gateway Arch, an inverted steel catenary arch that has become the definitive icon of the city. The Gateway Arch is known as the "Gateway to the West". It was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel in 1947 and built between 1963 and October 1965. It stands 630 feet (192 m) tall and 630 feet (192 m) wide at its base. The legs are 54 feet (16.5 m) wide at the base, narrowing to 17 feet (5.2 m) at the arch. There is a unique tram system to carry passengers to the observation room at the top of the arch. The Old
    7.00
    3 votes
    103
    Louise-Françoise de Bourbon

    Louise-Françoise de Bourbon

    Louise Françoise de Bourbon, Légitimée de France (1 June 1673 – 16 June 1743) was the eldest surviving legitimised daughter of Louis XIV of France and his maîtresse-en-titre, Madame de Montespan. She was said to have been named after her godmother, Louise de La Vallière, the woman that her mother had replaced as the king's mistress. Prior to her marriage, she was known at court as Mademoiselle de Nantes. Married at the age of eleven, she became known as Madame la Duchesse, a style which she kept as a widow. She was, Duchess of Bourbon and Princess of Condé by marriage. She was later a leading member of the cabale de Meudon, a group of people who centered around Louis, le Grand Dauphin her older half brother. Whilst her son, Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon was Prime Minister of France she tried to further her political influence but to little avail. Very attractive, she had a turbulent love life and was frequently part of scandal during the reign of her father Louis XIV. Later in life, she built the Palais Bourbon in Paris, the present seat of the National Assembly of France, with the fortune she amassed having invested greatly in the Système de Law. Louise Françoise was born in
    7.00
    3 votes
    104
    Nottingham

    Nottingham

    Nottingham (/ˈnɒtɪŋəm/ NOT-ing-əm) is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire. Nottingham is famed for its links with the legend of Robin Hood and, during the Industrial Revolution, obtained worldwide recognition for its lace-making, bicycle and tobacco industries. With origins traceable back to 600 AD, Nottingham was granted its city charter as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria in 1897 and has since been officially titled the City of Nottingham. Nottingham is home to the BBC East Midlands offices and formerly to the Government Office for the East Midlands. It is one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group. Whilst Nottingham has always had a tightly-drawn city boundary, accounting for its relatively small population of 305,700, making it the second largest city in the East Midlands behind its local neighbour Leicester with a population of 330,000, and the fifteenth largest city in the UK, the Nottingham Urban Area has a population of approximately 640,900; in the 2011 census, it was the eighth largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Eurostat's concept of the Larger Urban Zone
    7.00
    3 votes
    105
    Queen Victoria

    Queen Victoria

    Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively few direct political powers. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. She married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of
    7.00
    3 votes
    106
    Maria Theresa of Austria

    Maria Theresa of Austria

    Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. She started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it. Upon the death of her father, Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria and France repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Prussia proceeded to invade the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia, sparking a nine-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession. Maria Theresa would later unsuccessfully try to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had sixteen children, including Queen Marie Antoinette of France, Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, Duchess Maria Amalia of Parma and two Holy
    5.20
    5 votes
    107
    British Army

    British Army

    The British Army is the land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England and Scotland and was administered by the War Office from London. It has been managed by the Ministry of Defence since 1964. The professional head of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff, currently General Sir Peter Wall KCB CBE ADC Gen. The full-time element of the British Army is referred to as the Regular Army and has been since the creation of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908. All members of the Army swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as commander-in-chief. However the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires Parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a standing army in peacetime. Parliament therefore annually approves the continued existence of the Army. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include Royal in its title. Many of the Army's constituent Regiments and Corps have been granted the "Royal" prefix
    6.00
    4 votes
    108
    Richard Burbage

    Richard Burbage

    Richard Burbage (6 January 1568 – 13 March 1619) was an English actor and theatre owner. He was the younger brother of Cuthbert Burbage. They were both actors in drama. The son of James Burbage, a joiner who became a theatrical impresario, Burbage was a popular actor by his early 20s. His early acting career is poorly documented. It has been suggested that it included a stint in the Earl of Leicester's company, but there is no good evidence for this. He probably was acting with the Admiral's Men in 1590, with Lord Strange's Men in 1592, and with the Earl of Pembroke's Men in 1593; but most famously he was the star of William Shakespeare's theatre company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men which became the King's Men on the ascension of James I in 1603. He played the title role in the first performances of many of Shakespeare's plays, including Hamlet, Othello, Richard III, and King Lear. But he was in great demand and also appeared in the plays of many of the great contemporary writers, such as Ben Jonson (the title role in Volpone, and Subtle in The Alchemist), John Marston (The Malcontent), John Webster (The Duchess of Malfi) and Beaumont and Fletcher (The Maid's Tragedy). Burbage's
    6.00
    4 votes
    109
    Duke Energy

    Duke Energy

    Duke Energy, headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, is the largest electric power holding company in the United States; with assets also in Canada and Latin America. Based in Charlotte, North Carolina, Duke Energy owns 58,200 megawatts of base-load and peak generation in the United States, which it distributes to its 7.1 million customers. Duke Energy's service territory covers 104,000 square miles (270,000 km) with 250,200 miles (402,700 km) of distribution lines. In addition, Duke Energy has more than 4,300 megawatts of electric generation in Latin America. It operates eight hydroelectric power plants in Brazil with an installed capacity of 2,307 megawatts. Almost all of Duke Energy's Midwest generation comes from coal, natural gas, or oil, while half of its Carolinas generation comes from its nuclear power plants. During 2006, Duke Energy generated 148,798,332 megawatt-hours of electrical energy. Duke Energy Generation Services (DEGS), a subsidiary of Duke Energy, specializes in the development, ownership, and operation of various generation facilities throughout the United States. This segment of the company operates 6,600 megawatts of generation. 240 megawatts of wind
    8.00
    2 votes
    110
    Edward Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh

    Edward Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh

    Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh, KP, GCVO, FRS (November 10, 1847 – October 7, 1927) was an Irish philanthropist and businessman. Born in Clontarf, Dublin, he was the third son of Sir Benjamin Guinness, 1st Baronet, and younger brother of Arthur Guinness, 1st Baron Ardilaun. Educated at Trinity College Dublin, graduating with BA in 1870, he served as Sheriff of Dublin in 1876, and nine years later became the city's High Sheriff. That same year, he was created a baronet of Castleknock, County Dublin, on the occasion of the visit of the then Prince of Wales to Ireland. In 1891 Guinness was created Baron Iveagh, of Iveagh in County Down; 'Iveagh' derives from the old Gaelic Uíbh Eachach. He was appointed a Knight of St Patrick in 1895, and ten years later was advanced in the Peerage of the United Kingdom to Viscount Iveagh. Elected to the Royal Society in 1906, he was two years later elected nineteenth Chancellor of Dublin University in 1908-1927, he served as a vice-president of the Royal Dublin Society from 1906-1927. In 1910 he was appointed GCVO. He was finally in 1919 created Earl of Iveagh and Viscount Elveden, of Elveden in the County of Suffolk. Lord Iveagh was chief
    8.00
    2 votes
    111
    House of Pallavicini

    House of Pallavicini

    The Pallavicini, Pallavicino, and sometimes Paravicino, Paravisini, or Paravicini, were an Italian noble family descended from Oberto I (died 1148). The first Pallavicino fief was created by Oberto II, who received it from Frederick Barbarossa in 1162. A number of lines descended from Guglielmo (died 1217), possessor of a series of fiefs between Parma and Piacenza and a descendant of the Lombard Obertenga family (along with the Este, the Cavalcabò and Malaspina). They are: A second main branch of the family (or perhaps a separate family) was formed by the descendants of Niccolò Pallavicini (alive in 1154), whose origins are doubtful—probably he belonged to the Genoese patriciate—and whose links with the Obertenghi are uncertain: Through Guy and his brother Rubino, a branch of the family rose to prominence in the Latin Empire founded after the Fourth Crusade in 1204. They governed the Margraviate of Bodonitsa from 1204 to 1358. They grew in riches and, after 1224, became also the most powerful family in the former Kingdom of Thessalonica (northern Greece). The first margraves were of Guy's line until his daughter Isabella died, at which time the line of Rubino inherited the throne.
    8.00
    2 votes
    112
    House of Yusupov

    House of Yusupov

    The Yusupovs was a Russian noble family descended from the Khans of the 10th century who, in the 18th and 19th centuries, were renowned for their immense wealth, philanthropy and art collections. Most notably, Prince Felix Yusupov II was famous for his involvement in the murder of Rasputin. In the 14th century Edigu, a Tatar from the Manghit tribe and one of Tamerlane's greatest strategists, settled on the North shores of the Black Sea, establishing the Nogai Horde and laying the foundations for the Crimean Khanate. Edigu's death was followed by infighting between his descendants, until, in the 15th century, Khan Yusuf became the head of the Nogai Horde. Khan Yusuf allied himself with Tsar Ivan the Terrible, but the former allies eventually became enemies. Khan Yusuf's daughter Sumbecca was Queen of Kazan, and when Kazan was razed by Ivan, Khan Yusuf's daughter was taken as prisoner to Moscow. After Khan Yusuf died, another period of fighting between his descendants followed until the 17th century, when Abdul Mirza, another descendant, converted from Islam to Orthodox Christianity under the name of Dmitry. After the conversion, Tsar Feodor I bestowed upon him the title of Prince
    8.00
    2 votes
    113
    Irvine Company

    Irvine Company

    The Irvine Company is a privately held real estate development company based in Newport Beach, Orange County, Southern California. The corporate center of the company lies in Newport Center. A large portion of its operations are centered in and around the City of Irvine, a planned city of 250,000 people mainly designed by the Irvine Company. It was created by the Irvine family and is currently wholly owned by Donald Bren. The Irvine Company grew from the premise of a 185-square-mile (480 km) ranch founded by James Irvine I, Benjamin and Thomas Flint, and Llewellyn Bixby in 1864 from three adjoining Mexican land grants. Irvine and his partners began by purchasing the Rancho San Joaquin, which constitutes the coastal half of the present-day ranch, from Jose Antonio Sepulveda. A drought that killed his livestock forced Sepulveda to sell his ranch in 1864. The partners purchased Rancho Lomas de Santiago—largely unfarmable due to its steep, hilly terrain—in 1866 from William Wolfskill, who had used it largely as a sheep ranch. Flint, Bixby and Irvine were among the claimants of a title lawsuit that divided Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana in 1868. Unlike other early Newport Beach
    8.00
    2 votes
    114
    John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

    John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

    John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Prince of Mindelheim, KG, PC ( /ˈmɑrlbərə/, often /ˈmɔːlbrə/; 26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 O.S), was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he served James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill. Churchill's role in defeating the Monmouth Rebellion in 1685 helped secure James on the throne, yet just three years later he abandoned his Catholic patron for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. Honoured for his services at William's coronation with the earldom of Marlborough, he served with further distinction in the early years of the Nine Years' War, but persistent charges of Jacobitism brought about his fall from office and temporary imprisonment in the Tower. It was not until the accession of Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune. His marriage to the hot-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's intimate friend – ensured Marlborough's rise, first to the Captain-Generalcy of British
    8.00
    2 votes
    115
    Saint-Gobain

    Saint-Gobain

    Saint-Gobain S.A. is a French multinational corporation, founded in 1665 in Paris and headquartered on the outskirts of Paris, at La Défense and in Courbevoie. Originally a mirror manufacturer, it now also produces a variety of construction and high-performance materials. The company has its head office in Les Miroirs in La Défense and in Courbevoie. The 97-metre (318 ft) building served as the company head office since 1981. The company was founded in October 1665 as Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs under the direction of French minister of finance Jean-Baptiste Colbert. The company, which had the informal name Compagnie du Noyer from the beneficiary of the monopoly granted to it, the financier Nicolas du Noyer, a receveur of taxes of Orléans, was created for a period of twenty years and would be financed in part by the State. Since the middle of the 17th century, luxury products such as silk textiles, lace and mirrors were in high demand. In the 1660s, mirrors had become very popular among the upper classes of society: Italian cabinets, ballrooms, châteaux and ornate side tables and pier-tables were decorated with this expensive and luxurious product. At the time, however,
    8.00
    2 votes
    116
    University of Kentucky

    University of Kentucky

    The University of Kentucky, also known as UK, is a public co-educational university and is one of the state's two land-grant universities, located in Lexington, Kentucky. Founded in 1865 by John Bowman as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, the university is the largest in the Commonwealth of Kentucky by enrollment, with 28,094 students as of Fall 2011, and is also the highest ranked research university in the state, according to U.S. News and World Report. In 2012, the University of Kentucky boasted record high new student enrollment with over 4,600 first-year students. Also at a record high is the number of African-American, Hispanic, international and out-of-state students. The University of Kentucky strives for a diverse and international student population, with a selective admissions process. Students are divided into 16 colleges, a graduate school, 93 undergraduate programs, 99 master programs, 66 doctoral programs, and four professional programs. The University of Kentucky has fifteen libraries on campus. The largest is William T. Young Library, a federal depository, hosting subjects related to social sciences, humanities and life sciences collections. In
    8.00
    2 votes
    117
    Bank of China

    Bank of China

    Bank of China Limited (BOC) SSE: 601988 SEHK: 3988 (simplified Chinese: 中国银行; traditional Chinese: 中國銀行; pinyin: Zhōngguó Yínháng; often abbreviated as 中銀 or 中行) is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1912 by the Government of the Republic of China, to replace the Government Bank of Imperial China. It is the oldest bank in China. From its establishment until 1942, it issued banknotes on behalf of the Government of the Republic of China along with the "Big Four" banks of the period: the Central Bank of China, Farmers Bank of China and Bank of Communications. Although it initially functioned as the Chinese central bank, in 1928 the Central Bank of China replaced it in that role. Subsequently, BOC became a purely commercial bank. Its headquarters are in Xicheng District, Beijing. In December 2010, the Bank of China New York branch began offering RMB products for Americans. It was the first major Chinese bank to offer such a product. Bank of China's history goes back to 1905, when the Qing government established Daqing Hubu Bank (in Chinese: 大清户部銀行) in Beijing, which was in 1908 renamed to Daqing Bank (in Chinese: 大清銀行).
    9.00
    1 votes
    118
    Bianca Maria Visconti

    Bianca Maria Visconti

    Bianca Maria Visconti (31 March 1425 – 28 October 1468) was Duchess of Milan from 1450 to 1468. Born near Settimo Pavese, Bianca Maria was the illegitimate daughter of Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan and last of the Visconti rulers, and Agnese del Maino, the only person the shy, secluded Filippo ever loved. Agnese was the daughter of Ambrogio del Maino, a Milanese nobleman and ducal questore. Agnese served as Lady-in-Waiting to Filippo's wife, Beatrice di Tenda. The couple had a second daughter, called Caterina Maria or Lucia Maria, also born in Settimo in 1426, but she died shortly after her birth. Bianca's paternal grandparents were Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Caterina Visconti. When she was six months old, Bianca Maria and her mother were sent to a castle in Abbiate, where a rich residence had been established for the two of them. The Duke spent much of his time in Abbiategrasso, where he was impressed by Bianca Maria's strong character. Bianca Maria spent her childhood and adolescence in Abbiategrasso, where she received a humanist education. The Ducal library contained a wide variety of works: Latin classics, narrative texts in Provençal and French, scientific and
    9.00
    1 votes
    119
    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London

    Imperial College London (officially The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, medicine and business. Formerly a constituent college of the federal University of London, Imperial became fully independent in 2007, the 100th anniversary of its founding. Imperial's main campus is located in the South Kensington area of central London on the boundary between the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the City of Westminster. It has additional campuses in the Chelsea, Hammersmith and Paddington areas of central London. With a total of 525,233 square metres of operational property, it has one of the largest estates of any higher education institution in the UK. Imperial is organised into four main academic units – Imperial College Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College Faculty of Engineering and the Imperial College Business School – within which there are over 40 departments, institutes and research centres. Imperial has around 13,500 full-time students and 3,330 academic and research staff and had a total income of
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Roman Catholic Church

    Roman Catholic Church

    The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members worldwide. It is among the oldest institutions in the world and has played a prominent role in the history of Western civilisation. The Catholic hierarchy is led by the Pope and includes cardinals, patriarchs and diocesan bishops. The Church teaches that it is the one true Church founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles and that the Pope is the sole successor to Saint Peter who has apostolic primacy. Catholic doctrine maintains that the Church is infallible when it dogmatically teaches a doctrine of faith or morals. There are a variety of doctrinal and theological emphases within the Catholic Church, including the Eastern Catholic Churches and religious communities such as the Jesuits, the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The Catholic Church is Trinitarian and defines its mission as spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity. Catholic worship is highly liturgical, focusing on the Mass or Divine Liturgy during which the sacrament of the Eucharist is celebrated.
    9.00
    1 votes
    121
    University of Texas at Austin

    University of Texas at Austin

    The University of Texas at Austin (informally University of Texas, UT Austin or UT) is a state research university, and is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System. Founded in 1883, its campus is approximately 0.25 miles (400 m) from the Texas State Capitol in Austin. The institution has the fifth-largest single-campus enrollment in the nation as of fall 2010 (and had the largest enrollment in the country from 1997 to 2003), with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. It currently holds the second largest enrollment in Texas behind Texas A&M University. The University of Texas at Austin was named one of the original eight Public Ivy institutions and was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929. The university is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $640 million for the 2009–2010 school year. The university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, and operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among
    9.00
    1 votes
    122
    Francesco I Sforza

    Francesco I Sforza

    Francesco I Sforza (July 23, 1401 – March 8, 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy. He was the brother of Alessandro, with whom he often fought. Francesco Sforza was born in San Miniato, Tuscany, one of the seven illegitimate sons of the condottiero Muzio Sforza and Lucia da Torsano. He spent his childhood in Tricarico (in the modern Basilicata), the marquisate of which he was granted in 1412 by King Ladislaus of Naples. In 1418, he married Polissena Ruffo, a Calabrese noblewoman. From 1419, he fought alongside his father, soon gaining fame for being able to bend metal bars with his bare hands. He later proved himself to be an expert tactician and very skilled field commander. After the death of his father, he fought initially for the Neapolitan army and then for Pope Martin V and the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti. After some successes, he fell in disgrace and was sent to the castle of Mortara as a prisoner de facto. He regained his status after a successful expedition against Lucca. In 1431, after a period during which he fought again for the Papal States, he led the Milanese army against Venice; the following year the duke's
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    John McEntee Bowman

    John McEntee Bowman

    John McEntee Bowman (1875–October 28, 1931) was a Canadian-born businessman and an American hotelier and horseman who was the founding president of Bowman-Biltmore Hotels Corp. Born in Toronto, Ontario, John Bowman began his American working life in a men's clothing store in Yonkers, New York but learned the hotel business at New York City's Holland House Hotel. When the owner died in 1913, Bowman bought his new Biltmore hotel from his estate and built it into a chain of one of the most recognized hotel names in the world. Bowman was responsible for the building of the golfing country club, the Westchester Country Club in Rye, New York and counted the New York Biltmore Hotel in New York City, the Millennium Biltmore Hotel, in Los Angeles, California, the Coral Gables Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables, Florida, and the Sevilla-Biltmore Hotel in Havana, Cuba as part of his extensive hotel holdings. A horse lover and Thoroughbred racing enthusiast, Bowman was president of the United Hunts Racing Association and the National Horse Show, and for a time served as the president of the Havana-American Jockey Club that operated the Oriental Park Racetrack in Marianao, Cuba. John McEntee Bowman
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    Leopold Anton Freiherr von Firmian

    Leopold Anton Freiherr von Firmian

    Leopold Anton Freiherr von Firmian or Leopold Anton Eleutherius von Firmian (11 March 1679 – 22 October 1744) was Catholic Bishop of Lavant 1718-1724, Bishop of Seckau 1724-1727 and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1727 until his death. He was born in Munich, on his father's side to the Freiherren (Barons) dynasty von Firmian descending from Sigmundskron (Formigar) Castle in Tyrol, by virtue of being the son of Countess Maria Viktoria von Thun and the Imperial envoy Franz Wilhelm Freiherr von Firmian. His maternal uncle Count Johann Ernst von Thun was Bishop of Seckau from 1679 until 1687 and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1687 to 1709. Leopold Anton von Firmian was the uncle of cardinal Leopold Ernst von Firmian, also prince-bishop of Passau. His nephew, Karl Joseph von Firmian, the Austrian plenipotentiary minister in Milan, was renowned as a patron of the arts, including poets such as Giuseppe Parini, musicians such as Johann Ernst Eberlin and painters such as Giambettino Cignaroli. While Leopold Anton was an early patron of Leopold Mozart; the nephew, count Karl Firmian appears to have been one of the patrons for Amadeus Mozart's opera in Milan: Mitridate, Re di Ponto
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Order of Saint Benedict

    Order of Saint Benedict

    The Order of Saint Benedict (Latin name: Ordo Sancti Benedicti) is a Roman Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict. Within the order, each individual community (which may be a monastery, a priory or abbey) maintains its own autonomy, while the organization as a whole exists to represent their mutual interests. Today the terms "Order of Saint Benedict" and "Benedictine Order" are also used frequently to refer to the total of the independent Benedictine abbeys, thereby giving the wrong impression of a "generalate" or "motherhouse" with jurisdiction over dependent communities. The Benedictine Confederation, which was established in 1883 by Pope Leo XIII in his brief Summum semper, is the international governing body of the order, headed by the Abbot Primate. Members of the order generally use the initials O.S.B. after their name. The monastery at Subiaco established in Italy by Saint Benedict of Nursia circa 529 was the first of a dozen monasteries founded by him. Even so, there is no evidence to suggest that he intended to found an order. To the contrary, the Rule of St Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Poznań

    Poznań

    Poznań [ˈpɔznaɲ] ( listen) (Latin: Posnania; German: Posen; Yiddish: פוזנא or פּױזן Poyzn) is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 551,627 in the end of 2010. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be the first capital of the kingdom of Poland. Poznań is now Poland's fifth largest city. It is the historical capital of the Wielkopolska ("Greater Poland") region, and is currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is an important centre of trade, industry, and education, and hosts regular international trade fairs. It was the host city for the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2008, a key stage in the creation of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Poznań was one of the host cities for the association football tournament UEFA Euro 2012. The name Poznań probably comes from a personal name Poznan (from the Polish participle poznan(y) – "one who is known/recognized") and would mean "Poznan's town". It is also possible that the name comes
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    Teixeira Duarte

    Teixeira Duarte

    Teixeira Duarte is one of the largest construction companies in Portugal, headquartered in Oeiras. The company was founded in 1921 by Ricardo Esquível Teixeira Duarte, an engineer. It is a major stakeholder in Cimpor and Banco Comercial Português. Today operates in countries and regions like Angola, Mozambique, Macau, Venezuela and Algeria
    6.67
    3 votes
    128
    Douglas Fairbanks

    Douglas Fairbanks

    Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films such as The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, and The Mark of Zorro. An astute businessman, Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists. Fairbanks was also a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the first Oscars Ceremony in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", a nickname later passed on to actor Clark Gable. His career rapidly declined with the advent of the "talkies". Fairbanks was born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman (spelled "Ulman" by Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. in his memoirs) in Denver, Colorado, the son of H. Charles Ullman (born September 15, 1833) and Ella Adelaide Marsh (born 1847). He had a half-brother, John Fairbanks, Jr. (born 1873), and a full brother, Robert Payne Ullman (March 13, 1882 – February 22, 1948). Douglas Fairbanks' father, Hezekiah Charles Ullman (1833–1915), was born in Berrysburg, Pennsylvania. but raised in Williamsport. He was the fourth child in a relatively
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, FRS (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets. Tennyson excelled at penning short lyrics, such as "In the Valley of Cauteretz", "Break, Break, Break", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", "Tears, Idle Tears" and "Crossing the Bar". Much of his verse was based on classical mythological themes, such as Ulysses, although In Memoriam A.H.H. was written to commemorate his best friend Arthur Hallam, a fellow poet and fellow student at Trinity College, Cambridge, who was engaged to Tennyson's sister, but died from a brain haemorrhage before they could marry. Tennyson also wrote some notable blank verse including Idylls of the King, "Ulysses," and "Tithonus." During his career, Tennyson attempted drama, but his plays enjoyed little success. A number of phrases from Tennyson's work have become commonplaces of the English language, including "Nature, red in tooth and claw", "'Tis better to have loved and lost / Than never to have loved at all", "Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die", "My strength is as the strength of ten,
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    INMOS

    INMOS

    Inmos Limited (trademark INMOS) was a British semiconductor company, founded by Iann Barron, with both the head office and the design office at Aztec West in Bristol, it was incorporated in November 1978. Inmos's first products were static RAM devices, followed by dynamic RAMs and EEPROMs. Despite early production difficulties, Inmos eventually captured around 60% of the world SRAM market. However, Barron's long-term aim was to produce an innovative microprocessor architecture intended for parallel processing, the transputer. David May and Robert Milne were recruited to design this processor, which eventually went into production in 1985 in the form of the T212 and T414 chips. The transputer achieved some success as the basis for several parallel supercomputers from companies such as Meiko (formed by ex-Inmos employees in 1985), Floating Point Systems, Parsytec and Parsys. Being a relatively self-contained design, it was also used in some embedded systems. However, the unconventional nature of the transputer and its native occam programming language limited its appeal. During the late 1980s, the transputer (even in its later T800 form) also struggled to keep up with the
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Karl of Anhalt-Zerbst

    Karl of Anhalt-Zerbst

    Karl William, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (Zerbst, 16 October 1652 – Zerbst, 3 November 1718), was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst. He was the third (but eldest surviving) son of John VI, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and Sophie Auguste, daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. His two older brothers died before his birth. Karl William succeeded his father in Anhalt-Zerbst in 1667 at the age of fifteen years. During his minority, which lasted until 1674, his mother, the Dowager Princess Sophie Auguste, acted as regent. He ordered the building of Zerbst Castle (which was made his official residence) and the St. Trinitatis Church of Zerbst, which were both inaugurated in 1696. Also, he lived many years in Jever. In Halle on 18 June 1676 Karl William married Sophie (b. Halle, 23 June 1654 – d. Zerbst, 31 March 1724), daughter of August, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. They had three children :
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany

    Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany

    Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany (Scottish Gaelic: Muireadhach Stiubhart) (1362 – 24 May 1425) was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389 he was Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402 he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England. After his father died in 1420, and while the future King James I of Scotland was himself held captive in England, Stewart served as Governor of Scotland, until 1424 when James was finally ransomed and returned to Scotland. However, in 1425, soon after James's coronation, Albany was arrested, found guilty of treason, and executed, along with two of his sons. His only surviving heir was James the Fat, who escaped to Antrim, Ireland, where he died in 1429. Albany's wife Isabella of Lennox survived the destruction of her family, and would live to see the murder of James I and the restoration of her title and estates. Stewart was born in 1362, the only son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany (1340–1420) and his wife Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith. Duke Robert was a leading Scottish
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Mayer Amschel de Rothschild

    Mayer Amschel de Rothschild

    Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (29 June 1818 – 6 February 1874) of the English branch of the Rothschild family was the fourth and youngest son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836). He was named Mayer Amschel Rothschild, for his grandfather, the patriarch of the Rothschild family. Known to his family as "Muffy", he was born in New Court, London. After studying at the University of Leipzig and Heidelberg University he became the first member of his family to receive an education at an English university, spending time at both Magdalene and Trinity College, Cambridge. Although apprenticed in the family's various banking houses in Europe, he never became a major part of the banking empire. He became High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire in 1847 and was elected Liberal MP for Hythe in 1859. Mayer's mother Hannah (née Cohen) began the Rothschild acquisitions in Buckinghamshire. Thinking her sons unhealthy, she began to purchase parcels of land around Aylesbury in prime hunting country, where they could take outdoor exercise. By the middle of the 19th century, all three of her sons had large estates and mansions in the Vale of Aylesbury: Lionel de Rothschild at Tring; Anthony Nathan de
    5.50
    4 votes
    134
    London and Birmingham Railway

    London and Birmingham Railway

    The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom from 1833 to 1846, when it became part of the London and North Western Railway (L&NWR). The 112-mile (180 km) railway line which the company opened in 1838 between London and Birmingham was the first intercity line to be built into London. It is now the southern section of the West Coast Main Line. The line was engineered by Robert Stephenson. It started at Euston Station in London, went north-north-west to Rugby, where it turned west to Coventry and on to Birmingham. It terminated at Curzon Street Station, which it shared with the Grand Junction Railway (GJR), whose adjacent platforms gave a link to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR), and allowed through rail travel from London to those cities. The railway engineer John Rennie proposed a railway line from London to Birmingham in 1823, and formed a company to build it by a route through Oxford and Banbury, a route later taken by the Great Western Railway. Soon afterwards a rival company was formed by Francis Giles whose line would have been through the Watford Gap and Coventry. Neither company obtained backing for its scheme, and in
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    3 votes
    135
    Preservation Society of Newport County

    Preservation Society of Newport County

    The Preservation Society of Newport County is a private, non-profit organization based in Newport, Rhode Island. It is Rhode Island's largest and most-visited cultural organization. The organization's mission is to preserve the architectural heritage of Newport County, Rhode Island, including those of the Bellevue Avenue Historic District. Its fourteen historic properties and landscapes—seven of which are National Historic Landmarks, and eleven of which are open to the public—form a complete essay of American historical development from the Colonial era through the Gilded Age. The Preservation Society is led by CEO Trudy Coxe. The Preservation Society of Newport County was founded in 1945 by a dedicated and concerned group of Newporters led by Katherine and George Warren to save Hunter House from demolition. For a brief time they were known as the Georgian Society until they changed their name to the Preservation Society of Newport County.
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    3 votes
    136
    William IV of the United Kingdom

    William IV of the United Kingdom

    William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. William, the third son of George III and younger brother and successor to George IV, was the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover. He served in the Royal Navy in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, nicknamed the "Sailor King". He served in North America and the Caribbean, but saw little actual fighting. Since his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all the British Empire, and the Reform Act 1832 refashioned the British electoral system. Though William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a Prime Minister contrary to the will of Parliament. Through his brother, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted that kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. At his death William had no surviving legitimate children, though he was survived by
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    137
    California Department of Transportation

    California Department of Transportation

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is an executive department within the U.S. state of California. Its purpose is to improve mobility across the state. Caltrans manages the state highway system (which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System) and is actively involved with public transportation systems throughout the state. The department is part of the state cabinet-level California Business, Transportation and Housing Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, which was created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system, since roads were purely a local responsibility. The roads of California consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, and this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's rapidly growing population. After the commissioners submitted their report to the Governor on
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    1 votes
    138
    Colonna family

    Colonna family

    The Colonna family is an Italian noble family; it was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other Church and political leaders. Their family is notable for their bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511; in 1571 the Chiefs of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V. According to tradition, the Colonna are a branch of the Counts of Tusculum — by Peter (1099–1151) son of Gregory III, called Peter "de Columna" from his property, the Columna Castle, in Colonna, Alban Hills. The first cardinal from the family was appointed in 1206 when Giovanni Colonna di Carbognano was made Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano. For many years, cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo (elevated in 1193) was identified as member of the Colonna family and therefore its first representative in the College of Cardinals, but modern scholars have established that this was based on the false information from the beginning of 16th century. At this time a rivalry began with the pro-papal Orsini family, leaders of the Guelph faction. This reinforced the pro-Emperor Ghibelline course that the Colonna family followed
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    1 votes
    139
    House of Sforza

    House of Sforza

    Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. They acquired the dukedom and Duchy of Milan from the previously ruling Visconti family in the mid-15th century, and lost it to the Spanish Habsburgs about a century later. Rising from rural nobility, the Sforzas became condottieri and used this military position to become rulers in Milan. The family governed by force, ruse, and power politics, similar to the Medici in Florence. Under their rule the city-state flourished and expanded. Muzio Attendolo (1369–1424), called Sforza (from sforzare, to exert or force), founded the dynasty. A condottiero from Romagna, he served the Angevin kings of Naples and became the most successful dynast of the condottieri. His son Francesco I Sforza ruled Milan for the first half of the Renaissance era, acquiring the title of Duke of Milan from the extinct Visconti family in 1447. The family also held the seigniory of Pesaro, starting from Muzio Attendolo's second son, Alessandro (1409–1473). The Sforza held Pesaro until 1519, with the death of Galeazzo. Muzio's third son, Bosio (1411–1476), founded the branch of Santa Fiora, who held the title of count of Cotignola; the Sforza ruled
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    1 votes
    140
    Lars Magnus Ericsson

    Lars Magnus Ericsson

    Lars Magnus Ericsson (5 May 1846 – 17 December 1926) was a Swedish inventor, entrepreneur and founder of telephone equipment manufacturer Ericsson (incorporated as Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson). Lars Magnus was born in Värmskog, Värmland and grew up in the small village of Vegerbol, between Karlstad and Arvika. At the age of twelve his father died, and he had to start working as a miner. He worked until he had money enough to leave the village and move to Stockholm in 1867. He then worked for six years for an instrument maker named Öllers & Co. who mainly created telegraph equipment. Because of his skills, he was given two state scholarships to study instrument making abroad between 1872 and 1875. One of the companies he worked at was Siemens & Halske. Upon his return to Sweden in 1876, he founded a small mechanical workshop together with his friend Carl Johan Andersson who had also worked at Öllers & Co.. This workshop was actually a former kitchen of some 13 m situated at Drottninggatan 15 in the most central part of Stockholm. Here, he started a telephone company by analyzing Bell company and Siemens telephones and creating his own copies in their image. It was not until they
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    1 votes
    141
    Scipione Borghese

    Scipione Borghese

    Scipione Borghese (1 September 1577 – 2 October 1633) was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was the patron of the painter Caravaggio and the artist Bernini. His legacy is the establishment of the art collection at the Villa Borghese in Rome. Originally named Scipione Caffarelli, he was born in Artena, the son of Francisco Caffarelli and Ortensia Borghese. His father ran into financial difficulties, so Scipione's education was paid for by his maternal uncle Camillo Borghese. Upon Camillo's election to the papacy as Pope Paul V in 1605, he quickly conferred a cardinalship on Scipione and gave him the right to use the Borghese name and coat of arms. In the classic pattern of papal nepotism, Cardinal Borghese wielded enormous power as the Pope's secretary and effective head of the Vatican government. On his own and the Pope's behalf he amassed an enormous fortune through papal fees and taxes, and acquired vast land holdings for the Borghese family. Scipione received many honours from his uncle. He became superintendent general of the Papal States, legate in Avignon, archpriest of the Lateran and Vatican basilicas, prefect of
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    142
    Sergei Rachmaninoff

    Sergei Rachmaninoff

    Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов; Russian pronunciation: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej rɐxˈmanʲɪnəf]; 1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music. Early influences of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and other Russian composers gave way to a thoroughly personal idiom that included a pronounced lyricism, expressive breadth, structural ingenuity, and a tonal palette of rich, distinctive orchestral colors. The piano is featured prominently in Rachmaninoff's compositional output. He made a point of using his own skills as a performer to explore fully the expressive possibilities of the instrument. Even in his earliest works he revealed a sure grasp of idiomatic piano writing and a striking gift for melody. Rachmaninoff was born on 1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 in Semyonovo, near Great Novgorod, in north-western Russia into a family of the Russian aristocracy, originally of partly Tatar descent, which had been in the service of the Russian tsars since
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    143
    United Grand Lodge of England

    United Grand Lodge of England

    The United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE) is the main governing body of freemasonry within England and Wales and in other, predominantly ex-British Empire and Commonwealth countries outside the United Kingdom. It claims to be the oldest Grand Lodge in the world, deriving its origin from 1717. Together with the Grand Lodge of Ireland and the Grand Lodge of Scotland they are often referred to, by their members, as "the home Grand Lodges" or "the Home Constitutions". Prior to 1717 there is evidence of Freemasons' lodges in both England and Scotland, with the earliest being in Scotland. On 24 June 1717, three existing London lodges and a Westminster lodge held a joint dinner at the Goose and Gridiron alehouse in St. Paul's Churchyard, elected a gentleman, Anthony Sayer, to the chair as Grand Master, and called themselves a Grand Lodge. The City of London Corporation has erected a Blue Plaque near the location. In 1718 Sayer, who despite his significant social rank was obscure and impoverished, was succeeded by George Payne, an energetic and successful tradesman. In 1721, the Grand Lodge managed to obtain a nobleman, the Duke of Montagu to preside as Grand Master, and so was able to
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    1 votes
    144
    University of Cambridge

    University of Cambridge

    The University of Cambridge (informally known as Cambridge University or simply as Cambridge) is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after the University of Oxford), and the third-oldest surviving university in the world.. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge). The university grew out of an association of scholars that was formed in 1209, early records suggest, by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk. The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, they have a long history of rivalry with each other. Cambridge has performed consistently in various league tables over the years, achieving the top spot in the world according to the QS World University Rankings in both 2010 and 2011; in 2012, the same editors ranked Cambridge second. Other results include a sixth place in the world in the 2011
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    145
    All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club

    All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club

    The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club (AELTC), also known as the All-England Club, based at Aorangi Park, Wimbledon, London, England, is a private members club. It is best known as the venue for the Wimbledon Championships, the only Grand Slam tennis event still held on grass. Initially an amateur event that occupied club members and their friends for a few days each summer, the championships have become far more prominent than the club itself. However, it still operates as a members tennis club, with many courts in use all year round. The club has 375 full members, about 100 temporary playing members, and a number of honorary members, including past Wimbledon singles champions and people who have rendered distinguished service to the game. In order to become a full or temporary member, an applicant must obtain letters of support from four existing full members, two of whom must have known the applicant for at least three years. The name is then added to the Candidates' List. Honorary Members are elected from time to time by the club's Committee. Membership carries with it the right to purchase two tickets for each day of the Wimbledon Championships. The patron of the club
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    146
    Arthur Lasenby Liberty

    Arthur Lasenby Liberty

    Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty (13 August 1843 – 11 May 1917) was a London merchant, and the founder of Liberty & Co. Born in Chesham, Buckinghamshire, England, the son of a draper, he began work at sixteen with an uncle who sold lace, and later another uncle who sold wine. By 1859 he was apprenticed to a draper, but he instead took a job at Farmer and Rogers, which specialised in women's fashions. He quickly rose to the post of manager of the warehouse. After Farmer and Rogers refused to make him a partner in their business, in 1875 he opened his own shop, Liberty & Co., in Regent Street, London. There he sold ornaments, fabrics and miscellaneous objets d'art from the Far East. Liberty & Co. initially provided an eclectic mix of popular styles, but went on to develop a fundamentally different style closely linked to the Aesthetic Movement of the 1890s, Art Nouveau (the "new art"). The company became synonymous with this new style to the extent that in Italy, Art Nouveau became known as Stile Liberty after the London shop. The company's printed and dyed fabrics, particularly silks and satins, were notable for their subtle and "artistic" colours and highly esteemed as dress material,
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    147
    BMW

    BMW

    Bayerische Motoren Werke AG  pronunciation (help·info) (BMW; English: Bavarian Motor Works) is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1917. BMW is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, Germany. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands. In 2010, the BMW group produced 1,481,253 automobiles and 112,271 motorcycles across all its brands. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1917. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923, once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928–29. The first car which BMW successfully produced and the car which launched BMW on the road to automobile production was the Dixi, it was based on the Austin 7 and licensed from the Austin Motor Company in Birmingham, England. The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved
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    148
    Central Bank of Angola

    Central Bank of Angola

    The National Bank of Angola (Portuguese: Banco Nacional de Angola) is the central bank of Angola. It is state-owned and the Government of Angola is the sole shareholder. The bank is based in Luanda and traces its ancestry back to 1865. The Bank of Mozambique is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion. In 1864 the Banco Nacional Ultramarino (BNU) was established in Lisbon, Portugal, as a bank of issue for Portuguese overseas territories. The next year it opened branches in several places, including Portuguese Angola, which at the time was a colonial possession of Portugal. When the Portuguese established a separate bank for Angola, the Bank of Angola (Banco de Angola), in 1926, BNU transferred its branch in Stanleyville to this bank, which in 1934, transferred the branch to Boma, before closing it in 1947. When Angola gained its independence in 1975, the government nationalized the banking sector. Banco de Angola became Banco Nacional de Angola (BNA); Banco Comercial de Angola became Banco Popular de Angola, and is now Banco de Poupança e Crédito. The BNA continued to function as a central bank, bank of issue and
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    149
    City of London

    City of London

    The City of London is an area of London. In the medieval period it constituted most of London, but the conurbation has grown far beyond it. As the City's boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis, though it remains a notable part of central London, holds city status in its own right, and is a separate ceremonial county. It is often referred to as the City (often written on maps as "City") or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile (1.12 sq mi/2.90 km) in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which continues a notable history of being based in the City. The term London now refers to a much larger conurbation roughly corresponding to Greater London, a local government area which includes 32 boroughs (including the City of Westminster), in addition to the City of London. The local authority for the City, the City of London Corporation, is unique in the United Kingdom, and has some unusual responsibilities for a local authority in Britain, such as being the police authority for the City. It also has responsibilities and ownerships beyond the
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    150
    Clan Donald

    Clan Donald

    Clan Donald is one of the largest Scottish clans. There are numerous branches to the clan. Several of these have chiefs recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms; these are: Clan Macdonald of Sleat, Clan Macdonald of Clanranald, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, and Clan MacAlister. Notable branches without chiefs so-recognised are: the MacDonalds of Dunnyveg, MacDonalds of Lochalsh, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, and the MacDonalds of Ardnamurchan. The MacDonnells of Antrim are related but do not belong to the Scottish associations and have a chief officially recognised in Ireland. The Norse-Gaelic Clan Donald traces its descent from Dòmhnall Mac Raghnuill (d. circa 1250), whose father Reginald or Ranald was styled "King of the Isles" and "Lord of Argyll and Kintyre". Ranald's father, Somerled was styled "King of the Hebrides", and was killed campaigning against Malcolm IV of Scotland at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald shares a descent from Somerled with Clan MacDougall, who trace their lineage from his elder son, Dugall mac Somhairle. Their dynasties are together commonly referred to as the Clann Somhairle. Furthermore they are descended maternally
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    151
    Fiat

    Fiat

    Fiat S.p.A., (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino) (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), is an Italian automobile manufacturer based in Turin. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli. During its more than a century long history, Fiat has also manufactured railway engines and carriages, military vehicles, and aircraft. As of 2009, the Fiat group (not inclusive of its subsidiary Chrysler) was the world's ninth largest carmaker and the largest in Italy. Fiat-based cars are built around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader. The group also has factories in Argentina and Poland and a long history of licensing production of its products in other countries. It also has numerous alliances and joint ventures around the world, the main ones being located in Italy, France, Turkey, Serbia, India and China. Agnelli's grandson Gianni Agnelli was Fiat's chairman from 1966 until 1996; he then served as honorary chairman from 1996 until his death on 24 January 2003, during which time Cesare Romiti served as chairman. Until their removal, Paolo Fresco served as chairman and Paolo
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    152
    Giuseppe Verdi

    Giuseppe Verdi

    Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (Italian pronunciation: [d͡ʒuˈzɛppe ˈverdi]; 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. Some of his themes have long since taken root in popular culture – such as "La donna è mobile" from Rigoletto, "Va, pensiero" (The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves) from Nabucco, "Libiamo ne' lieti calici" (The Drinking Song) from La traviata and the "Grand March" from Aida. Verdi was born the son of Carlo Giuseppe Verdi and Luigia Uttini in Le Roncole, a village near Busseto, then in the Département Taro which was a part of the First French Empire after the annexation of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza. The baptismal register, on 11 October lists him as being "born yesterday", but since days were often considered to begin at sunset, this could have meant either 9 or 10 October. The next day, he was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church in Latin as Joseph Fortuninus Franciscus. The day after that (Tuesday), Verdi's father took his newborn the three miles to Busseto, where the baby was recorded as Joseph Fortunin François; the clerk wrote in French. "So it happened that for the civil and temporal world Verdi was born a
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    153
    John Radcliffe

    John Radcliffe

    John Radcliffe (1652–1714) was an English physician. A number of landmark buildings in Oxford, including the Radcliffe Camera (in Radcliffe Square), the Radcliffe Infirmary, and the Radcliffe Observatory were named after him. Radcliffe was born the son of George Radcliffe, attorney, in Wakefield, Yorkshire, and was educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School and Northallerton Grammar School. He graduated from the University of Oxford , where he was an exhibitioner at University College tutored by Obadiah Walker, to become a Fellow of Lincoln College. He obtained his M.D. in 1682 and moved to London shortly afterwards. There he enjoyed great popularity and became royal physician to William III and Mary II. In 1690 he was elected Member of Parliament for Bramber, Sussex and in 1713 member for Buckingham. On his death in the following year, his property was bequeathed to various charitable causes, including St Bartholomew's Hospital and University College, Oxford, where the Radcliffe Quad is named after him. The charitable trust founded by his will of 13 September 1714 still operates as a registered charity. 1. Among the many singularities related of Radcliffe, it has been noticed
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    154
    Knoll

    Knoll

    Knoll is a design firm that produces office systems, seating, files and storage, tables and desks, textiles (KnollTextiles), and accessories for office and for the home. The company also manufactures furniture for the home by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Harry Bertoia, Florence Knoll (Florence Schust), Frank Gehry, Maya Lin and Eero Saarinen under the company's KnollStudio division. Over 40 Knoll designs can be found in the permanent design collection of The Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The company was founded in New York City in 1938 by Hans Knoll. Production facilities were moved to Pennsylvania in 1950. After the death of Hans in 1955, his wife Florence Knoll took over as head of the company. The company is headquartered in East Greenville, Pennsylvania and has three other major manufacturing sites: Toronto, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon. In addition, the company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and trades under the symbol:KNL Many of the company's product are included in museum collections, such as the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. Knoll sponsors exhibitions, scholarships, and other activities related to modern architecture and design. In 2006, Knoll
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    155
    National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

    National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

    The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The Trust does not operate in Scotland, where there is an independent National Trust for Scotland. According to its website: The trust owns many heritage properties, including historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments and social history sites. It is one of the largest landowners in the United Kingdom, owning many beauty spots, most of which are open to the public free of charge. It is the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom, and one of the largest UK charities by both income and assets. The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was incorporated in 1894 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862 to 1890, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee; it was later incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament (The National Trust Acts 1907-1971 – as varied by a parliamentary scheme implemented by The Charities (National Trust) Order 2005), it is also a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act
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    156
    Pasadena

    Pasadena

    Pasadena ( /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/) is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of 2010 United States Census, the population of Pasadena was 137,122, making it the 180th-largest city in the United States, down from 168th place in 2009. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, and on June 19, 1886, became the fourth to be incorporated in Los Angeles County, after Anaheim (March 18, 1876) and Santa Ana (June 1, 1886), which were part of Los Angeles County until Orange County was formed in 1889. It is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. Although famous for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and Tournament of Roses Parade, Pasadena is also the home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (actually in La Cañada Flintridge), Pasadena City College (PCC), Fuller Theological Seminary, Art Center College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Norton Simon Museum of Art and the Pacific Asia Museum. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pasadena had a population of 137,122. The population density was 5,928.8 people per square mile
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    157
    Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester

    Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester

    Thomas William Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester (6 May 1754 – 30 June 1842), known as Coke of Norfolk, was a British politician and agricultural reformer. Born to Wenman Coke, Member of Parliament (MP) for Derby and his wife Elizabeth, Coke was educated at several schools, including Eton College, before undertaking a Grand Tour of Europe. After returning to Britain and being married, Coke's father died, leaving him the owner of a 30,000 acre Norfolk estate. Returned to Parliament in 1776 for Norfolk, Coke became a close friend of Charles James Fox, and joined his Eton schoolmate William Windham in his support of the American colonists during the American Revolutionary War. As a supporter of Fox, Coke was one of the MPs who lost their seats in the 1784 general election, and he returned to Norfolk to work on farming, hunting, and the maintenance and expansion of Holkham Hall, his ancestral home. Coke was again returned to Parliament in 1790, sitting continuously until 1832, and he primarily spoke on matters of local interest, such as the Corn Laws. His second focus was on civil liberties, and he spoke out against the government's response to the Peterloo Massacre and similar events.
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    158
    United States Congress

    United States Congress

    The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate, its upper house, and the House of Representatives, its lower house. Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both representatives and senators are chosen through direct election. There are 535 voting Members of Congress(the House of Representatives' membership of 435 plus the Senate membership of 100). Members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, each state in the union having at least one representative in the Congress. Regardless of population, each of the 50 states has two senators; the 100 senators each serve a six-year term. The terms are staggered so every two years approximately one-third of the Senate is up for election. Each staggered group of one-third of the senators are called 'classes'. No state of the United States has two senators from the same class. Most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent. In
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    159
    University of London

    University of London

    The University of London is a federal public university based in London, United Kingdom. It comprises 18 constituent colleges, 10 research institutes and a number of central bodies. It is the second-largest university in the United Kingdom by number of full-time students, with around 135,000 campus-based students and over 50,000 distance learning students in the University of London International Programmes. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1836, which brought together in federation London University (now University College London) and King's College (now King's College London). For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate as individual universities, and some have recently obtained the power to award their own degrees whilst remaining in the federation. The nine largest colleges of the University are Birkbeck, Goldsmiths, King's College London, the London Business School, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway, the School of Oriental and African Studies, London School of Economics and Political Science and University College London. Formerly a constituent college, Imperial College London left the University of London in
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    160
    Warren Hastings

    Warren Hastings

    Warren Hastings PC (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818) was the first Governor-General of India, from 1773 to 1785. He was famously accused of corruption in an impeachment in 1787, but was acquitted in 1795. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1814. Warren Hastings was born at Churchill, Oxfordshire in 1732 to a poor father and a mother who died soon after he was born. He attended Westminster School where he was a contemporary of the future Prime Ministers Lord Shelburne and the Duke of Portland. He joined the British East India Company in 1750 as a clerk and sailed out to India reaching Calcutta in August 1750. Hastings built up a reputation for hard work and diligence, and spent his free time learning about India and mastering Urdu and Persian. He was rewarded for his work in 1752 when he was promoted and sent to Kasimbazar, an important British trading post in Bengal where he worked for William Watts. While there he received further lessons about the nature of Indian politics. At the time British traders still operated by the whim of local rulers and Hastings and his colleagues were unsettled by the political turmoil of Bengal with the elderly moderate Nawab Alivardi Khan likely to
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    161
    House of Borghese

    House of Borghese

    Borghese is the surname of a family of Italian noble and papal background, originating as the Borghese or Borghesi in Siena, where they came to prominence in the 13th century holding offices under the commune. The head of the family, Marcantonio, moved to Rome in the 16th century and there, following the election (1605) of his son Camillo as Pope Paul V they rose in power and wealth. They were one of the leading families of the Black Nobility and maintain close ties to the Vatican. The house originated with Tiezzo da Monticiano, a 13th century wool merchant in Siena, whose nephew Borghese gave his name to the family. Among the important Sienese Borghese are: The head of the family, Marcantonio, moved to Rome in 1541 and this Sienese family rapidly gained access to the upper echelons of Roman society, culminating in the election (1605) of Marcantonio's son Camillo Borghese as Pope Paul V. Paul V was an unabashed nepotist, naming his brother Francesco (1556–1620) Duke of Rignano and general of the papal army, his other brother Giambattista (1554–1609) Governor of the Borgo and castellan of Castel Sant'Angelo, and his sister Ortensia's son Scipione Caffarelli (1577–1633), becoming
    6.00
    3 votes
    162
    Max Reinhardt

    Max Reinhardt

    Max Reinhardt (September 9, 1873 – October 30, 1943) was an Austrian-born American stage and film actor and director. Reinhardt was born Maximilian Goldmann, of Jewish ancestry, in Baden bei Wien, Austria-Hungary. From 1902 until the beginning of Nazi rule in 1933, he worked as a director at various theaters in Berlin. From 1905 to 1930 he managed the Deutsches Theater ("German Theatre") in Berlin and, in addition, the Theater in der Josefstadt in Vienna from 1924 to 1933. By employing powerful staging techniques, and harmonising stage design, language, music and choreography, Reinhardt introduced new dimensions into German theatre. The Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, which is arguably the most important German-language acting school, was installed implementing his ideas. Siegfried Jacobsen wrote Max Reinhardt in 1910. In 1920, Reinhardt established the Salzburg Festival with Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, notably directing an annual production of the morality play Everyman about God sending Death to summon a representative of mankind for judgment. After the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi-governed Germany in 1938, he emigrated first to England, then to the United States,
    6.00
    3 votes
    163
    Tobias Lear

    Tobias Lear

    Tobias Lear (1762 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire – October 11, 1816 in Washington, D.C.) is best known as the personal secretary to President George Washington. Lear served Washington from 1784 until the former-President's death in 1799. Through Lear's journal, we receive the account of Washington's final moments and his last words: 'Tis well. Tobias Lear also served as President Thomas Jefferson's envoy to Saint-Domingue, and as peace envoy in the Mediterranean during the Barbary Wars. He was responsible for negotiating a peace that ended the first Barbary War. Lear was born on Hunking Street in the seaport town of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on September 19, 1762, a fifth-generation American and the fifth generation of his family named Tobias His father, also Tobias Lear (born August 1, 1737) (cousin of John Langdon) and his mother was Mary Stillson Lear (born May 25, 1739). His parents were married on December 29, 1757. The family home on Hunking Street had been built in 1742 by the Stillson family. Lear had an older sister named Mary (Polly). Before going to college, Lear attended Dummer Charity School (now known as The Governor's Academy) where Samuel Moody helped prepare Lear
    6.00
    3 votes
    164
    Iceland

    Iceland

    Iceland /ˈaɪslənd/ (Icelandic: Ísland, IPA: [ˈislant]) is a Nordic European island country situated at the confluence of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The country has a population of about 320,000 and a total area of 103,000 km (40,000 sq mi), which makes it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with the surrounding areas in the southwestern region of the country being home to two-thirds of the country's population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists mainly of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. According to Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in AD 874 when the chieftain Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent Norse settler on the island. Others had visited the island earlier and stayed over winter. Over the following centuries, Norsemen settled Iceland, bringing with them thralls (slaves) of Gaelic origin. From 1262 to 1918,
    5.67
    3 votes
    165
    Mary Hallock Foote

    Mary Hallock Foote

    Mary Hallock Foote (1847–1938) was an American author and illustrator. She is best known for her illustrated short stories and novels portraying life in the mining communities of the turn-of-the-century American West. Mary Hallock was born November 9, 1847, in Milton, New York, of English Quaker ancestry. A singular girl and youth, she attended the Female Collegiate Seminary in Poughkeepsie, New York, then studied art in New York City at the new Cooper Institute School of Design for Women. By her early twenties she had become established in New York City as an accomplished artist-illustrator for notable publishers there. In 1876 Hallock married a young mining engineer, Arthur De Wint Foote, then moved cross-continent to live with him at the New Almaden mine near San Jose, California. Subsequently, as Arthur pursued his engineering career, she followed him throughout the West; to Leadville, Colorado, to Deadwood, South Dakota, then to Boise, Idaho, where Arthur originated a major irrigation project on the Boise River; then to Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico, and finally to Grass Valley, California, where Arthur advanced to managing the North Star mine, and retired there. Arthur and
    5.67
    3 votes
    166
    Pia Zadora

    Pia Zadora

    Pia Zadora (born May 4, 1954) is an American actress and singer. After working as a child actress on Broadway, in regional theater, and in the film Santa Claus Conquers the Martians (1964), she came to national attention in 1981 when, following her starring role in the highly criticized Butterfly, she won a Golden Globe Award as New Star of the Year. When her film career failed to take off, she became a singer of popular standards and made several successful albums backed by a symphonic orchestra; as a singer she earned a measure of respect from critics who had previously written her off as an actress. Zadora was born Pia Alfreda Schipani in Hoboken, New Jersey. Her mother, Saturnina "Nina" (née Zadorowski), was a theatrical wardrobe supervisor for Broadway productions, the Metropolitan Opera, and the New York City Opera, and her father, Alphonse Schipani, a violinist. She is of Polish maternal and Italian paternal descent. She adapted part of her mother's maiden name as her stage name. Zadora appeared as a child actress with Tallulah Bankhead in Midgie Purvis. She played the youngest sister (Bielke) in the Broadway production of Fiddler on the Roof (1964–1966). Zadora's first
    5.67
    3 votes
    167
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (U of I, University of Illinois, UIUC, or simply Illinois) is a public research-intensive university in the U.S. state of Illinois. It is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is the second oldest public university in the state, second to Illinois State University, and is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. It is considered a Public Ivy and is a member of the Association of American Universities. The university is designated as a RU/VH Research University (very high research activities). The campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States and the fifth-largest in the country overall. The university comprises 17 colleges that offer more than 150 programs of study. Additionally, the university operates an extension that serves 2.7 million registrants per year around the state of Illinois and beyond. The campus holds 286 buildings on 1,468 acres (594 ha) in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; its annual operating budget in 2011 was over $1.7 billion. The Morrill Act of 1862 granted each state in the United States a
    5.67
    3 votes
    168
    University of Melbourne

    University of Melbourne

    The University of Melbourne is a Australian public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. The main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb just north of the Melbourne CBD. The university also has several other campuses located across Victoria. It is a member of Australia's "Group of Eight" lobby group, the Universitas 21 and Association of Pacific Rim Universities networks. In 2010, it reported an investment fund value of AU$1.173B and spent $767.5m on research. The university has been placed top in Australia by the Times Higher Education Rankings (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013), HEEACT(Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan), and Academic Ranking of World Universities(2011 and 2012). The latest Rankings of Times Higher Education ranked The University of Melbourne No.28 in the world, up from 37 last year, ranked number two in the Asia region and 31st in the world by QS 2011-2012 ranking. The university's coat of arms is a blue shield on which a depiction of Victory in white colour holds her laurel wreath over the stars of the Southern Cross. The motto,
    5.67
    3 votes
    169
    Daniel Snyder

    Daniel Snyder

    Daniel M. Snyder (born November 23, 1965 in Silver Spring, Maryland) is the current owner of the Washington Redskins American football team, owner of the Dick Clark Productions television production company, and primary investor in Red Zebra Broadcasting, which is home to the Redskins Radio Network. Snyder has a net worth of $1.1 billion. The Redskins have experienced just three winning seasons during the tenure of his presidency, while undergoing numerous coaching and quarterback changes that have been controversial. Snyder was raised in a Jewish family in Maryland. His father, Gerry Snyder, was a free-lance writer who wrote for United Press International and National Geographic. His first job was at B. Dalton bookstore at the age of 14. At 17, Snyder experienced his first business failure when he partnered with his father to sell bus-trip packages to Washington Capitals fans to see their hockey team play in Philadelphia. He was disappointed when he found his fliers littering the streets after a tough loss. By age 20, he had dropped out of the University of Maryland, College Park and was running his own business, leasing jets to fly college students to spring break in Fort
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton

    Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton

    Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton PRA (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton, Bt, between 1886 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical, biblical and classical subject matter. Leighton was bearer of the shortest-lived peerage in history; after only one day his hereditary peerage ended with his death. Leighton was born in Scarborough to a family in the import and export business. He was educated at University College School, London. He then received his artistic training on the European continent, first from Eduard Von Steinle and then from Giovanni Costa. When in Florence, aged 24, where he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti, he painted the procession of the Cimabue Madonna through the Borgo Allegri. He lived in Paris from 1855 to 1859, where he met Ingres, Delacroix, Corot and Millet. In 1860, he moved to London, where he associated with the Pre-Raphaelites. He designed Elizabeth Barrett Browning's tomb for Robert Browning in the English Cemetery, Florence in 1861. In 1864 he became an associate of the Royal Academy and in 1878 he became its President (1878–96). His 1877 sculpture, Athlete Wrestling with a
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    Hamilton Cuffe, 5th Earl of Desart

    Hamilton Cuffe, 5th Earl of Desart

    Hamilton John Agmondesham Cuffe, 5th Earl of Desart, KP, KCB, PC (30 August 1848 – 4 November 1934) was an Irish peer and solicitor. Cuffe was the second son of John Cuffe, 3rd Earl of Desart and his wife, Elizabeth, the third daughter of John Campbell, 1st Earl Cawdor. In his early life he was a midshipman in the Royal Navy before becoming a barrister in 1872. In 1877 he was appointed as a secretary to the Judicature Committee and as a solicitor to The Treasury a year later. In 1894 he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath and as Treasury Solicitor that year, as well as Queen's Proctor and Director of Public Prosecutions. On inheriting the earldom of Desart from his elder brother, William (who died without heirs male) in 1898, he was promoted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath. In 1909, Dysart was created Baron Desart in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which enabled him to sit in the House of Lords (his other titles being in the Peerage of Ireland, which did not entitle him to a seat). In 1913, he was sworn of the Privy Council and appointed a Knight of St Patrick in 1919. Participated as an Unionist delegate to the 1917-18 Irish Convention. He was also
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Midland Railway

    Midland Railway

    The Midland Railway (MR) was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1844 to 1922, when it became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. The Midland Railway had a large network of lines centred on the East Midlands, with its headquarters based in Derby. Initially connecting Leeds with London (St Pancras) via the East Midlands by what is now the Midland Main Line, it went on to connect the East Midlands with Birmingham and Bristol, and with York and Manchester. It was the only pre-grouping railway to own or share lines in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, becoming the third largest railway undertaking in the British Isles (after the Great Western and the London & North Western), the largest coal haulier, the largest British railway to have its headquarters outside London, and (after the Great Central railway moved its HQ to London in 1907) the only railway serving London not to have its headquarters there and the only Midlands-based railway directly serving Southern England and South Wales. The Midland Railway Consolidation Act was passed in 1844 authorising the merger of the Midland Counties Railway, the North Midland Railway, and the Birmingham and Derby
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Nikita Wu

    Nikita Wu

    Nikita Wu (born Wu Chi-Ling 巫祈麟, 1975 in Taipei Taiwan) is a Taiwanese actress, writer and arts manager. She has curated the Future Pavilion of the Taiwan Design Expo 2005, and the Venice Architecture Biennale 2006 Taiwan Pavilion in co-operation with Roan Chin-Yueh and C-Laboratory.
    Nikita Wu's cross-over artistic career covers various fields of art and architecture as a former independent record producer, senior staff reporter in alternative Taiwanese weekly magazine POTS and art manager for C-Laboratory. She is the editor of the Taiwan Design Expo´s free experimental newspaper PePo. 
    Besides artistic activities Nikita Wu is also known as a professional salmon drift net hanger in the Bering Sea based Watzituya net-hanging shop in Naknek, Alaska.
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company

    R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company

    The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR), based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and founded by R. J. Reynolds in 1875, is the second-largest tobacco company in the U.S. (behind Altria Group). RJR is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc. which in turn is 42% owned by British American Tobacco of the United Kingdom. The son of a tobacco farmer in Virginia, R. J. Reynolds sold his shares of his father's company in Patrick County, Virginia, and ventured to the nearest town with a railroad connection, Winston-Salem, to start his own tobacco company. He bought his first factory building from the Moravian Church and established the "little red factory" with seasonal workers. The first year, he produced 150,000 pounds of tobacco; by the 1890s, production had increased to several million pounds a year. The company's factory buildings were the largest buildings in Winston-Salem, with new technologies such as steam power and electric lights. The second primary factory building, built in 1892, is the oldest Reynolds factory still standing and was sold to Forsyth County in 1990. At the beginning of the 1900s, Reynolds bought most of the competing tobacco factories in
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany

    Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany

    Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany (c. 1340 – 3 September 1420), a member of the Scottish royal house, served as Regent (at least partially) to three different Scottish monarchs (Robert II, Robert III, and James I). He also held the titles of Earl of Menteith (28 February 1361), Earl of Fife (1361; resigned in 1372), Earl of Buchan (1394; resigned in 1406) and Earl of Atholl (1403, for the duration of Robert III's life only), in addition to his 1398 creation as Duke of Albany. A ruthless politician, Albany was widely regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, and brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as Regent in Scotland, king in all but name. He died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who would be executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425, causing the almost complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts. Robert Stewart was an illegitimate son of the future King Robert II of Scotland (1316–1390) and of Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan. He was legitimated in 1349 by his parents' marriage. Robert's grandfather was
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    YMCA

    YMCA

    The Young Men's Christian Association (commonly known as YMCA or simply the Y) is a worldwide organisation with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations. It was founded on 6 June 1844 in London and it aims to put Christian principles into practice by developing a healthy "body, mind and spirit". These three angles are reflected by the different sides of the (red) triangle – part of all YMCA logos. The different local YMCAs are voluntarily affiliated through their national organisations. The national organisations in turn are part of both an Area Alliance and the World Alliance of YMCAs. The World Alliance's main motto is: "Empowering young people" and it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The oldest organisation that was similar to the YMCA is the Swiss Basel Association, founded in 1787 as the Lediger Verein. In 1834, the Bremen Jünglingsverein was founded in northern Germany. The Nazis would close all German Jünglingsvereine in the 1930s, but they would be re-established after the war as CVJMs. The oldest association in the United Kingdom similar to the YMCA was founded in Scotland in 1824 as Glasgow Young Men's Society for Religious Improvement.
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Eurostar

    Eurostar

    Eurostar is a high-speed railway service connecting London with Paris and Brussels. All its trains traverse the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France, owned and operated separately by Eurotunnel. The London terminus is St Pancras International, with the other British calling points being at Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International in Kent. Calling points in France are Calais-Fréthun and Lille-Europe, with the main Paris terminus at Gare du Nord. Trains to Belgium terminate at Midi/Zuid station in Brussels. In addition, there are limited services from London to Disneyland Paris at Marne-la-Vallée – Chessy, and to seasonal destinations in southern France. The service is operated by eighteen-coach Class 373/1 trains which run at up to 300 kilometres per hour (186 mph) on a network of high-speed lines. The LGV Nord line in France opened before Eurostar services began in 1994, and newer lines enabling faster journeys were added later—HSL 1 in Belgium and High Speed 1 in southern England. The French and Belgian parts of the network are shared with Paris–Brussels Thalys services and also with TGV trains. In the United Kingdom the two-stage Channel Tunnel Rail Link
    4.75
    4 votes
    178
    Eleonore Gonzaga

    Eleonore Gonzaga

    For other women of the same name, see Eleanor Gonzaga (disambiguation) Eleonora Gonzaga (23 September 1598 – 27 June 1655) was the second wife of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen of Germany, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. Born in Mantua in 1598, Eleonora was the youngest daughter of duke Vincenzo I of Gonzaga of Mantua and Eleonora de' Medici. Eleonora spent her childhood at the court of Mantua. Famous for her singular beauty, she married Ferdinand in Innsbruck on 2 February 1622. Ferdinand's previous wife Maria Anna of Bavaria had died in 1616, but the Gonzaga family did not — as expected — profit from this connection, because some of Ferdinand's counsellors rejected the marriage. The Imperial troops even captured and destroyed Mantua in the War of the Mantuan Succession (in 1630). The papal Nuncio Caraffa described Eleonora not only as beautiful but also as pious. For example she established Carmelite convents in both Graz and Vienna. The royal couple had no children, but Eleonora became stepmother to Ferdinand's four surviving children from his previous marriage. Eleonora died in Vienna in 1655 and was first buried in the Carmelite
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    John Passmore Edwards

    John Passmore Edwards

    John Passmore Edwards (24 March 1823 – 22 April 1911) was a British journalist, newspaper owner and philanthropist. The son of a carpenter, he was born in Blackwater, a small village between Redruth and Truro in Cornwall, United Kingdom. His mother's maiden name was Passmore and she originated from Newton Abbot, Devon. He became the Manchester representative of London Sentinel, a weekly newspaper, opposed to the Corn Law. He was a Liberal Member of Parliament for Salisbury, He became the editor of a leading London newspaper The Echo which he had bought in 1876. His publishing ventures had been failures for a time, but his 1862 purchase of Building News led to profitability; this was followed by Mechanics Magazine and a share in the daily Echo. He eventually sold two thirds of his share in The Echo to Andrew Carnegie to follow a political and social agenda. However, they disagreed and he bought it back and restored his editor in 1886. The paper closed in 1905. He was a delegate to peace congresses in Brussels, Paris, and Frankfurt (from 1848 to 1850). He stood as an Independent candidate for Truro in the General Election of 1868. He didn't win this seat but in 1880 he gained the
    7.00
    1 votes
    180
    Nederlander Organization

    Nederlander Organization

    The Nederlander Organization, founded in 1912 by David T. Nederlander and based in Detroit, Michigan, is one of the largest operators of legitimate theatres and music venues in the United States. Its first acquisition was a lease on the Detroit Opera House in 1912. The building was demolished in 1928. It later operated the Shubert Lafayette Theatre until its demolition in 1964 and the Riviera Theatre, both in Detroit. Since then, the organization has grown to include nine Broadway theatres – making it the second-largest owner of Broadway theatres after the Shubert Organization – and a number of theaters across the United States, including its current Detroit base in the Fisher Building, plus three West End theatres in London, England.
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    Shah Jahan

    Shah Jahan

    Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan,(Urdu: شاه ‌جہاں, Persian:شاه جهان) (January 5, 1592–January 22, 1666) was emperor of the Mughal Empire in South Asia from 1628 until 1658. The name Shah Jahan comes from Persian, meaning "Ruler of Everywhere". He was the fifth Mughal emperor after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. While young, he was the favourite of his legendary grandfather, Akbar the Great. Alahazar Kabulmuzafar Sahbuddin Mohammad Shahjahan At a young age, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of Emperor Jahangir. He succeeded to the throne upon his father's death in 1627. He is considered to be one of the greatest Mughals. His reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658, he fell ill and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in Agra Fort until his death in 1666. The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shahanshah Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built in 1632-1648 as a tomb for his beloved wife, Empress Mumtaz Mahal. The
    7.00
    1 votes
    182
    George IV of the United Kingdom

    George IV of the United Kingdom

    George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and also of Hanover from the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's relapse into mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle that contributed to the fashions of the British Regency. He was a patron of new forms of leisure, style, and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, and Sir Jeffry Wyatville to rebuild Windsor Castle. He was instrumental in the foundation of the National Gallery, London and King's College London. He had a poor relationship with both his father and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, whom he even forbade to attend his coronation. He introduced the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful, attempt to divorce his wife. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister. George's governments, with little help from the King, presided over victory in the Napoleonic
    5.33
    3 votes
    183
    Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi

    Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi

    Gladys Vanderbilt Széchenyi (August 27, 1886 – January 29, 1965) was an American heiress from the prominent American Vanderbilt family, and the wife of a Hungarian count. Countess Széchenyi was born Gladys Moore Vanderbilt, in 1886, the seventh and youngest child of Alice Claypoole Gwynne with Cornelius Vanderbilt II, the President and Chairman of the New York Central Railroad. Gladys grew up in the family home on Fifth Avenue in New York City, and their summer "cottage", The Breakers in Newport, Rhode Island. Her first cousin was Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough. Gladys Vanderbilt married Hungarian Count László Széchenyi on January 27, 1908 in New York City. The couple visited Hungary almost every summer with their five daughters: Countess Széchenyi died in 1965. Her daughter, Countess Sylvia Szapáry maintained a residence at her grandparents' summer "cottage", The Breakers until her death on March 1, 1998.
    5.33
    3 votes
    184
    Maricopa County

    Maricopa County

    Maricopa County ( /ˌmærɨˈkoʊpə/ MARR-i-KOH-pə) is located in the south-central part of the U.S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,817,117, the most populous in the state, which ranks fourth among the nation's counties and is greater than the population of 23 states. Maricopa County is also one of the largest counties in the United States by area having a land area greater than that of seven states. The county seat is Phoenix, which is Arizona's largest city and capital. The center of population of Arizona is located in Maricopa County, in the town of Gilbert. It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is also the largest county in the United States to contain a capital city. The population explosion is evident in a 2007 Forbes study which ranked four of Maricopa County's municipalities in the top ten fastest-growing cities in the nation. Those included Buckeye as the second-fastest-growing city, Surprise and Goodyear as 3rd and 4th, and Avondale as 9th. All four of these cities are located in the growing "West Valley", which is the area of Maricopa County to the west of the city of Phoenix. There
    5.33
    3 votes
    185
    Duke of Devonshire

    Duke of Devonshire

    Duke of Devonshire is a title in the Peerage of England held by members of the Cavendish family. This branch of the Cavendish family has been one of the richest and most influential aristocratic families in England since the 16th century, and have been rivalled in political influence perhaps only by the Marquesses of Salisbury and the Russels of Bedford Although in modern usage the county of Devon is now rarely called 'Devonshire', the title remained 'Duke of Devonshire'. Despite the title of the dukedom and the subsidiary title, the earldom of Devonshire, the family estates are centred in Derbyshire. It should not be confused with the earlier title, Earl of Devon. The Cavendish family descends from Sir John Cavendish, who took his name from the village of Cavendish, Suffolk, where he held an estate in the 14th century. He served as Chief Justice of the King's Bench from 1372 to 1381, and was killed in the Peasants' Revolt. Two of his great-grandsons were George Cavendish, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey's biographer, and George's younger brother Sir William Cavendish. Sir William gained great wealth from his position in the Exchequer and also, as it was alleged, from unfairly taking
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Ippolito II d'Este

    Ippolito II d'Este

    Ippolito (II) d'Este (August 25, 1509 – December 2, 1572) was an Italian cardinal and statesman. He was a member of the House of Este, and nephew of the other Ippolito d'Este, also a cardinal. Ippolito was born in Ferrara, Italy, the second son of Duke Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia. His elder brother, Ercole II d'Este, succeeded his father as Duke of Ferrara in 1534. Through their mother, Ippolito and Ercole were grandsons of Pope Alexander VI. Ippolito himself is named after his uncle, Cardinal Ippolito d'Este. In 1519 at the age of 10 he inherited the archbishopric of Milan from his uncle. This was the first of a long list of ecclesiastical benefices which Ippolito was given over time, the revenue from which was his main source of income. In addition to Milan, at the end of his life Ippolito also held the benefices of the sees/abbeys of Bondeno, Chaalis (1540–1572), Jumieges in Normandy, Lyon, Narbonne, and Saint-Médard in Soissons. Ippolito d'Este was created Cardinal of Santa Maria in Aquiro by Pope Paul III in the consistory on 20 December 1538. He was only ordained a priest in 1564. A lover of luxuries and magnificence, he overhauled the Palazzo San Francesco in
    6.00
    2 votes
    187
    Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd.

    Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd.

    Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. (MLSE) is a professional sports company based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Among its properties are the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League, the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association, the Toronto FC of Major League Soccer, and the Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League. MLSE is also involved in property management, including ownership of the Air Canada Centre, the home arena of the Maple Leafs and Raptors. The corporation's roots were established in 1927, after Conn Smythe organized a group of investors to purchase Toronto's premier hockey franchise, which had earned Stanley Cup championships in 1918 (as the Toronto Arenas) and 1922 (as the Toronto St. Pats), and renamed it the Maple Leafs. In 1931, a corporate reorganization resulted in the formation of Maple Leaf Gardens Ltd. (MLGL; based at the arena of the same name), with the Maple Leafs hockey team as the leading subsidiary. Supermarket tycoon Steve Stavro led a group to buy the Maple Leafs from the estate of the late Harold Ballard in 1991. Larry Tanenbaum became a partner in 1996 with a 20% stake in MLGL. MLGL purchased the Toronto Raptors and Air
    6.00
    2 votes
    188
    Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester

    Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester

    Thomas William Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester KG (26 December 1822–24 January 1909), known as Viscount Coke from 1837 to 1842, was a British peer. Leicester was the son of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester, by his second wife Lady Anne Amelia Keppel. He succeeded in the earldom on his father's death in 1842. Lord Leicester served as Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk from 1846 to 1906 and was a member of the Council of the Duchy of Cornwall and Keeper of the Privy Seal. In 1873 he was made a Knight of the Garter. Lord Leicester married firstly, Juliana Whitbread (d. 1870), a granddaughter of Henry Trevor, 21st Baron Dacre, on 20 April 1843. They had nine children: Lord Leicester married secondly, the Honourable Georgina Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 2nd Baron Chesham, on 26 August 1875. They had six children:
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Toyota Motor Corporation

    Toyota Motor Corporation

    Toyota Motor Corporation (トヨタ自動車株式会社, Toyota Jidōsha KK, IPA: [toꜜjota]) /tɔɪˈoʊtə/, abbreviated TMC, is a Japanese multinational automaker headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2010, Toyota employed 300,734 people worldwide, and was the largest automobile manufacturer in 2010 by production. Toyota is the eleventh largest company in the world by revenue. In July 2012 the company reported that it had manufactured its 200 millionth vehicle. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation group companies are Toyota (including the Scion brand), Lexus, Daihatsu and Hino Motors, along with several "non-automotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi. Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo, Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota
    6.00
    2 votes
    190
    United Kingdom Forestry Commission

    United Kingdom Forestry Commission

    The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in Great Britain. It was set up in 1919 to expand Britain's forests and woodland after depletion during the First World War. To do this the commission bought large amounts of former agricultural land, eventually becoming the largest land owner in Britain. The Commission is divided in to three national organisations; Forestry Commission Scotland and Forestry Commission Wales report to the relevant devolved authorities. Over time the purpose of the Commission broadened to include many other activities beyond timber production. One major activity is scientific research, some of which is carried out in research forests across Britain. Recreation is also important, with several outdoor activities being actively promoted. Protecting and improving biodiversity across Britain's forests are both part of the Forestry Commission's remit. The Commission received criticism for its reliance on conifers, particularly the uniform appearance of conifer forests and concerns over a lack of biodiversity. Protests from the general public and conservation groups accompanied attempts to privatise the organisation
    6.00
    2 votes
    191
    University of Salzburg

    University of Salzburg

    The University of Salzburg, or Paris Lodron University (German Universität Salzburg) after its founder, the Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron, is located in the Austrian city of Salzburg, Salzburgerland, home of Mozart. It is divided into 4 faculties: catholic theology, law, humanities and natural science. Founded in 1622, it today has c. 18,000 students and c. 1,600 employees. It is the biggest educational institution in the province of Salzburg. The Paris Lodron University in Salzburg was founded by Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron in 1622. It was an addition to a "Gymnasium", a secondary school that had been founded in 1617. The University was initially set up and maintained by a federation of Benedictine abbeys from Salzburg, Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria. In the early years, the courses taught were theology, divinity, philosophy as well as law and medicine. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Salzburg was secularised in the early 19th century. Prince Ferdinand, a brother of Emperor Franz I. of Austria, established the first Faculty of Medicine. After Salzburg was annexed by Bavaria in 1810, the University was closed and dissolved on the 24th of December. To replace the
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel

    Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel

    Admiral Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel PC (25 April 1725 – 2 October 1786) was an officer of the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War and the War of American Independence. During the final years of the latter conflict he served as First Lord of the Admiralty. A member of a leading Whig aristocratic family (which had come to England with William of Orange in 1688), Augustus Keppel was the second son of Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle and Anne van Keppel, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Richmond (himself an illegitimate son of King Charles II). Augustus Keppel went to sea at the age of ten, and had already five years of service to his credit when he was appointed to the Centurion and sent with Lord Anson round the world in 1740. He had a narrow escape from being killed at the capture of Paita (13 November 1741), and was named acting lieutenant in 1742. Also on this voyage, he made friends with John Campbell, and lost many of his teeth to the scurvy prevalent on the voyage. After their return from the circumnavigation, in 1744, he was promoted to be Commander and Post Captain. He was actively employed throughout the rest of the War of the Austrian Succession, until
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    2 votes
    193
    Marcantonio Barbaro

    Marcantonio Barbaro

    Marcantonio Barbaro (1518–1595) was an Italian diplomat of the Republic of Venice. He was born in Venice into the aristocratic Barbaro family. His father was Francesco di Daniele Barbaro and his mother Elena Pisani, daughter of the banker Alvise Pisani and Cecilia Giustinian. Barbaro married Guistina Giustiniani in 1534 and they had four sons, one of which, Francesco, became Patriarch of Aquileia, and another, Alvise, married a daughter of Jacopo Foscarini. On the death of Francesco Barbaro, Marcantonio and his elder brother Daniele Barbaro jointly inherited a country estate at Maser. There was already a house on the estate, but the brothers replaced it with a new house designed for them by the architect Palladio; this Villa Barbaro is now preserved as part of the World Heritage Site "City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto". The brothers probably had some input in the design of the building. Daniele was a published author whose interests included architecture. Marcantonio Barbaro was an amateur sculptor, and seems to have focused mainly on the garden of the new house (in particular, a water feature, the nymphaeum). Towards the end of Palladio's life, Marcantonio
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    2 votes
    194
    Merck & Co.

    Merck & Co.

    Merck & Co., Inc. (NYSE: MRK), dba Merck Sharp & Dohme, MSD outside the United States and Canada, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Merck headquarters is located in Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. The company was established in 1891 as the United States subsidiary of the German company now known as Merck KGaA. Merck & Co. was confiscated by the US government during World War I and subsequently established as an independent American company. It is currently one of the world's seven largest pharmaceutical companies by market capitalization and revenue. The company describes itself as "a global research-driven pharmaceutical company" that "discovers, develops, manufactures and markets a broad range of innovative products to improve human and animal health, directly and through its joint ventures". Merck also publishes The Merck Manuals, a series of medical reference books for physicians, nurses, and technicians. These include the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the Merck Index, a compendium of chemical compounds. In 2011 the company received the "Facility of the Year"-Award for the integration of its
    5.50
    2 votes
    195
    National Gallery of Art

    National Gallery of Art

    The National Gallery of Art and its Sculpture Garden are a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was established in 1937 for the people of the United States of America by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection also includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Brown Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile ever created by Alexander Calder. The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m) Sculpture Garden.
    5.50
    2 votes
    196
    Royal Dutch Shell

    Royal Dutch Shell

    Royal Dutch Shell plc (LSE: RDSA, RDSB), commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's second largest company by 2011 revenues and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors". Shell is also one of the world's most valuable companies. As of September 2012, its largest shareholder is BlackRock with 5% stake, while the Qatar Investment Authority has announced a plan to raise its stake from below 3% to 7%. Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It also has major renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, hydrogen, solar and wind power. It has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As
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    2 votes
    197
    Sir Robert McAlpine

    Sir Robert McAlpine

    Sir Robert McAlpine is a private British company headquartered in London. It carries out engineering and construction for the oil and gas, petrochemical, power generation, nuclear, pharmaceutical, defence, chemical, water and mining industries. Sir Robert McAlpine, 1st Baronet who founded the eponymous company was born in 1847 in the Scottish village of Newarthill near Motherwell. From the age of seven he worked in the nearby coal mines, leaving at 16 to become an apprentice bricklayer. Later, working for an engineer, he progressed to being foreman before starting to work on his own account at the age of 22 (1869). He had no capital other than that he could earn himself and his first contract involving the employment of other men had to be financed by borrowing £11 from the butcher. From there, McAlpine enjoyed rapid success; the early contracts centred on his own trade of bricklaying and by 1874 he was the owner of two brickyards and an employer of 1,000 men. (It was on one of the housing estates he built that he first experimented with using concrete blocks as well as bricks, from which he earned the nickname `concrete Bob). With the capital he had acquired, McAlpine determined
    5.50
    2 votes
    198
    House of Medici

    House of Medici

    The House of Medici or Famiglia de' Medici (/ˈmɛdɨtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [de ˈmɛːditʃi]) was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to found the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained simply citizens rather than monarchs. The Medici produced four Popes of the Catholic Church—Pope Leo X (1513–1521), Pope Clement VII (1523–1534), Pope Pius IV (1559–1565), and Pope Leo XI (1605); two regent queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici (1600–1610); and, in 1531, the family became hereditary Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. They ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but
    4.67
    3 votes
    199
    Brixton plc

    Brixton plc

    Brixton plc (LSE: BXTN) is a British-based property business headquartered in London. It is a former constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. The firm switched to Real Estate Investment Trust status when REITs were introduced in the United Kingdom in January 2007. The company was founded in 1924 by Percy Mayer as Brixton Estate Limited to acquire a 6-acre (24,000 m) site at Brixton Road in London. In 1945 the company began to build up a portfolio by acquiring properties damaged by bombing during World War II. In 1997 the company decided to focus on industrial properties to the West of London and in 2001 the name changed to Brixton plc. In 2007 the company converted to a real estate investment trust. In August 2009 Brixton was taken over by SEGRO. The company owns a portfolio of circa 25 m sq. ft. of industrial and commercial properties in the West London area. The main properties are at: At 31 December 2008 its portfolio was valued at £1.6bn.
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    1 votes
    200
    Canadian National Railway Company

    Canadian National Railway Company

    The Canadian National Railway Company (reporting mark CN) (TSX: CNR, NYSE: CNI) is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad". CN is the largest railway in Canada, in terms of both revenue and the physical size of its rail network, and is currently Canada's only transcontinental railway company, spanning Canada from the Atlantic coast in Nova Scotia to the Pacific coast in British Columbia. Following CN's purchase of Illinois Central (IC) and a number of smaller US railways it also has extensive trackage in the central United States along the Mississippi River valley from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Today CN owns approximately 20,400 route miles (32,831 km) of track in 8 provinces (the only two not served by CN are Newfoundland & Labrador and Prince Edward Island), as well as a 70-mile (113 km) stretch of track into the Northwest Territories to Hay River on the southern shore of Great Slave Lake; it is the northernmost rail line anywhere within the North American Rail Network, as far north as Anchorage, Alaska. (although the Alaska Railroad goes further north than this, it is isolated from the rest of the rail
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    1 votes
    201
    César Ritz

    César Ritz

    César Ritz (23 February 1850 – 24 October 1918) was a Swiss hotelier and founder of several hotels, most famously the Hôtel Ritz, in Paris and The Ritz Hotel in London. His nickname was "king of hoteliers, and hotelier to kings," and it is from his name and that of his hotels that the term ritzy derives. Ritz was born in the Swiss village of Niederwald, the youngest of 13 children in a poor peasant family. At the age of twelve he was sent as a boarder to the Jesuit college at Sion, and at fifteen, having shown only vaguely artistic leanings, was apprenticed as a wine waiter at a hotel in Brieg. Dismissed after a year as an unsuitable candidate for the hotel trade, he returned briefly to the Jesuits as sacristan, then left to seek his fortune in Paris at the time of the 1867 Universal Exhibition. Ritz's formative five years in Paris, including the siege of 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, gave him sufficient polish and confidence to transform himself from a waiter and general factotum into a maître d'hôtel, manager, and eventually hotelier. Beginning with the humblest of hotel jobs, he moved on to waiting in restaurants and was employed at the high-class Restaurant Voisin
    6.00
    1 votes
    202
    James McNeill Whistler

    James McNeill Whistler

    James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based artist. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo, "art for art's sake". His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail. The symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings "arrangements", "harmonies", and "nocturnes", emphasizing the primacy of tonal harmony. His most famous painting is Whistler's Mother (1871), the revered and oft parodied portrait of motherhood. Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers. James Abbott Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts. He was the first child born to Anna Matilda McNeill and George Washington Whistler, a prominent engineer. She was his father's second wife. At the Ruskin trial (see below), Whistler claimed the more exotic St.
    6.00
    1 votes
    203
    Kempinski

    Kempinski

    Kempinski Hotels S.A. is a luxury hotel group. Kempinski Hotels, the trading name for Kempinski Hotels S.A., is an independent Swiss delisted S.A., which is involved in a number of luxury hotel and hospitality related businesses, including conference, catering and hotel supplies. Kempinski Hotels now owns and runs an international portfolio of 62 hotels. A further 43 hotels are either under final development or construction in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia. Today, Kempinski is majority owned by the Crown Property Bureau of Thailand. Kempinski is also a Member of the Global Hotel Alliance with currently comprises Anantara Hotels & Resorts, First Hotels, Doyle Collection, Kempinski, Leela, Lungarno Collection, Marco Polo, Mirvac Hotels & Resorts, Mokara Hotels & Spas, Omni Hotels & Resorts, Pan Pacific, PARKROYAL Hotels & Resorts, Shaza Hotels and Tivoli Hotels & Resorts encompassing nearly 300 luxury hotels with over 65,000 rooms in 51 different countries. The CEO of Kempinski, Reto Witwer, is a Swiss National (2008).
    6.00
    1 votes
    204
    United States Department of State

    United States Department of State

    The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries. The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established. The Department is headquartered in the Harry S. Truman Building located at 2201 C Street, NW, a few blocks from the White House in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U.S. diplomacy efforts. The Department is led by the Secretary of State, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Secretary of State is Hillary Clinton. The Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession. The U.S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in 1787 and ratified by the states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's
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    1 votes
    205
    William Chapman Ralston

    William Chapman Ralston

    William "Billy" Chapman Ralston (January 12, 1826 - August 27, 1875) was a San Francisco, California businessman and financier, and was the founder of the Bank of California. William Chapman Ralston was born at Wellsville, Ohio on January 12, 1826, the son of Robert Ralston III and Mary Wilcoxen Chapman. He was known as "Chap" when he was young. With riches derived from Nevada's Comstock Lode, he became one of the richest and most powerful men in California. He founded the Bank of California and was known for having a nothing-is-impossible attitude. He built Ralston Hall in Belmont, California as a summer home. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is now part of the campus of Notre Dame de Namur University. He built the California Theatre on Bush Street in San Francisco, which opened on January 18, 1869. His dream was the construction of the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, California at the corner of New Montgomery and Market. He spent $5M on its construction, draining his banking empire in the process. John Painter Gaynor was the architect and engineer. It opened on October 2, 1875. The hotel had early elevators or "rising rooms" and electric call buttons in the
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    1 votes
    206
    Edinburgh and Northern Railway

    Edinburgh and Northern Railway

    The Edinburgh and Northern Railway was a Scottish railway company. It was authorised by Act of Parliament in 1845. It operated services between Burntisland, on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth, Perth and Tayport, with a junction at Ladybank. The company is often referred to by its later name of Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Railway. On 27 July 1847, the company took over the Edinburgh, Leith and Granton Railway. The ferry from Burntisland to Granton was the world's first railway ferry. The service commenced on 3 February 1850. Thomas Bouch designed the ferry loading mechanism. The ferry was the Leviathan, and was designed by Thomas Grainger. From Burntisland, Edinburgh and Northern Railway services connected to Perth and Tayport (ferry to Broughty Ferry for Dundee and Aberdeen). It became part of the North British Railway on 29 July 1862.
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    2 votes
    207
    Hopewell Holdings

    Hopewell Holdings

    Hopewell Holdings Limited (Chinese: 合和實業有限公司) SEHK: 0054,OTC Pink: HOWWY, established on 17 October 1972], is a Hong Kong-listed infrastructure and property firm headed by Sir Gordon Wu. It was listed on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong in 1972. Hopewell Holding is a holding company for investments in infrastructure projects, property letting, property agency and management, hotel operations and management, restaurant operation and food catering, construction and project management. Its primary businesses are in Guangdong province of People's Republic of China and Hong Kong. It is one of the first foreign companies to invest in infrastructure projects in the China and a pioneer of infrastructure developments across Asia, including the failed Bangkok Elevated Road and Train System (BERTS) project in Bangkok. It holds 75 percent of Hopewell Highway Infrastructure Ltd, which is spun off by Hopewell Holdings and listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange in early August, 2003. As one of the founders of Hopewell Holdings, Wu has been the managing director since 1972. He retired as the managing director of Hopewell Holdings but remains as the chairman of the board in January 2002. Hopewell is
    5.00
    2 votes
    208
    Forest City Enterprises Inc

    Forest City Enterprises Inc

    Forest City Enterprises (NYSE: FCEA, NYSE: FCEB) is a $9-billion diversified real estate management and development company based in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. Its portfolio includes interests in retail centers, apartment communities, office buildings and mixed-use projects in the U.S. The company has recently expanded into military housing communities. Forest City was founded as a family-owned lumber and hardware business in the 1920s by Charles, Leonard, Max and Fannye Ratner. In the 1930s, the company made its first foray into real estate, purchasing lots for commercial development and its first apartment building. During World War II, the company made pre-fabricated houses for government housing and began building strip malls. In 1955, Forest City began converting its lumberyards, Forest City Lumber, into do-it yourself home stores. In 1960, Forest City became a publicly traded company. In the 1980s, the company began divesting of its non-core real estate holdings. The company sold its retail lumber business to Handy Andy Home Improvement Center in 1987.. Projects developed or under development by Forest City include:
    4.50
    2 votes
    209
    Lockheed Corporation

    Lockheed Corporation

    The Lockheed Corporation (originally Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company) was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995. The Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company was established in 1912 by the brothers Allan and Malcolm Loughead. This company was renamed the Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company and located in Santa Barbara, California. In 1926, following the failure of Loughead, Allan Loughead formed the Lockheed Aircraft Company (the spelling was changed to match its phonetic pronunciation) in Hollywood. In 1929, Lockheed sold out to Detroit Aircraft Corporation. The Great Depression ruined the aircraft market, and Detroit Aircraft went bankrupt. A group of investors headed by brothers Robert and Courtland Gross, and Walter Varney, bought the company out of receivership in 1932. The syndicate bought the company for a mere $40,000 ($660,000 in 2011). Ironically, Allan Loughead himself had planned to bid for his own company, but had raised "only" $50,000 ($824,000), which he felt was too small a sum for a serious bid. In 1934, Robert E. Gross was named chairman of the new company, the Lockheed
    4.50
    2 votes
    210
    Cuyahoga County

    Cuyahoga County

    Cuyahoga County ( /ˌkaɪ.əˈhɒɡə/ or /ˌkaɪ.əˈhoʊɡə/) is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States. It is the most populous county in Ohio; according to the 2010 census, it has a population of 1,280,122 which is a decrease of 8.2% from 1,393,978 in 2000. Its county seat is Cleveland. Cuyahoga County is part of Greater Cleveland, a metropolitan area, and Northeast Ohio, a thirteen-county region, joined together in economic development initiatives. The county is named after the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means 'crooked river'. The name is also assigned to the Cuyahoga River, which bisects the county. Former U.S. President James A. Garfield was born in what was Cuyahoga County's Orange Township. Cuyahoga County was organized on June 7, 1807. It was later reduced by the creation of Huron, Lake, and Lorain Counties. It was named after the Cuyahoga River. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 1,245.59 square miles (3,226.1 km), of which 457.19 square miles (1,184.1 km) (or 36.70%) is land and 788.40 square miles (2,041.9 km) (or 63.30%) is water. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is located in the southeastern portion of the county. As of the
    5.00
    1 votes
    211
    IBM

    IBM

    International Business Machines Corporation, or IBM, is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue. In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the #2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees (433,362), the #4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the #9 most profitable, and the #19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the #31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include #1 company for leaders (Fortune), #1 green
    5.00
    1 votes
    212
    Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

    Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

    Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576) was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until his death. He was a member of the House of Habsburg. Born in Vienna, he was a son of his predecessor Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547). Anne was a daughter of King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix. Educated principally in Italy, he gained some experience of warfare during the campaign of his paternal uncle Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor against France in 1544, and also during the War of the league of Schmalkalden, and soon began to take part in imperial business. Having in September 1548 married his cousin Maria, daughter of Charles V, he acted as the emperor's representative in Spain from 1548 to 1550, returning to Germany in December 1550 in order to take part in the discussion over the imperial succession. Charles V wished his son Philip (afterwards king of Spain) to succeed him as emperor, but his brother Ferdinand, who had already been designated as the next occupant of the imperial
    5.00
    1 votes
    213
    Oesterreichische Nationalbank

    Oesterreichische Nationalbank

    The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) is the central bank of the Republic of Austria and, as such, an integral part of both the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and the Eurozone. In the public interest, the OeNB contributes to monetary and economic policy decision-making in Austria and in the Euro area. In line with the Federal Act on the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, the OeNB is a stock corporation. Given its status as a central bank, it is, however, governed by a number of special provisions, as laid down in the Nationalbank Act. The OeNB's capital totals EUR 12 million. Since May 2010 this capital is entirely held by the state of Austria. Previously half of the capital was in the hands of employer and employee organizations as well as banks and insurance corporations. The main tasks of the OeNB center on contributing to a stability-oriented monetary policy within the Eurozone, safeguarding financial stability in Austria and supplying the general public and the business community in Austria with high-quality, i.e. counterfeit-proof, cash. In addition, the OeNB manages reserve assets, i.e. gold and foreign exchange holdings, with a view to backing the euro in times of
    5.00
    1 votes
    214
    Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby

    Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby

    Robert III de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby (1239–1279) was an English nobleman. He was born at Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, England, the son of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby and the Earl's 2nd wife Margaret de Quincy (born 1218), daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester and Helen of Galloway. In 1249, at the age of 10, he married the seven-year-old Mary (or Marie), daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan Count of La Marche, the eldest of Henry III's half-brothers, at Westminster Abbey. This arranged marriage is an indication of Henry's high regard for Robert's father. William died in 1254, so that Robert became a knight and inherited the title while he was still a minor. He and his estates became a ward of Prince Edward. In 1257, Edward sold the wardship to the queen and Peter of Savoy for 6000 marks, which might have been a source of Ferrers' later antipathy for the prince. Robert came of age in 1260 and took possession of the vast estates he inherited. The first of these passed to him from his Norman ancestors, a large part of Derbyshire that included the area later known as Duffield Frith, together with parts of Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire. In addition, he
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    1 votes
    215
    Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal

    Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal

    D. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras (Marquês de Pombal, Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐɾˈkeʃ dɨ ˈpõbaɫ]; 13 May 1699 – 8 May 1782) was an 18th century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (the equivalent to a today's prime minister) in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. He implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country. Pombal was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but also the architectural style which formed after the great earthquake. Pombal introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms justified in the name of "reason" and instrumental in advancing secularization. However, historians argue that Pombal’s "enlightenment,"
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    University of Michigan

    University of Michigan

    The University of Michigan (commonly referred to as Michigan, U-M, UMich, or U of M) is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan. It is one of the original eight Public Ivy universities and is one of the founding members of the Association of American Universities. It has been ranked among the top five research universities in the US, and among the top 20 universities in the world, including one ranking, as high as the 4th best university in the world. U-M also has satellite campuses in Flint and Dearborn. The university was founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, about 20 years before the Michigan Territory officially became a state. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres (16 ha) of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university has physically expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 31 million gross square feet (712 acres or 2.38 km²), and transformed its academic program from a strictly
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    Henry Villard

    Henry Villard

    Henry Villard (April 10, 1835–November 12, 1900) was an American journalist and financier who was an early president of the Northern Pacific Railway. Born and raised Ferdinand Heinrich Gustav Hilgard in the Rhenish Palatinate of the Kingdom of Bavaria, Villard clashed with his more conservative father over politics, and was sent to a semi-military academy in northeastern France. He emigrated to the U.S.A., without his parents' knowledge, as a teenager. He changed his name to avoid being sent back to Europe, and began making his way west, briefly studying law as he developed a career in journalism. He supported John C. Frémont of the newly established Republican Party in his presidential campaign in 1856, and later followed Abraham Lincoln's 1860 campaign. Villard became a war correspondent, first covering the American Civil War, and later being sent by the Chicago Tribune to cover the Austro-Prussian War. He became a pacifist as a result of his experiences covering the Civil War. In the late 1860s he married women's suffrage advocate Helen Frances Garrison, and returned to the U.S., only to go back to Germany for his health in 1870. While in Germany, Villard became involved in
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    John Walter

    John Walter

    John Walter (8 October 1818 – 3 November 1894) was an English newspaper publisher and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons variously between 1847 and 1885. Walter was born at Printing-house Square, the eldest son of John Walter, editor of The Times. He was educated at Eton and Exeter College, Oxford, being called to the bar in 1847. On leaving Oxford he took part in the business management of The Times, and on his father's death became sole manager, though he devolved part of the work on Mowbray Morris. He was a man of scholarly tastes and serious religious views, and his conscientious character had a marked influence on the tone of the paper. It was under him that the successive improvements in the printing machinery, begun by his father in 1814, at last reached the stage of the "Walter Press" in 1869, the pioneer of modern newspaper printing-presses. In 1847 Walter was elected to Parliament for Nottingham as a moderate Liberal, and was re-elected in 1852 and in 1857. In 1859 he was returned for Berkshire, where he lived at Bearwood House in Sindlesham, and though defeated in 1865, was again elected in 1868, and held the seat until he retired in 1885. Walter was
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    Manulife Financial

    Manulife Financial

    Manulife Financial Corporation (TSX: MFC, NYSE: MFC, PSE: MFC, SEHK: 945) is a Canadian insurance company and financial services provider. Manulife Financial's global head office is located in Toronto, Canada and the Company has operations in 21 countries and territories worldwide. The company operates in Canada and Asia through the brand name "Manulife Financial" and in the United States primarily through its John Hancock division. It is one of the largest life insurance companies in the world as measured by market capitalization, and has approximately 26,000 employees world-wide. Manulife Bank of Canada is a wholly owned subsidiary of Manulife Financial Corporation. The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company was founded in 1887. Its first president was the first Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald. In 1897, Manulife Financial expanded its operations into Asia, including China and Hong Kong. In 1999, The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company’s voting eligible policyholders approved demutualization. Later that year, the shares of Manulife Financial Corporation, the holding company of The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company and its subsidiaries, began trading on The
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    Augustinians

    Augustinians

    The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders: (1) Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community. The largest and most familiar, originally known as the Hermits of Saint Augustine (O.E.S.A. - Ordo Eremitarum sancti Augustini) and also as the Austin friars, is now simply referred to as the Order of Saint Augustine (O.S.A.). Two other Orders, the Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the Augustinian Order under a single Prior General. The Recollect friars, founded in 1588 as a reform movement of the Augustinian friars in Spain, became autonomous in 1612 with their first Prior General, Enrique de la Sagrada. The Discalced friars became an independent religious congregation with their own Prior General in 1592, and were raised to the status of a separate mendicant Order in 1610. (2) Various congregations of clerics, known as canons regular, who also follow the Rule of St. Augustine,
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    Church of England

    Church of England

    The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St Augustine of Canterbury in AD 597. As a result of Augustine's mission, the church in England came under the authority of the Pope. Initially prompted by a dispute over the annulment of the marriage of Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon, the Church of England separated from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534 and became the established church by an Act of Parliament in the Act of Supremacy, beginning a series of events known as the English Reformation. During the reign of Queen Mary I, the Church was fully restored under Rome in 1555. Papal authority was again explicitly rejected after the accession of Queen Elizabeth I when the Act of Supremacy of 1558 was passed. Catholic and Reformed factions vied for determining the doctrines and worship of the church. This ended with the 1558 Elizabethan settlement, which developed the understanding that the church was to be both Catholic and Reformed: During
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    Daniele Barbaro

    Daniele Barbaro

    Daniele Matteo Alvise Barbaro (also Barbarus) (8 February 1514 – 1570) was an Italian translator of, and commentator on, Vitruvius. He also had a significant ecclesiastical career, reaching the rank of Cardinal. He was born in Venice, the son of Francesco di Daniele Barbaro and Elena Pisani, daughter of the banker Alvise Pisani and Cecilia Giustinian. Barbaro studied philosophy, mathematics, and optics at the University of Padua. He has been credited with the design of the university's botanical garden. Barbaro served the Republic of Venice as ambassador to the court of Elizabeth I in London and as representative at the Council of Trent. His appointment as Cardinal may have been secret (in pectore) to avoid causing diplomatic complications. In 1550 he was elected Patriarch of Aquileia, an ecclesiastical appointment that required the approval of the Venetian Senate. On the death of his father, he inherited a country estate with his brother Marcantonio Barbaro. They commissioned Palladio to design their shared country home Villa Barbaro, which is now part of a World Heritage Site. Palladio and Daniele Barbaro visited Rome together and the architecture of the villa reflects their
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    Daughters of the American Revolution

    Daughters of the American Revolution

    The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in United States' independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote historic preservation, education and patriotism. The DAR has chapters in all 50 U.S. states as well as in the District of Columbia. DAR chapters have been founded in Australia, Austria, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and the United Kingdom. As of 2012, over 850,000 women have been able to trace their lineage to join this organization. Although it is referred to as the DAR, the official name of this organization is the National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution (NSDAR). In 1889 the centennial of President George Washington's inauguration was celebrated, and Americans looked for additional ways to recognize their heroic past. Out of the renewed interest in United States history, numerous patriotic and preservation societies were founded. The First Lady, Caroline Lavina Scott Harrison, wife of the United States President Benjamin Harrison, lent her prestige to the founding of the National Society of
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    Domitian

    Domitian

    Domitian (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty. Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of his father Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus held a great many offices under the rule of his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died in 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness in 81. The following day Domitian was declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard, commencing a reign which lasted fifteen years – longer than any man who had ruled since Tiberius. As Emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the Empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola
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    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

    The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, commonly known as the Boston Fed, is responsible for the First District of the Federal Reserve, which covers most of Connecticut (excluding Southwestern Connecticut), Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. It is headquartered in the Federal Reserve Bank Building in Boston, Massachusetts. The code of the Bank is A1, meaning that dollar bills from this Bank will have the letter A on them. Its current president is Eric S. Rosengren, who replaced Cathy E. Minehan in July 2007. The Boston Fed is in a distinctive 614-foot (187 m) tall, 32-story building, located at 600 Atlantic Avenue in Boston. The building, designed by architecture firm Hugh Stubbins & Associates, is suspended between two towers on either side. The Boston Fed also includes the New England Public Policy Center. The following people serve on the board of directors as of 2012: All terms expire December 31.
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    Frank Woolworth

    Frank Woolworth

    Frank Winfield Woolworth (April 13, 1852 – April 8, 1919) was the founder of F. W. Woolworth Company (now Foot Locker), an operator of discount stores that priced merchandise at five and ten cents. He pioneered the now-common practices of buying merchandise direct from manufacturers and fixing prices on items, rather than haggling. He was the first to use self-service display cases so customers could examine what they wanted to buy without the help of a salesman. He was born on April 13, 1852, in Rodman, New York, to John Hubbell Woolworth and Fanny McBrier. He had a brother, Charles Sumner Woolworth. He attended a business college for two terms in Watertown, New York. In 1873 he worked as a stock boy in a general store. It was there that he got the idea for a 5 cent store. There was a table with items for just 5 cents that always sold what was on it. On June 11, 1876, he married Jennie Creighton (1853–1924) and they had three daughters. One of them, Edna Woolworth (1883–1917), the mother of Barbara Hutton, later committed suicide. He borrowed $300 and opened a five-cent store in Utica, New York, on February 22, 1879. It failed within weeks. His second store was in Lancaster,
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    Greater London Council

    Greater London Council

    The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. It replaced the earlier London County Council (LCC) which had covered a much smaller area. The GLC was dissolved in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its powers were devolved to the London boroughs and other entities. The GLC was established by the London Government Act 1963, which sought to create a new body covering all of London rather than just the inner part of the conurbation, additionally including and empowering newly-created London boroughs within the overall administrative structure. In 1957 a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London had been set up under Sir Edwin Herbert, and this reported in 1960, recommending the creation of 52 new London boroughs as the basis for local government. It further recommended that the LCC be replaced by a weaker strategic authority, with responsibility for public transport, road schemes, housing development and regeneration. Most of the Commission's recommendations were accepted, but the number of new boroughs was reduced to 32. Greater London covered the whole County of London and most of
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    Hadrian

    Hadrian

    Hadrian (Latin: Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus 24 January 76 – 10 July 138), was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in all his tastes. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus to an ethnically Italian family, either in Italica near Seville, in today´s Spain, or in Rome. His predecessor Trajan, also Hispanic himself, was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. Trajan never officially designated an heir, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan's wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well-disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian traveled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He used his
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    Aldobrandini family

    Aldobrandini family

    The Aldobrandini are an Italian noble family from Florence, with close ties to the Vatican. Its Roman fortunes were made when Ippolito Aldobrandini became pope under the name Pope Clement VIII. He arranged the marriage that linked the Aldobrandini with the Roman family of Pamphili. Additionally, they were also linked to marriage alliances with the Farnese (Ranuccio I, duke of Parma, had married Margherita Aldobrandini) and Borghese (since Olimpia Aldobrandini married Paolo Borghese). The family also lends its name to the Palazzo Aldobrandini on the Quirinal Hill. The Aldobrandini family, having reached the height of its powers when Ippolito Aldobrandini became Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605), began the building of the villa. In 1600 Clement VIII acquired the Orti Vitelli on the Quirinal hill and in 1601 donated the property to his nephew Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. The old buildings of the Vitelli Family were demolished and construction began on the new villa and adjacent garden. The villa was never the family seat as the Aldobrandini family owned even more splendid residences elsewhere in Rome. The villa on the Quirinal hill served essentially for ceremonial functions. More famous
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    Alice Claypoole Gwynne

    Alice Claypoole Gwynne

    Alice Claypoole Gwynne Vanderbilt (November 26, 1845 – April 22, 1934) was the wife of Cornelius Vanderbilt II and reigned as the dowager Mrs. Vanderbilt for over 60 years. Born and raised in Cincinnati, she was the daughter of Abraham Gwynne, a lawyer, and Rachel Flagg. Alice Claypoole Gwynne met the pious Vanderbilt while teaching Sunday school at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church. They married there in 1867. She and her husband had four sons and three daughters. Alice was responsible for constructing several massive family houses, including the enlargement of 1 West 57th Street, making it the largest private residence to ever be built in an American city. She also played a role in constructing the massive summer "cottage", The Breakers, in Newport, Rhode Island. Her affection to Newport was as such because many of her earliest colonial ancestors were from the city. An early ancestor was Roger Williams, who founded the State of Rhode Island as well as former Rhode Island Governor Samuel Ward. Many Flagg family members are buried in Newport's Island Cemetery. In 1914, she was responsible for the construction of the Gwynne Building in Cincinnati, Ohio, site of the first shop of
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    231
    Andy Warhol

    Andy Warhol

    Andy Warhol (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement that flourished by the 1960s. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became a renowned and sometimes controversial artist. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives. It is the largest museum in the United States of America dedicated to a single artist. Warhol's artwork ranged in many forms of media that include hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music. He was a pioneer in computer-generated art using Amiga computers that were introduced in 1985, just before his death in 1987. He founded Interview Magazine and was the author of numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism: The Warhol Sixties. Andy Warhol is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. His studio, The Factory, was a famous gathering place that brought
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    Anne Hathaway

    Anne Hathaway

    Anne Hathaway (1555/56 – 6 August 1623) was the wife of William Shakespeare. They were married in 1582. She outlived her husband by seven years. Very little is known about her beyond a few references in legal documents, but her personality and relationship to Shakespeare have been the subject of much speculation by historians and creative writers. Anne Hathaway is believed to have grown up in Shottery, a small village just to the west of Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. She is assumed to have grown up in the farmhouse that was the Hathaway family home, which is located at Shottery and is now a major tourist attraction for the village. Her father, Richard Hathaway, was a yeoman farmer. He died in September 1581 and left Anne the sum of £6 13s 4d (six pounds, thirteen shillings and fourpence) to be paid "at the day of her marriage". Hathaway married Shakespeare in November 1582 while pregnant with the couple's first child, to whom she gave birth six months later. Hathaway was 26/27 years of age; Shakespeare was only 18. This age difference, together with Hathaway's antenuptial pregnancy, has been employed by some historians as evidence that it was a "shotgun wedding",
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    233
    Anschutz Entertainment Group

    Anschutz Entertainment Group

    The Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG) is a sporting and music entertainment presenter and a subsidiary of The Anschutz Corporation. It is the world's largest owner of sports teams and sports events, the owner of the world’s most profitable sports and entertainment venues, and under AEG Live, the world's second largest presenter of live music and entertainment events (after Live Nation). AEG owns and operates the Staples Center and the Home Depot Center, and manages the XL Center, the Rose Garden, and Rentschler Field. In England, it owns the Manchester Evening News Arena, and currently operates the The O2 which includes a 20,000 capacity arena. In Turkey, AEG operates 13,800 capacity Ulker Sports Arena and Galatasaray S.K.'s new home ground 52,695 capacity Turk Telekom Arena. As part of the development of the O2, Anschutz also purchased the London river service company Thames Clipper, and supported the development of the nearby David Beckham Academy (which also has a branch at the Home Depot Center). The company has its headquarters in Downtown Los Angeles. The company owns the Los Angeles Galaxy, 50% of the Houston Dynamo, 50% of the Los Angeles Kings, Ontario Reign, Manchester
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    Austin

    Austin

    Austin (/ˈɒstɨn/ or /ˈɔːstɨn/) is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, Austin is the thirteenth most populous city in the United States of America and the fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in the nation from 2000 to 2006. Austin has a population of 820,611 (2011 U.S. Census). The city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos metropolitan area, which had an estimated population 1,783,519 (2011 U.S. Census), making it the 34th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the fourth-largest in Texas. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. After Republic of Texas Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital then located in Houston, Texas, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River near the present-day Ann W. Richards Congress Avenue Bridge. In 1839, the site was officially chosen as the
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    Brookfield Properties

    Brookfield Properties

    Brookfield Office Properties Inc. (TSX: BPO, NYSE: BPO) is a Canadian-American commercial real estate company. Brookfield Asset Management owns fifty percent of its outstanding common shares. The company has its headquarters operations in New York City and Toronto. Its New York City head office is on the 11th floor of the Three World Financial Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City, while its Toronto head office is located downtown in the Brookfield Place office complex, which encompasses an entire 5.2 acre city block and offers over 2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m) of office space The company owns, manages and develops office properties in the downtown core of the American cities of New York City, New York; Washington, D.C.; Boston, Massachusetts; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; Denver, Colorado; and Minneapolis, Minnesota; the Canadian cities of Toronto, Calgary, Alberta; Ottawa, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia as well as Australian cities Perth, Sydney and Melbourne Its properties include One Liberty Plaza and the World Financial Center in New York City; Brookfield Place (formerly BCE Place), First Canadian Place, and Queen's Quay Terminal in Toronto; Place
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    Clan MacAulay

    Clan MacAulay

    Clan MacAulay is a Scottish clan. The clan was historically centred around the lands of Ardincaple, which are today consumed by the little village of Rhu and burgh of Helensburgh in Argyll and Bute. The MacAulays of Ardincaple were located mainly in the traditional county of Dunbartonshire, which straddles the "Highland Line" between the Scottish Highlands and Lowlands. Clan MacAulay has been considered a "Highland clan" by writers and has been linked by various historians to the original Earls of Lennox and in later times to Clan Gregor. The MacAulays of Ardincaple, like Clan Gregor and several other clans, have traditionally been considered one of the seven clans which make up Siol Alpin. This group of clans were said to have claimed descent from Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts, from whom later kings of Scotland traced their descent. The chiefs of Clan MacAulay were styled Laird of Ardincaple. Clan MacAulay dates, with certainty, to the 16th century. The clan was engaged in several feuds with neighbouring clans. However, the clan's fortunes declined in the 17th and 18th centuries. After the decline and fall of Clan MacAulay, which ended with the death of Aulay MacAulay in
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    Eugene Tsui

    Eugene Tsui

    Eugene Tsui, Ph.D- sometimes spelled Tssui - (born Eugene Tsui; September 14, 1954, in Cleveland, Ohio, USA) is a Chinese-American architect, urban planner, environmental designer, author, industrial designer and clothing designer; Chinese name, Cui Yue Jun (崔悅君). Dr. Tsui is known as a multi-talented polymath maintaining offices in Emeryville, California, USA and Shenzhen, China. In addition to architectural and industrial design contracts, he currently conducts research at South China University of Science and Technology, Guangzhou, China, Harbin University of Technology, Shenzhen, China; and Yu Cai Schools, Shenzhen, China. His varied designs include the futuristic residence for his parents in Berkeley, California, the Watsu Center School, the Ecological House of the Future, the Tsui Design and Research complex, the Strait of Gibraltar Floating Bridge, the Shenzhen Tower, the Ultima Tower (Two Miles High Tower / City), the Nexus Mobile Floating Sea City, the Emeryville Nature Study Center, and the Telos Education Center. These examples of both built and proposed concept designs express Dr. Tsui’s unique and original approach to architecture and urban planning. Tsui’s overarching
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    238
    Francis Drake

    Francis Drake

    Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral (1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He also carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580. He died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico. His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a pirate to the Spaniards to whom he was known as El Draque, Draque being the Spanish pronunciation of "Drake". His name in Latinised form was Franciscus Draco (Francis the Dragon). King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million (US$6.5M) by modern standards, for his life. Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, Devon, in February or March 1544 at the earliest, when his namesake godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford was age 17. Although Drake's birth is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in force. "Drake was two and twenty when he obtained the command of the Judith"
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    239
    Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater

    Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater

    Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (21 May 1736 – 8 March 1803), known as Lord Francis Egerton until 1748, was a British nobleman, the younger son of the 1st Duke. He did not marry, and the Dukedom expired with him, although the Earldom was inherited by a cousin, Lieutenant-General John Egerton. He is famous as the originator of British inland navigation, the commissioner of the Bridgewater Canal—often said to be the first true canal in Britain and the modern world (see below for a qualification)—which was built for him by James Brindley to service his coal mines at Worsley, in Lancashire. Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgewater (1681–1745) was the son of the 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, and was created a Duke in 1720; he was the great-grandson of John Egerton, 1st Earl of Bridgewater (d. 1649; cr. 1617), whose name is associated with the production of Milton's Comus; and the latter was the son of Sir Thomas Egerton (1540–1617), Queen Elizabeth's Lord Keeper and James I.'s Lord Chancellor, whom was created Baron Ellesmere in 1603, and Viscount Brackley in 1616. Lord Francis Egerton succeeded to the Dukedom at the age of twelve on the death of his brother, the 2nd Duke. As a child
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    Glasgow and South Western Railway

    Glasgow and South Western Railway

    The Glasgow and South Western Railway (G&SWR), one of the pre-grouping railway companies, served a triangular area of south-west Scotland, between Glasgow, Stranraer and Carlisle. It assumed its title following an amalgamation in 1850 and became a constituent of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway at the 1923 grouping of the railways. The main line ran from Glasgow along the west coast and to Gretna. The railway also served Paisley, Greenock, Ardrossan, Troon and the ports on the west coast, between which it had regular steamer services. It also owned the harbours at Troon and Ayr. The headquarters were at St Enoch Station, Glasgow and the main locomotive works at Kilmarnock. In 1921 the railway comprised 1,128 miles of line and the company’s capital was about £19 million. The G&SWR, in association with the Midland Railway, provided a third Anglo-Scottish route, intermediate between the West Coast and East Coast routes. It was as a result of the Midland connection that Glasgow St Enoch station was designed in a style heavily influenced by London St Pancras. On that latter date the GPK&AR amalgamated with the Glasgow, Dumfries and Carlisle Railway (GD&CR), to form what became
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    241
    ING Group

    ING Group

    The ING Group (Dutch: ING Groep) is a global financial institution offering retail banking, direct banking, commercial banking, investment banking, asset management, and insurance services. ING is an abbreviation for Internationale Nederlanden Groep (English: International Netherlands Group). The Orange Lion on ING's logo is an allusion to the Group's Dutch origins under the House of Orange-Nassau. ING is the Dutch member of the Inter-Alpha Group of Banks, a cooperative consortium of 11 prominent European banks. According to Fortune magazine, in 2010, ING was the largest banking/financial services & insurance conglomerate in the world by revenue with gross receipts exceeding €54 billion (US$77 billion) per annum. The Group was also the world's 12th largest corporation by revenue according to the 2010 Global Fortune 500. As of 2009, ING served over 85 million individual and institutional clients in more than 45 countries, with a worldwide workforce exceeding 100,000. ING Group traces its roots to two major Insurance companies in the Netherlands and the banking services of the Dutch government. In 1845 the fire insurance company the Assurantie Maatschappij tegen Brandschade de
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    242
    Jerry Buss

    Jerry Buss

    Gerald Hatten "Jerry" Buss (born January 27, 1934) is an American businessman, real estate investor, and a former chemist. He is the majority owner of the Los Angeles Lakers professional basketball team along with other professional sports franchises in Southern California. Announced as a member of the 2010 induction class of the Basketball Hall of Fame on April 5, 2010, he was formally enshrined as a contributor to the sport on August 13 of that same year. Buss worked his way through the University of Wyoming, graduating with a B.S. degree in two and a half years in 1953. He moved to Los Angeles and attended the University of Southern California, where he earned a M.S. and Ph.D. in physical chemistry by age 24. Buss started as a chemist for the Bureau of Mines (now the Mine Safety and Health Administration); he then briefly worked in the aerospace industry and was on the faculty of USC's chemistry department. He originally went into real estate investing in order to provide an income so he could continue teaching. His first investment in the 1960s was $1,000 in a West Los Angeles apartment building. Finding great success in the real estate business, he pursued real estate
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    Johann Ernst von Thun

    Johann Ernst von Thun

    Johann Ernst von Thun (July 3, 1643, Graz, Austria - April 20, 1709, Salzburg, Austria) was prince-archbishop of Salzburg, Austria, from 1687 to 1709. He was originally from Tyrol and he displayed a marked antipathy to the Italian designers and tastemakers that were emulated by many Austrians at the time. Upon his accession, he halted work on a church being built for an Italian order of monks and denied payment to Italian craftsmen. The archbishop is best remembered as patron of the architect Fischer von Erlach, a leader of Austrian Baroque church architecture. In 1697, the archbishop obliged all graduates of Salzburg's university to swear belief in the Immaculate Conception. Upon his death, Archbishop von Thun had his brain deposited in the university chapel, his entrails (symbolizing compassion) deposited in his Hospital Church, and his heart interred at his favorite Church of the Trinity.
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    Pacific Bell

    Pacific Bell

    Pacific Bell is an informal name of Pacific Bell Telephone Company, which is a provider of telephone service in California. The company is owned by AT&T through AT&T Teleholdings. Historically, the company has had many names and service areas. The name "Pacific Bell" is no longer commonly used. The Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company was the Bell System's telephone operations in California. It grew by acquiring smaller telephone companies along the Pacific coast, such as Sunset Telephone & Telegraph in 1917. As it grew, it built and occupied San Francisco's Pacific Telephone Building on New Montgomery Street, described as a "monument to western progress and foresight". Purchases extended Pacific Telephone's territory into Oregon, Washington, and northern Idaho; on July 1, 1961, however, those operations were split off to become Pacific Northwest Bell. Entering into the 1980s, Pacific Telephone had assets valued at $14.5 billion, making it the biggest of any of the 21 Bells AT&T wholly owned, which also made Pacific Telephone the "crown jewel" of the operating companies. However, Pacific Telephone was one of the least profitable Bells, due to very tough local telephone
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    Richard Norman Shaw

    Richard Norman Shaw

    Richard Norman Shaw RA (Edinburgh, Scotland, 7 May 1831 – London, England, 17 November 1912), was an influential Scottish architect from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings. Shaw trained in the London office of William Burn with George Edmund Street and attended the Royal Academy classes, receiving a thorough grounding in classicism, and met William Eden Nesfield, with whom he was briefly in partnership. In 1854 – 1856 he travelled with a Royal Academy scholarship, collecting sketches that were published as Architectural Sketches from the Continent, 1858. In 1863, after sixteen years of training, he opened a practice for a short time with Nesfield. In 1872, Shaw was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy. He worked, among others, for the artists John Callcott Horsley and George Henry Boughton, and the industrialist Lord Armstrong. He designed large houses such as Cragside and Grim's Dyke, as well as a series of commercial buildings in a wide range of styles. Shaw was elected to the Royal Academy in 1877, and co-edited (with Sir Thomas Jackson RA) the 1892 collection of essays, Architecture, a profession or an Art?. He firmly
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    246
    TBWA\Chiat\Day

    TBWA\Chiat\Day

    TBWA\Chiat\Day is the American division of the advertising agency TBWA Worldwide. Created in the 1995 merger of TBWA and Chiat\Day, the agency operates offices in Los Angeles, New York City, and Nashville. Prior to the merger, Chiat\Day created internationally notable advertising, including “1984” for Apple Computer that introduced the Macintosh computer. The merger also inspired the creation of the ad agency St.Lukes by Chiat\Day's London office's employees. TBWA Worldwide is part of the global marketing group Omnicom, with a reputation for more quirky or "disruptive" work. The youngest network in the group's portfolio, TBWA expanded rapidly in the final years of the 1990s and is a competitor to BBDO and DDB. A significant step came in 1998 when the agency absorbed Anglo-French marketing network GGT BDDP. The current president is Carisa Bianchi.
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    247
    University College London

    University College London

    University College London (UCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1826, UCL was the first university institution to be founded in London and the first in England to be established on an entirely secular basis, to admit students regardless of their religion and to admit women on equal terms with men. UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836. UCL's main campus is located in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals located elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 10 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL had a total income of £802 million in 2010/11, of which £283 million was from research grants and contracts. For the period 1999 to 2009 it was the 13th most-cited university in the world (and the most-cited in Europe). UCL has around 4,000 academic and research staff and 650 professors, the highest number of any British university. There are 26 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields Medalists
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    248
    Western Pennsylvania Conservancy

    Western Pennsylvania Conservancy

    The Western Pennsylvania Conservancy (WPC), headquartered in Pittsburgh40°27′51.73″N 79°58′37.10″W / 40.4643694°N 79.976972°W / 40.4643694; -79.976972, has been around for more than 80 years (Established in 1932) and exists to protect the water, land and life of western Pennsylvania. Half of all the land that has been protected by land trusts in Pennsylvania has been conserved by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. The organization also facilitates community floral gardens in 20 counties. This nonprofit organization has been entrusted with preserving Fallingwater, the masterpiece home built by Frank Lloyd Wright in Mill Run, Pa. that members of the American Institute of Architects recently voted the most important building of the 20th century. Charity Navigator listed WPC in the Top 10 Charities in 2012. Since 1932, WPC has protected more than {{convert|232000|acres}. Most of that land is now publicly owned and makes up some of Pennsylvania's premier parks, forests, gamelands, and natural areas - visited by millions of residents and tourists. WPC's work enables protection of important natural resources and creates economic benefits - from tourism in the Laurel Highlands,
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    249
    William H. Prescott

    William H. Prescott

    William Hickling Prescott (May 4, 1796 – January 28, 1859) was an American historian and Hispanist, who is widely recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian. Despite suffering from serious visual impairment, which at times prevented him from reading or writing for himself, Prescott became one of the most eminent historians of 19th century America. He is also noted for his eidetic memory. A direct descendant of the revolutionary American officer William Prescott, William H. Prescott spent his childhood and adolescence in Boston, Massachusetts. Prescott attended Harvard University, and considered a legal career, but his poor health prevented him from working professionally and he therefore dedicated himself to a life of writing. After an extensive period of study, during which he sporadically contributed to academic journals, Prescott specialized in late Renaissance Spain and the early Spanish Empire. His works on the subject, The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic (1837), The History of the Conquest of Mexico (1843), A History of the Conquest of Peru (1847) and the unfinished History of the Reign of Phillip II
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    William Lenthall

    William Lenthall

    William Lenthall (1591 – 9 November 1662) was an English politician of the Civil War period. He served as Speaker of the House of Commons. The second son of William Lenthall of North Leigh in Oxfordshire, a descendant of an old Herefordshire family, he was born at Henley-on-Thames. Educated at Lord Williams's School, he later left Oxford without taking a degree in 1609, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1616, becoming a bencher in 1633. He represented Woodstock in the Short Parliament (April 1640) and Long Parliament (November 1640), for which latter Parliament he was chosen by King Charles I to be Speaker. According to Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, a worse choice could not have been made, for Lenthall was of a very timorous nature. He was treated with little respect, and was unable to control the proceedings. On 4 January 1642, however, when King Charles I entered the House of Commons to seize five 'disruptive' members, Lenthall behaved with great prudence and dignity. Having taken the speaker's chair and looked round in vain to discover the offending members, Charles turned to Lenthall standing below, and demanded of him whether any of those persons were in the
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