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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Appointee of All Time

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    1
    Karen Mills

    Karen Mills

    Karen Gordon Mills (born September 14, 1953) is the 23rd Administrator of the Small Business Administration (SBA), a federal agency which provides small businesses with access to capital and government contracts, counseling and training, and disaster relief. She was nominated by President-elect Barack Obama on December 19, 2008, confirmed unanimously by the Senate on April 2, 2009, and sworn in on April 6, 2009. She was elevated to the rank of Cabinet-level officer on January 13, 2012. Mills is the daughter of Ellen (née Rubin) and Mr. Melvin Gordon, the President and CEO of Tootsie Roll Industries, respectively. She is married to Barry Mills, the president of Bowdoin College, and has three sons. She has a B.A. in economics from Harvard University, and an MBA from Harvard Business School. Mills has extensive experience in managing and investing in small businesses. During the 1980s and 1990s, Mills worked with and managed several small manufacturing firms throughout the country, including producers of hardwood flooring, refrigerator motors, and plastic injection molding. More recently, she served on the board of the Maine Technology Institute, a nonprofit that invests in local
    9.67
    6 votes
    2
    Ray Mabus

    Ray Mabus

    Raymond Edwin "Ray" Mabus, Jr. (born October 11, 1948) is the 75th United States Secretary of the Navy. Mabus served as the 60th Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1988 to 1992 and as United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1996. Mabus was born in Starkville and is a fourth-generation Mississippian; he grew up in Ackerman, the only child of the owner of the local hardware store. After attending public schools, he graduated summa cum laude from the University of Mississippi, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi, with a B.A. in English and political science. He earned an M.A. in political science from Johns Hopkins University and a Juris Doctor, magna cum laude, from Harvard Law School. He also served two years in the Navy as a surface warfare officer from 1970 to 1972 aboard the cruiser USS Little Rock, and worked as a law clerk in the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. Mabus began his professional career working in Washington as legal counsel to the U.S. House Agriculture Committee. Following the election of Governor William Winter, he returned to Mississippi to work in the governor's office, where the youthful staff– which included Mabus,
    7.57
    7 votes
    3
    Rose Gottemoeller

    Rose Gottemoeller

    Rose Gottemoeller was sworn in as the United States Department of State's Assistant Secretary for Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance on April 6, 2009. She is also currently the Acting Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security. She was the chief negotiator of the follow on for the Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty otherwise known as the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation (in Russia, the treaty is known as START III). Since 2000, she had been with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Before returning to government, she was a senior associate in the Carnegie Russia & Eurasia Program in Washington, D.C., where she worked on U.S.–Russian relations and nuclear security and stability. While with Carnegie, Gottemoeller led consultative Track II meetings with Russian nuclear experts. She also served as the director of the Carnegie Moscow Center from January 2006 to December 2008. Gottemoeller was formerly the Deputy Under Secretary of Energy for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation at the U.S Department of Energy. She had previously held the post of Assistant Secretary for Nonproliferation and National Security, also
    7.43
    7 votes
    4
    Ray LaHood

    Ray LaHood

    Raymond H. "Ray" LaHood (born December 6, 1945) is a Republican politician from Illinois who is currently the United States Secretary of Transportation, having served since 2009. Previously, he represented Illinois's 18th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives for seven terms (1995–2009). LaHood was born in Peoria, Illinois, to Edward M. LaHood, a Lebanese American who managed a restaurant, and Mary A. LaHood (née Vogel), who was of German ancestry. He graduated from Spalding Institute, worked his way through Canton Junior College and Bradley University in Peoria, earning a Bachelors of Science in education and sociology in 1971. Following graduation, he taught junior high school social studies at public and Catholic schools, and has said that "teaching kids ... about the constitution and government" stirred his interest in politics. LaHood was director of the Rock Island County Youth Services Bureau and then district administrative assistant for U.S. congressman Tom Railsback, a Moline, Illinois Republican, from 1977 to 1982. He was appointed in 1982 to fill a vacant seat in the Illinois House of Representatives, serving for nine months, and running for the
    7.83
    6 votes
    5
    Samuel Nelson

    Samuel Nelson

    Samuel Nelson (November 10, 1792 – December 13, 1873) was an American attorney and an Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Born in Hebron, New York, Nelson attended Middlebury College in Vermont in 1813 and read law to be licensed to practice law in 1817. He entered private practice in Cortland, New York in 1817. Nelson married Pamela Woods in 1819. In 1825, after Pamela's death, he married Catharine Ann Russell. He had two children from his first marriage and six from his second. His fourth child with Catharine, Rensselaer Nelson, was the first United States District Court Judge for the District of Minnesota. Nelson was a presidential elector in 1820, voting for James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins. Nelson was Postmaster of Cortland from 1820 to 1823. He was Judge of the Sixth Circuit Court from 1823 to 1831; an associate justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1831 to 1837; and Chief Justice from 1837 to 1845. He was an unsuccessful candidate for U.S. Senator from New York in 1845. On February 4, 1845, Nelson was nominated by President John Tyler to a seat as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States vacated by Smith Thompson. Nelson was
    8.80
    5 votes
    6
    Benjamin N. Cardozo

    Benjamin N. Cardozo

    Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (May 24, 1870 – July 9, 1938) was an American jurist who served on the New York Court of Appeals and later as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Cardozo is remembered for his significant influence on the development of American common law in the 20th century, in addition to his modesty, philosophy, and vivid prose style. Cardozo served on the Supreme Court only six years, from 1932 until his death in 1938, and many of his landmark decisions were delivered during his eighteen-year tenure on the New York Court of Appeals, the highest court of that state. Cardozo was born in New York City, the son of Rebecca Washington (née Nathan) and Albert Jacob Cardozo. Both Cardozo's maternal grandparents, Sara Seixas and Isaac Mendes Seixas Nathan, and his paternal grandparents, Ellen Hart and Michael H. Cardozo, were Sephardi Jews of the Portuguese Jewish community affiliated with Manhattan's Congregation Shearith Israel; their families emigrated from England before the American Revolution, and were descended from Jews who left the Iberian Peninsula for Holland during the Inquisition. Cardozo family tradition held that their ancestors were Marranos from Portugal,
    7.50
    6 votes
    7
    Rufus Wheeler Peckham

    Rufus Wheeler Peckham

    Rufus Wheeler Peckham (November 8, 1838 – October 24, 1909) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1895 until 1909. He was known for his strong use of substantive due process to invalidate regulations of business and property. Peckham's namesake father was also a lawyer and judge, and a congressman. His older brother, Wheeler Hazard Peckham (1833 – 1905), was one of the lawyers who prosecuted Boss Tweed, and a failed nominee to the Supreme Court. His other brother, Joseph Henry, died at the age of 17. Peckham was born in Albany, New York, to Rufus Wheeler Peckham and Isabella Adeline; his mother died when he was only nine. Following his graduation from The Albany Academy, he followed in his father's footsteps as a lawyer, being admitted to the bar in Albany in 1859 after teaching himself law by studying in his father's office. After a decade of private practice, Peckham served as the Albany district attorney from 1869 from 1872. Peckham then returned to private legal practice and served as counsel to the City of Albany, until being elected as a trial judge on the New York Supreme Court in 1883. In 1886, Peckham was elected to the New York Court of
    7.33
    6 votes
    8
    J. Russell George

    J. Russell George

    Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration

    Following his nomination by President George W. Bush, the United States Senate confirmed J. Russell George in November 2004, as the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. Prior to assuming this role, Mr. George served as the Inspector General of the Corporation for National and Community Service, having been nominated to that position by President Bush and confirmed by the Senate in 2002.

    A native of New York City, where he attended public schools, including Brooklyn Technical High School, Mr. George received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Howard University in Washington, DC, and his Doctorate of Jurisprudence from Harvard University's School of Law in Cambridge, MA. After receiving his law degree, he returned to New York and served as a prosecutor in the Queens County District Attorney's Office.

    Following his work as a prosecutor, Mr. George joined the Counsel's Office in the White House Office of Management and Budget where he was Assistant General Counsel. In that capacity, he provided legal guidance on issues concerning presidential and executive branch authority. He was next invited to join the White House Staff as the Associate Director for Policy in the Office of National Service. It was there that he implemented the legislation establishing the Commission for National and Community Service, the precursor to the Corporation for National and Community Service. He then returned to New York and practiced law at Kramer, Levin, Naftalis, Nessen, Kamin & Frankel.

    In 1995, Mr. George returned to Washington and joined the staff of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight and served as the Staff Director and Chief Counsel of the Government Management, Information and Technology subcommittee (later renamed the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management and Intergovernmental Relations), chaired by Representative Stephen Horn. There he directed a staff that conducted over 200 hearings on legislative and oversight issues pertaining to Federal Government management practices, including procurement policies, the disposition of government-controlled information, the performance of chief financial officers and inspectors general, and the Government's use of technology. He continued in that position until his appointment by President Bush in 2002.

    Source: http://www.treas.gov/tigta/about_ig.shtml
    8.20
    5 votes
    9
    Jane Holl Lute

    Jane Holl Lute

    Jane Holl Lute currently serves as the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, having been confirmed by the Senate on April 3, 2009. Previously, Lute was the United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Peacebuilding Support. Before that she was Assistant Secretary-General for Mission Support in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations since August 2003. Lute graduated from Montclair State University in 1978 and received her commission as a U.S. Army second lieutenant through Seton Hall University's ROTC program. In addition, she earned an M.A. from the University of Southern California in 1985, a Ph.D. in political science from Stanford University in 1989, and a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University in 2000. She is a member of the Virginia Bar. From 1991 to 1994, she served as director of European Affairs in the National Security Council staff at the White House. Between 1994 and 1999, Lute headed up the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict and was a senior public policy fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Centre for International Scholars. Prior to joining the UN Secretariat, Lute served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the United Nations
    8.20
    5 votes
    10
    Salmon P. Chase

    Salmon P. Chase

    Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S.  Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States. Chase was one of the most prominent members of the new Republican Party before becoming Chief Justice. Chase articulated the "slave power conspiracy" thesis well before Lincoln, devoting his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power – the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, "Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men". Chase was born in Cornish, New Hampshire to Janet Ralston and Ithamar Chase, who died in 1817 when Salmon was nine years old. His mother was left with ten children and few resources, and so Salmon spent several years, from 1820 to 1824, in Ohio with his uncle Bishop Philander Chase, a leading figure in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the West. U.S. Senator Dudley Chase of Vermont, was also his uncle. He studied in the common schools of Windsor, Vermont and
    8.00
    5 votes
    11
    Francis Collins

    Francis Collins

    Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950), is an American physician-geneticist noted for his discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the Human Genome Project (HGP). He currently serves as Director of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Prior to being appointed Director, he was the founder and president of the BioLogos Foundation, an organization which promotes discourse on the relationship between science and religion and advocates the perspective that belief in Christianity can be reconciled with acceptance of evolution and science. Collins also wrote the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, which discusses Collins' conversion from atheism to Christianity, evaluates the evidence for Christianity, and argues for theistic evolution. In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI appointed Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Raised on a small farm in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, Collins was home schooled until the sixth grade. He attended Robert E. Lee High School. Through most of his high school and college years, he aspired to be a chemist, and had little interest in what he then considered the "messy"
    6.83
    6 votes
    12
    Christopher Dell

    Christopher Dell

    Christopher William Dell is a career United States Foreign Service officer who currently serves as the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Kosovo, after having been posted to Angola and Zimbabwe. Dell obtained a Bachelor of Arts from Columbia College, Columbia University in 1978 and a Master of Philosophy from Balliol College, University of Oxford in 1980. During the 1980s, Dell worked in American embassies and consulates in Mexico and Portugal, and at the Foreign Office. In the 1990s, he was posted to Mozambique and Bulgaria. In 2000-2001, he served as the Chief of Mission of the U.S. Office in Pristina, Kosovo. From 2001 to 2004, Christopher Dell was U.S. Ambassador to Angola. Dell was appointed US Ambassador to Zimbabwe on July 2, 2004, and presented his credentials in Harare on September 2. During his tenure, the government of President Robert Mugabe has carried out Operation Murambatsvina, which has been described by Mugabe as an “urban renewal” programme and by his political opponents as a crackdown on the urban poor. Western governments, including that of the United States, have condemned it. Relations between the United States and Zimbabwe have deteriorated as a result of
    7.80
    5 votes
    13
    John Berry

    John Berry

    Morrell John Berry (born February 10, 1959) is an American administrator and director of the United States Office of Personnel Management. Berry was born in Montgomery County, Maryland, to parents who worked for the federal government. He completed degrees at the University of Maryland, College Park and Syracuse University and worked in local government and as a legislative aide in state government from 1982 to 1985. From 1985 to 1994, he worked as legislative director for U.S. Representative Steny Hoyer. He held posts in the U.S. Treasury Department, the Smithsonian Institution, and the U.S. Department of the Interior until 2000, and worked as director of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and the National Zoological Park until 2009, when he was nominated by President Barack Obama as director of the United States Office of Personnel Management. Berry took office after being confirmed by the United States Senate in April 2009, becoming responsible for managing the human resources of the federal government. Berry was born February 10, 1959, in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, United States. His father served in the U.S. Marine Corps, his mother worked for the U.S.
    9.00
    4 votes
    14
    Marie L. Yovanovitch

    Marie L. Yovanovitch

    Marie L. Yovanovitch (born c. 1958) was the Ambassador from the United States of America to Armenia. Her term of appointment started August 1, 2008 and ended June 3, 2011. She was the first woman to hold this position. She was previously Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan. Ms. Marie L. Yovanovitch of Connecticut, a career member of the senior foreign service, Class of Counselor, was nominated on June 3, 2005 to serve as the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the Kyrgyz Republic, and confirmed by the United States Senate on June 30, 2005. Prior to her appointment as U.S. Ambassador, Marie Yovanovitch was the Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from August 2004 to May 2005. From August 2001 to June 2004, she was the Deputy Chief of Mission of the U.S. Embassy Kiev, Ukraine. Prior to this assignment, from May 1998 to May 2000, she served as the Deputy Director of the Russian Desk. Her previous overseas assignments include Ottawa, Moscow, London, and Mogadishu. Ms. Yovanovitch joined the foreign service in 1986. Ms. Yovanovitch is a graduate of Princeton University where she earned a BA in History and Russian Studies
    9.00
    4 votes
    15
    Nathan Clifford

    Nathan Clifford

    Nathan Clifford (August 18, 1803 – July 25, 1881) was an American statesman, diplomat and jurist, whose career culminated in a lengthy period of service as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Clifford was born of old Yankee stock in Rumney, New Hampshire, to farmers, the only son of seven children (His great-great-grandmother, Ann Smith, wife of Israel Clifford, was the accuser of Goody Cole.) He attended the public schools of that town, then the Haverhill Academy in New Hampshire, and finally the New Hampton Literary Institute (now known as the New Hampton School). After teaching school for a time, he studied law in the offices of Josiah Quincy III and was admitted to the bar in Maine in 1827, establishing his first practice in Newfield, Maine. He served in the Maine House of Representatives from 1830 to 1834 and served as Speaker of that house the last two years. He was then Maine Attorney General from 1834 until 1838, when he entered national politics. Clifford was elected as a Democrat to the 26th and 27th Congresses, serving March 4, 1839 through March 3, 1843, and representing the Second and then the Third District. He was not a candidate for
    7.60
    5 votes
    16
    Mary Schapiro

    Mary Schapiro

    Mary L. Schapiro (born June 19, 1955) is the 29th Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). She was appointed by President Barack Obama, and assumed the Chairmanship on January 27, 2009. She is the first woman to be the permanent Chairman of the SEC. In 2009, Forbes ranked her the 56th most powerful woman in the world. Schapiro served in various roles as a financial services regulator in the administrations of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. From 2006 to early 2009, she was the Chairman and CEO of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), the securities industry's self-regulatory organization for broker-dealers and exchanges in the United States. Schapiro was born in New York City to a Jewish family. She graduated from Franklin & Marshall College in 1977. In 1980 she earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from George Washington University Law School. Schapiro was appointed in 1988 by President Ronald Reagan to fill one of two Democratic seats on the SEC. President George H. W. Bush reappointed her to this position in 1989. President Bill Clinton appointed Schapiro acting Chairman of the SEC, and then appointed her Chairman of the
    8.75
    4 votes
    17
    Thomas J. Perrelli

    Thomas J. Perrelli

    Thomas John Perrelli (born March 12, 1966) is an American lawyer and the former United States Associate Attorney General. He served as Associate Attorney General during the administration of President Barack Obama. Perrelli also served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General of the United States in the late 1990s. As a high school senior at W.T. Woodson HS, he was co-captain of the Fairfax All-County Math Team. He was a three time National Junior Classical League Certamen (Latin competition) champion. Also, his freshman year at Brown, 1984, he placed first in the annual William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition. He earned his A.B., magna cum laude in History from Brown University in 1988, where he served as Editor-in-Chief of The Critical Review, Brown's student publication of course evaluations. Perrelli graduated from Harvard Law School, magna cum laude, in 1991, where he was managing editor of the Harvard Law Review, working under Barack Obama, who was President of the Harvard Law Review at the time. Perrelli is admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court, the Virginia and District of Columbia courts and numerous other federal courts. Prior to joining Jenner &
    8.75
    4 votes
    18
    Charles F. Bolden, Jr.

    Charles F. Bolden, Jr.

    Charles Frank Bolden, Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is the current Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps general, and former NASA astronaut. A 1968 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he became a Marine Aviator and test pilot. After his service as an astronaut, he became Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Bolden as NASA Administrator and Lori Garver as Deputy NASA Administrator. Bolden was confirmed by the Senate on July 15, 2009. He is the first African American to head the agency on a permanent basis. Bolden is also the virtual host of the Shuttle Launch Experience attraction at Kennedy Space Center and serves on the board of directors for the Military Child Education Coalition. Bolden graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina in 1964. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, and a Master of Science in systems management from the University of Southern California in 1977. He is a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity. Bolden accepted a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the
    7.40
    5 votes
    19
    George Sutherland

    George Sutherland

    Alexander George Sutherland (March 25, 1862 – July 18, 1942) was an English-born U.S. jurist and political figure. One of four appointments to the Supreme Court by President Warren G. Harding, he served as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court between 1922 and 1938. Sutherland was born in Buckinghamshire, England, to a Scottish father, Alexander George Sutherland, and an English mother, Frances, née Slater. A recent convert to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), Alexander Sutherland moved the family to Utah in the summer of 1863. Initially Alexander Sutherland settled his family in Springville, Utah, but moved to Montana and prospected for a few years before moving his family back to Utah in 1869, where he pursued a number of different occupations. At the age of twelve, the need to help his family financially forced Sutherland to leave school and take a job, first as a clerk in a clothing store, then as an agent of the Wells Fargo Company. Yet Sutherland aspired to a higher education, and in 1879 had saved enough to attend Brigham Young Academy. There he studied under Karl G. Maeser, who proved an important influence in his intellectual
    7.40
    5 votes
    20
    Glenn A. Fine

    Glenn A. Fine

    Glenn Alan Fine (circa 1956— ) served as Inspector General of the United States Department of Justice from 2000 until January 2011. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 15, 2000. Prior to his appointment as Inspector General, Fine served as Special Counsel to the Inspector General from January 1995 until 1996, when he was made Director of the OIG's Special Investigations and Review Unit. Immediately prior to joining the OIG office at the Department of Justice, Fine had been in a private law practice in Washington, D.C., where he specialized in labor and employment law. Before entering private practice, Fine served as an Assistant United States Attorney for the Washington, D.C. United States Attorney's Office from 1986 to 1989. In those three years, he prosecuted more than 35 criminal jury trials and handled numerous grand jury investigations. Fine's father was an antitrust lawyer at the Justice Department for 28 years. In September 1993, Fine married Beth Heifetz, a former law clerk to United States Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun. The wedding was jointly officiated at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC by Justice Blackmun and Rabbi Howard Gorin. Fine
    7.40
    5 votes
    21
    Howell Edmunds Jackson

    Howell Edmunds Jackson

    Howell Edmunds Jackson (April 8, 1832 – August 8, 1895) was an American jurist and politician. He served on the United States Supreme Court, in the U.S. Senate, United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, and the Tennessee House of Representatives. He authored notable opinions on the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. His secretary on the Supreme Court was James Clark McReynolds, who later also became a Supreme Court Justice. Jackson was born in Paris, Tennessee to Alexander Jackson, a doctor, and Mary Hurt Jackson, the daughter of a Baptist minister, both natives of Virginia. He moved to Jackson, Tennessee, with his parents at the age of eight where his father would be elected as a Whig to the state legislature and subsequently as Jackson's mayor. Howell graduated from West Tennessee College in 1849, where he studied Greek and Latin, then attended the University of Virginia for two years and then earned a law degree from Cumberland University. He then returned to Tennessee and clerked for Judge A.W.O. Totten of the Tennessee Supreme Court, and Milton Brown, a former U.S. Representative. The next year Howell attended Cumberland School of Law in
    7.40
    5 votes
    22
    John Catron

    John Catron

    John Catron (January 7, 1786 – May 30, 1865) was an American jurist who served as a US Supreme Court justice from 1837 to 1865. Little is known of Catron's early life. He was born in Montgomery County (later Wyeth County), Virginia to Peter (Catron) Kettering, who had immigrated as a child with his parents from Mittelbrun in the German Palatinate, as part of a major migration of refugees. His mother was Maria Elizabetha Houck, whose parents were also Palatine Germans; they had settled in Virginia by way of Pennsylvania. He had a sister Mary. He was a second cousin to Thomas Benton Catron, later one of the first two senators of the state of New Mexico. His father had served in Captain William Doack's militia company in Montgomery County during the Revolutionary War. The family relocated to Kentucky in the first years of the 19th century. Catron served in the War of 1812 under Andrew Jackson. He read law and was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1815. Catron was in private practice at Sparta in the Cumberland Mountains of Tennessee from 1815 to 1818, while simultaneously serving as a prosecuting attorney of that city. He established a land law practice in Nashville in 1818, in which
    7.40
    5 votes
    23
    7.40
    5 votes
    24
    Morrison Waite

    Morrison Waite

    Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was the seventh Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to 1888. He was born at Lyme, Connecticut, the son of Henry Matson Waite, who was a judge of the Superior Court and associate judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut in 1834–1854 and chief justice of the latter in 1854–1857. Morrison was a classmate of Lyman Trumbull at Bacon Academy in Colchester, Connecticut. He graduated from Yale University in 1837 with the 1876 Democratic presidential nominee, Samuel J. Tilden. At Yale, he became a member of the Skull and Bones Society and was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in 1837, and soon afterwards moved to Maumee, Ohio, where he studied law in the office of Samuel L. Young. He was admitted to the bar in 1839. He served one term as mayor of Maumee. He married Amelia Warner in 1840. He had three sons with her — Henry Seldon, Christopher Champlin, Edward T, and one daughter Mary F. In 1850, he moved to Toledo, and he soon came to be recognized as a leader of the state bar. Waite was an extremely successful attorney in Ohio. Upon admission to the state bar in 1839, he established a law firm in Maumee with
    8.50
    4 votes
    25
    Jeffrey D. Feltman

    Jeffrey D. Feltman

    Jeffrey D. Feltman (born c. 1959) is the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs. As head of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs Feltman oversees the UN's diplomatic efforts to prevent and mitigate conflict around the globe. Before joining the United Nations, Feltman served as US Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs from August 2009 to June 2012 with the rank of Career Minister. He was previously the United States Ambassador to Lebanon from July 2004 to January 2008. Before becoming Ambassador to Lebanon, Feltman volunteered to serve at the Coalition Provisional Authority office in Irbil, Iraq, from January to April 2004. Prior to his work in Iraq, he was at the U.S. Consulate General in Jerusalem, where he served first as Deputy (August 2001-November 2002) and then as Acting Principal Officer (November 2002 to December 2003). He joined the U.S. Foreign Service in 1986, serving his first tour as consular officer in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He has spent much of his career dealing with Eastern Europe and the Near East. He served in Embassy Tel Aviv as Ambassador Martin Indyk's Special Assistant on Peace Process issues (2000–2001).
    9.67
    3 votes
    26
    James Franklin Jeffrey

    James Franklin Jeffrey

    James Franklin Jeffrey (born 1947) is an American diplomat and the current United States Ambassador to Iraq. He was serving as the Deputy National Security Advisor in the administration of George W. Bush before being appointed to Turkey. He was born in Massachusetts. Mr. Jeffrey received a BA in History from Northeastern University in 1969, and an MS in Business Administration from Boston University Graduate School of Management in 1977. He also holds a diploma in the French language from the University of Paris. From 1969-1976 Mr. Jeffrey served as an infantry officer in the U.S. Army, with assignments in Germany and Vietnam. He joined the Foreign Service in 1977. His most recent assignments were as Deputy Chief of Mission to Ankara, 1999–2002, and to Kuwait, 1996-1999. He also has served in Tunis, Sofia, Munich, Adana, and on a first assignment to Ankara in 1985-1987. In the Department, Mr. Jeffrey has served as Senior Greek Desk Officer, as Officer in Charge of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, as Deputy Office Director in the Office of Near Eastern Peace Process and Regional Affairs, and as Deputy Presidential Special Advisor for Bosnia Implementation. He
    7.20
    5 votes
    27
    John Paul Stevens

    John Paul Stevens

    John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from December 19, 1975 until his retirement on June 29, 2010. At the time of his retirement, he was the oldest member of the Court and the third longest-serving justice in the history of the Supreme Court. He was nominated by President Gerald Ford to replace the Court's longest-serving justice, William O. Douglas. Stevens is widely considered to have been on the liberal side of the Court. Stevens served with three Chief Justices (Warren E. Burger, William Rehnquist, and John G. Roberts). Stevens was born on April 20, 1920, in Hyde Park, Chicago, Illinois, to a wealthy family. His paternal grandfather had formed an insurance company and held real estate in Chicago, while his great-uncle owned the Chas A. Stevens department store. His father, Ernest James Stevens, was a lawyer who later became a hotelier, owning two hotels, the La Salle and the Stevens Hotel. He lost ownership of the hotels during the Great Depression and was convicted of embezzlement (the conviction was later overturned). (The Stevens Hotel was subsequently bought by Hilton Hotels and is today the Chicago
    8.25
    4 votes
    28
    Rand Beers

    Rand Beers

    Rand Beers is the current Under Secretary of Homeland Security for National Protection and Programs. Beers was appointed as Under Secretary by President Barack Obama on June 19, 2009. As Under Secretary, Beers direct the Department's integrated efforts to reduce risks to physical, cyber and communications infrastructures. NPPD collaborates with all levels of government, the private sector, non-government organizations, and international bodies to prevent, respond to, and mitigate threats to U.S. national security from acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and other catastrophic events. As Under Secretary for NPPD, Beers oversees the coordinated operational and policy functions of the Directorate’s subcomponents – Federal Protective Service (FPS), Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Infrastructure Protection (IP), Risk Management and Analysis (RMA), and the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) program – in support of the Department’s critical mission. Beers has served as Counselor to Secretary Janet Napolitano since January 21, 2009 and will continue in that capacity while directing the activities of NPPD. Before his appointment, he was the
    8.25
    4 votes
    29
    Louis Susman

    Louis Susman

    Louis B. Susman (born 1938) is an American lawyer, retired investment banker, and the current United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Nominated by President Barack Obama, he was confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 2009, and sworn in by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Susman is a longtime and prolific fundraiser for Democratic Party candidates, including Obama and 2004 presidential nominee John Kerry. According to the Agence France-Presse (AFP), "US ambassador residences in London and Paris have long been retreats for presidents' wealthy friends. His appointment was criticized because Obama had promised to appoint more career diplomats as ambassadors to prestige posts. Susman served on the Democratic National Committee from 1972 to 1982. He retired in 2009 as vice chairman of Citigroup Global Markets in Chicago. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan and earned his law degree from Washington University in St. Louis.
    7.00
    5 votes
    30
    Robert Trimble

    Robert Trimble

    Robert Trimble (November 17, 1776 – August 25, 1828) was an attorney, judge, and a justice of the United States Supreme Court. Trimble was born in Berkeley County, Virginia, to William Trimble and Mary McMillan. His family moved to Kentucky when he was three years old. They settled in the area outside Boonesboro (now Clark County). Trimble's opportunities for early education were sparse, but he studied what material was available and taught school for a few years. He studied law at a new law school in Lebanon, Ohio. He also read law under George Nicholas until Nicholas' death in 1799, then continued his studies under future Louisiana Senator James Brown. He was licensed to practice law by the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1803 and commenced practice in Paris, Kentucky. Trimble married Nancy Timberlake and the two had at least six children. In 1803, Trimble was elected to represent Bourbon County in the Kentucky House of Representatives. During his single term in the legislature, he found that he disliked the life of a politician, and thereafter refused election to any public office, including two nominations to the U.S. Senate. In 1808, Trimble was commissioned as an associate
    7.00
    5 votes
    31
    Tom Strickland

    Tom Strickland

    Tom Strickland is an American lawyer who was formerly chief of staff to Interior Secretary Ken Salazar and Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks in the Interior Department. Strickland served as United States Attorney for Colorado and was the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senate for Colorado in 1996 and 2002. He is currently a partner at WilmerHale. Tom Strickland was born in Texas but attended Louisiana State University. In 1977 he graduated with honors from the University of Texas School of Law. Assuming office the day after the Columbine High School massacre, Strickland's legacy as U.S. Attorney is his tough stance on gun crime. Shortly after taking office, Strickland led efforts to enact Colorado's Project Exile, under which Federal and local prosecutors would cooperate to bring gun charges under state or federal laws, whichever would offer the toughest sentence. During its first year, Colorado Project Exile doubled the number of people who were charged with violating state and federal gun laws in Colorado. Under Strickland's leadership, the project launched with support from gun rights groups including the National Rifle Association and gun control groups such as
    7.00
    5 votes
    32
    Noah Haynes Swayne

    Noah Haynes Swayne

    Noah Haynes Swayne (December 7, 1804 – June 8, 1884) was an American jurist and politician. He was the first Republican appointed as a justice to the United States Supreme Court. Swayne was born in Frederick County, Virginia in the uppermost reaches of the Shenandoah Valley, approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of Washington D.C. He was the youngest of nine children of Joshua Swayne and Rebecca (Smith) Swayne. He was a descendant of Francis Swayne, who emigrated from England in 1710 and settled near Philadelphia. After his father died in 1809, Noah was educated locally until enrolling in Jacob Mendendhall's Academy in Waterford, Virginia, a respected Quaker school 1817-18. He began to study medicine in Alexandria, Virginia, but abandoned this pursuit after his teacher Dr. George Thornton died in 1819. Despite his family having no money to support his continued education, he read law under John Scott and Francis Brooks in Warrenton, Virginia, and was admitted to the Virginia Bar in 1823. A devout Quaker (and to date the only Quaker to serve on the Supreme Court), Swayne was deeply opposed to slavery, and in 1824 he left Virginia for the free state of Ohio. His abolitionist
    8.00
    4 votes
    33
    9.00
    3 votes
    34
    Stephen Johnson Field

    Stephen Johnson Field

    Stephen Johnson Field (November 4, 1816 – April 9, 1899) was an American jurist. He was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from May 20, 1863, to December 1, 1897. Prior to this, he was the 5th Chief Justice of California. Born in Haddam, Connecticut, he was the sixth of the nine children of David Dudley Field I, a Congregationalist minister, and his wife Submit Dickinson. His family produced three other children of major prominence in 19th Century America: David Dudley Field II the prominent attorney, Cyrus Field the millionaire investor and creator of the Atlantic Cable, and Rev. Henry Martyn Field a prominent clergyman and travel writer. He grew up in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and went to Turkey at thirteen with his sister and her missionary husband. He received a B.A. from Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, in 1837. While attending Williams College he was one of the original Founders of Delta Upsilon Fraternity. After reading law in New York City with his brother David Dudley II, they practiced law together until 1848 when he went west to California in the Gold Rush. In California, Field's legal practice boomed and he was elected alcalde, a
    6.60
    5 votes
    35
    Charles Evans Hughes

    Charles Evans Hughes

    Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican politician from New York. He served as the 36th Governor of New York (1907–1910), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1910–1916), United States Secretary of State (1921–1925), a judge on the Court of International Justice (1928–1930), and the 11th Chief Justice of the United States (1930–1941). He was the Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, losing narrowly to Woodrow Wilson. Hughes was a professor in the 1890s, a staunch supporter of Britain's New Liberalism, an important leader of the progressive movement of the 20th century, a leading diplomat and New York lawyer in the days of Harding and Coolidge, and was known for being a swing voter when dealing with cases related to the New Deal in the 1930s. Historian Clinton Rossiter has hailed him as a leading American conservative. Charles Evans Hughes was born in Glens Falls, New York. He was active in the Northern Baptist church, a Mainline Protestant denomination. Hughes was educated in a private school. At the age of 14, he enrolled at Madison University (now Colgate
    7.50
    4 votes
    36
    Gregory H. Friedman

    Gregory H. Friedman

    Gregory H. Friedman was nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate as Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Energy in 1998.  Mr. Friedman started his Federal career in 1968 at the Department of Defense and has been with the Office of Inspector General since 1982.  As Inspector General, he is responsible for a nationwide, independent program of audits, inspections, and law enforcement efforts related to the Department of Energy’s programs and operations, including its over $130 billion in assets and 107,000 Federal and contractor personnel. Since January 2005, Mr. Friedman has also served as Vice Chair of the President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency (PCIE).  The PCIE, established by Executive Order, is the parent organization of the thirty large agency inspectors general.  As such, the PCIE addresses government-wide integrity, economy, and program results issues.  The Vice Chair manages the Council’s day-to-day activities.Mr. Friedman received a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration from Temple University and a Master’s degree in Business Administration from Fairleigh Dickinson University.  In 1979-1980, Mr. Friedman was selected as a Princeton Fellow in Public Affairs and spent a year in residence at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Studies.  Mr. Friedman has served as a guest lecturer on audit, ethics and integrity matters, and on governmental affairs at Princeton University, George Washington University, and at many government and private sector symposia.  In addition, Mr. Friedman is a member of a number of professional organizations, and has served in leadership positions in these organizations.  These include the Association of Government Accountants, the Institute of Internal Auditors, the International Association of Chiefs of Police and the International Association of Counterintelligence Officers.  In addition, Mr. Friedman has been active in a number of community and philanthropic organizations.  In 2002, Mr. Friedman was named by the Comptroller General of the United States to serve as a member of the Advisory Council on Government Auditing Standards.  In addition, he led the development of the “Federal Audit Manual,” for the first time providing universal guidelines for conducting Federal financial audits. During his Federal career, Mr. Friedman has received numerous awards, including the Department of Energy’s Meritorious Service Award, the Meritorious Presidential Rank Award, and the Presidential Rank Award for Distinguished Executive.
    7.50
    4 votes
    37
    Joseph Rucker Lamar

    Joseph Rucker Lamar

    Joseph Rucker Lamar (October 15, 1857 – January 2, 1916) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court appointed by President William Howard Taft. A cousin of former associate justice Lucius Lamar, he served from 1911 until his death in 1916. Born in Ruckersville, Elbert County, Georgia, Lamar was the son of a minister and attended the Academy of Richmond County in Augusta, Georgia and the Martin Institute in Jefferson, Georgia. During his time in Augusta, he lived down the street from future president Woodrow Wilson, whose father was the local Presbyterian minister. After Lamar graduated from the Penn Lucy School near Baltimore, Maryland, he attended the University of Georgia where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society before graduating from Bethany College in 1877, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi. He then completed law school at Washington and Lee University School of Law the following year and began practicing law in Augusta, Georgia. From 1886 to 1889, he served in the Georgia House of Representatives, and then was appointed by the Supreme Court of Georgia in 1893 as a commissioner to prepare a code of laws for the state. Two years later, that
    7.50
    4 votes
    38
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Philip T. Reeker

    Philip T. Reeker

    Philip Thomas Reeker (born c. 1964) is an American diplomat and career foreign service officer with the Department of State. He served as the ambassador to Macedonia 2008–2011. From June 2007 until June 2008, he served at the U.S. Embassy in Iraq as the Counselor to the Ambassador for Public Affairs. He was the Deputy Chief of Mission in Budapest, Hungary from 2004 to 2007. Reeker was Deputy Spokesman and Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Public Affairs from 2000-2003. He was recipient of the Edward R. Murrow Award for Excellence in Public Diplomacy in 2003, and traveled domestically and internationally as the Spokesman at Large for the State Department, giving talks and interviews on U.S. foreign policy and diplomacy from 2003 to 2004. A career foreign service officer, Reeker previously served as Director of Press Relations at the State Department from 1999 to 2000; Assistant Information Officer in Budapest, Hungary from 1993 to 1996; and as the Public Affairs Officer in Skopje, Macedonia from 1997 to 1999. He was spokesman for Ambassador Christopher R. Hill and for the Rambouillet Agreement (Kosovo peace talks). Born in Pennsylvania, Mr. Reeker grew up in multiple parts
    7.50
    4 votes
    40
    Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired United States Supreme Court justice. She served as an Associate Justice from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement from the Court in 2006. She was the first woman to be appointed to the Court. Prior to O'Connor's appointment to the Court, she was an elected official and judge in Arizona. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire effective upon the confirmation of a successor. Samuel Alito was nominated to take her seat in October 2005, and joined the Court on January 31, 2006. O'Connor tended to approach each case narrowly without arguing for sweeping precedents. She most frequently sided with the court's conservative bloc. In the latter years of her tenure, she was regarded as having the swing vote in many cases as the court grew more conservative. O'Connor was Chancellor of The College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, and currently serves on the board of trustees of the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Several publications have named O'Connor among the most powerful women in the world. On August 12, 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of
    7.50
    4 votes
    41
    Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Maria Sotomayor (English pronunciation: /ˈsoʊnjə ˌsoʊtoʊmaɪˈjɔr/, Spanish: [ˈsonja sotomaˈʝor]; born June 25, 1954) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice. Sotomayor was born in The Bronx, New York City and is of Puerto Rican descent. Her father died when she was nine, and she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and received her J.D. from Yale Law School in 1979, where she was an editor at the Yale Law Journal. She was an advocate for the hiring of Latino faculty at both schools. She worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for five years before entering private practice in 1984. She played an active role on the boards of directors for the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the State of New York Mortgage Agency, and the New York City Campaign Finance Board. Sotomayor was nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W. Bush in 1991, and her nomination was confirmed in 1992. In
    7.50
    4 votes
    42
    Philip Gordon

    Philip Gordon

    Philip H. "Phil" Gordon (born 1962) is an American diplomat, foreign policy expert, and the current Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs. Gordon received a Bachelor of Arts in French and philosophy from Ohio University. He studied European studies and international economics at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, earning an M.A. in 1987 and a Ph.D in 1991. Gordon has held teaching and lecturing positions at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, INSEAD in Fontainebleau and Singapore; and the German Society for Foreign Affairs in Bonn. Dr. Gordon has previously served as a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC; Director for European Affairs at the National Security Council under President Bill Clinton; and Senior Fellow, International Institute for Strategic Studies, London. Gordon was a senior foreign policy advisor to Barack Obama during the 2008 Presidential campaign. Dr. Philip Gordon was nominated as Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs by Obama on March 6th, 2009 and took the oath of office on May 15th 2009. A key moment in his
    8.67
    3 votes
    43
    Benjamin Robbins Curtis

    Benjamin Robbins Curtis

    Benjamin Robbins Curtis (November 4, 1809 – September 15, 1874) was an American attorney and United States Supreme Court Justice. Curtis was the first and only Whig justice of the Supreme Court. He was also the first Supreme Court justice to have a formal legal degree and is the only justice to have resigned from the court over a matter of principle. He successfully acted as chief counsel for President Andrew Johnson during the first presidential impeachment trial and is notable as one of the two dissents in the Dred Scott decision. Benjamin Curtis was born November 4, 1809 in Watertown, Massachusetts, the son of Lois Ribbins and Benjamin Curtis, the captain of a merchant vessel. Young Curtis attended common school in Newton and beginning in 1825 Harvard College, where he won an essay writing contest in his junior year. He graduated in 1829, a member of Phi Beta Kappa. He subsequently graduated from Harvard Law School in 1831 and was admitted to the bar the following year. In 1834, he moved to Boston where he joined the law firm of Charles P Curtis Esquire. In 1836, Curtis participated in the Massachusetts "freedom suit" of Commonwealth v. Aves on behalf of the defendant. When New
    10.00
    2 votes
    44
    Craig Fugate

    Craig Fugate

    William Craig Fugate (born May 14, 1959) was confirmed by the U.S. Senate in 2009 to be the administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. He had been the Director of the Florida Division of Emergency Management. He was appointed director by Gov. Jeb Bush in 2001 and later re-appointed by Gov. Charlie Crist. Fugate trained in high school as a volunteer firefighter and has cultivated a low profile during his two decades in emergency management. He is also the founder of disastersrus.org, a website with disaster planning advice and links to disaster-related resources.
    10.00
    2 votes
    45
    Tom C. Clark

    Tom C. Clark

    Thomas Campbell "Tom C." Clark (September 23, 1899 – June 13, 1977) was United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949 and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1949–1967). Clark was born in Dallas, Texas to Virginia Maxey (née Falls) and William Henry Clark. A graduate of Dallas High School, he served as a Texas National Guard infantryman in 1918; afterward he studied law, receiving his law degree from the University of Texas School of Law in 1922. He was a brother of Delta Tau Delta fraternity, and later served as their international president. He set up a law practice in his home town of Dallas from 1922 to 1937, but left private practice for a period to serve as civil district attorney for the city from 1927 to 1932. Clark, a Democrat, joined the Justice Department in 1937 as a special assistant to the U.S. attorney general for war risk litigation. He served as civilian coordinator for the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans during the opening months of World War II. He headed the antitrust division at Justice in 1943, and the criminal division from 1943 to 1945. Appointed Attorney General by President Harry Truman in 1945, Clark was nominated to
    10.00
    2 votes
    46
    Henry Brockholst Livingston

    Henry Brockholst Livingston

    Henry Brockholst Livingston (November 25, 1757 – March 18, 1823) was an American Revolutionary War officer, a justice of the Supreme Court of New York and eventually an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Born in New York, New York to Susanna French and William Livingston, he received a B.A. from the College of New Jersey, (now Princeton University), in 1774. He inherited the Livingston estate, Liberty Hall (at modern-day Kean University), and retained it until 1798. During the American Revolutionary War he was a lieutenant colonel of the New York Line, serving on the staff of General Philip Schuyler from 1775 to 1777 and as an Aide-de-Camp to Major General Benedict Arnold at the Battle of Saratoga. He was a Private secretary to John Jay, then U.S. Minister to Spain from 1779 to 1782. Livingston was briefly imprisoned by the British in New York in 1782. After the war, Livingston read law to enter the Bar in 1783, and was in private practice in New York City from 1783 to 1802. Livingston served as a justice on the Supreme Court of New York from 1802 to 1807, where he authored a famous dissent in the case of Pierson v. Post, 3 Cai. R. 175 (1805). Two years
    6.40
    5 votes
    47
    Kristina M. Johnson

    Kristina M. Johnson

    Kristina M. Johnson is an American former government official, academic, engineer, and business executive. Johnson was the undersecretary for Energy at the United States Department of Energy until she stepped down Nov. 5, 2010. She has previously been the provost and senior vice president for academic affairs at Johns Hopkins University since September 1, 2007. Previously, she had been the dean of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University since 1999. Dr. Johnson received her B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University. She has also served as director of the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Optoelectronics Computing Systems at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Additionally, Dr. Johnson co-founded the Colorado Advanced Technology Institute Center of Excellence in Optoelectronics and is a director of Minerals Technologies Inc., AES Corporation, Nortel and Guidant Corporation (until Guidant's merger with Boston Scientific). She also served as Director at Boston Scientific Corporation until her recent confirmation to be Undersecretary of Energy for the Obama Administration. A strong proponent of women in
    6.40
    5 votes
    48
    Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar

    Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar

    Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (September 17, 1825 – January 23, 1893) was an American politician and jurist from Mississippi. A United States Representative and Senator, he also served as United States Secretary of the Interior in the first administration of President Grover Cleveland, as well as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Lamar was born near Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia, and was named after ancient Roman consul and dictator Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. He was a cousin of future associate justice Joseph Lamar, and nephew of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, second president of the Republic of Texas. He graduated from Emory College (now Emory University), then located in Oxford, Georgia, in 1845, and married the daughter of Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, one of the school's early presidents. He was a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity and was among the first initiates in that fraternity's chapter at the University of Mississippi. In 1849, Lamar's father-in-law, Professor Longstreet, moved to Oxford, Mississippi to take the position of Chancellor at the recently established University of Mississippi. Lamar followed him and took a position as a professor of
    6.40
    5 votes
    49
    Bernadette M. Allen

    Bernadette M. Allen

    Bernadette M. Allen is a United States foreign service officer and ambassador. She is the former U.S. Ambassador to Niger. Allen was born in Washington, D.C. and raised in Seat Pleasant, Maryland. She earned a B.A. in French Civilization and Linguistics at Central College in Pella, Iowa in 1978. She studied abroad for a year in 1977, earning a Certificate in French Civilization from the Sorbonne in Paris. From 1987–1989 she completed an M.A. in Human Resources Management from George Washington University while handling her regular duties at the Department of State. She speaks French and Mandarin Chinese. Allen was commissioned into the U.S. diplomatic service in January 1980. On October 26, 2005, President Bush nominated her to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Niger. She was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on February 16, 2006, and sworn in as ambassador on March 28, 2006.
    7.25
    4 votes
    50
    John Trasviña

    John Trasviña

    John D. Trasviña is the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Previously, he was president and general counsel of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF). From 1997 to 2001 he was Special Counsel for Immigration Related Unfair Employment Practices at the U.S. Department of Justice. Trasviña is a native of San Francisco, where he attended Lowell High School; he then received degrees from Harvard University and Stanford Law School. He has focused his work at the local and federal levels on civil rights, voting rights, immigration policy, worker rights and education. After graduating from Stanford Law School, Trasviña began his career as a Deputy City Attorney in San Francisco from 1983 to 1985, and then went to MALDEF in Washington D.C. from 1985 to 1987 as a legislative counsel. From there he moved to Capitol Hill to work for Paul Simon in 1987 first as counsel and then in 1993 as General Counsel & Staff Director for the United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Property Rights. During the Clinton Administration he was appointed to
    7.25
    4 votes
    51
    Larry EchoHawk

    Larry EchoHawk

    Larry Echo Hawk (born August 2, 1948) is an attorney, legal scholar and politician and since April 2012 has been a general authority of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Prior to becoming a general authority, he was the United States Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs. On May 20, 2009, Echo Hawk joined the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama as the head of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. He served as Attorney General of Idaho from 1991 to 1995. Echo Hawk was born in Cody, Wyoming to Ernest and Emma Jane Echo Hawk. His father worked with the oil and gas industry. Shortly before starting first grade the family moved to Farmington, New Mexico. He and his family joined the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints when he was 14. He baptized Teresa "Terry" Pries, whom he had been dating for several years and in 1967 their marriage in the Salt Lake Temple was performed by Spencer W. Kimball, then a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Echo Hawk attended Brigham Young University (BYU) on a football scholarship (playing as a safety). He earned a degree in physical education and zoology from BYU and served
    7.25
    4 votes
    52
    Michele Flournoy

    Michele Flournoy

    Michèle Angelique Flournoy (born December 14, 1960) is the former Under Secretary of Defense for Policy of the United States. She was confirmed in the position by the U.S. Senate on February 9, 2009 and was at the time the highest-ranking woman to hold a post at the Pentagon in the facility's history. Flournoy founded and was named President of the Center for a New American Security (CNAS) in 2007. Prior to co-founding CNAS with Kurt Campbell, she was a Senior Adviser at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where she worked on a broad range of defense policy and international security issues. Previously, Flournoy was a distinguished research professor at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University (NDU), where she founded and led the university’s Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) working group, which was chartered by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to develop intellectual capital in preparation for the Department of Defense’s 2001 QDR. On Dec 12 2011 Flournoy announced that she would step down in February 2012 to return to private life and contribute to Obama's re-election bid next November. Prior to joining NDU, Flournoy
    7.25
    4 votes
    53
    Thomas Todd

    Thomas Todd

    Thomas Todd (January 23, 1765 – February 7, 1826) was an American attorney and U.S. Supreme Court justice. Raised in the Colony of Virginia, he studied law and later participated in the founding of Kentucky, where he served as a clerk, judge, and justice. He was married twice and had a total of eight children. Todd joined the U.S. Supreme Court in 1807 and his handful of legal opinions there mostly concerned land claims. Todd was born in King and Queen County, Virginia, on January 23, 1765. He was the youngest of five children. Both of his parents died when he was young. He was raised Presbyterian. At the age of sixteen, Todd served in the American Revolutionary War for six months and then returned home. He attended Liberty Hall Academy in Lexington, Virginia, which is now Washington and Lee University, and graduated in 1783. Todd then became a tutor at Liberty Hall Academy in exchange for room and board and instruction in the law. Todd studied surveying before moving to Kentucky County (then part of Virginia) in 1783 when his first cousin, Harry Innes, was appointed to the Kentucky district of the Virginia Supreme Court. Todd read law to gain admission to the Kentucky bar in 1786,
    6.20
    5 votes
    54
    Calvin L. Scovel III

    Calvin L. Scovel III

    Calvin L. Scovel III is the sixth Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). He was nominated by President George W. Bush on July 13, 2006 and, after confirmation by the Senate, was sworn in on October 27, 2006. He is a recipient of the Secretary's Gold Medal for Outstanding Achievement for his leadership of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) in supporting DOT's recovery effort after the collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007.
    9.50
    2 votes
    55
    Julius Genachowski

    Julius Genachowski

    Julius Genachowski (born August 19, 1962) is an American lawyer and businessman. He became Federal Communications Commission Chairman on June 29, 2009. Genachowski grew up in Great Neck, New York. He attended yeshiva and studied in Israel. He entered Columbia College of Columbia University as a pre-med student, but earned a Bachelor of Arts in History (1985) magna cum laude. He was an Editor of the Columbia Daily Spectator. After working in Washington, D.C., for former New York Congressman Chuck Schumer, he entered Harvard Law School and earned a Juris Doctor (1991), also magna cum laude. He was a Notes Editor at the Harvard Law Review when his classmate Barack Obama was its president. Genachowski clerked for The Honorable Abner J. Mikva on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and then for Justices William J. Brennan and David Souter at the U.S. Supreme Court. Genachowski was on the staffs of the Select Committee investigating the Iran-Contra Affair and then U.S. Representative Chuck Schumer. In 1994 FCC Chairman Reed Hundt hired him as a senior legal advisor; he was chief counsel 1996-1997. He was Chief of Business Operations and a member of Barry Diller's Office of the
    9.50
    2 votes
    56
    Kim Jong-il

    Kim Jong-il

    Kim Jong-il, also romanised as Kim Jong Il (born Yuri Irsenovich Kim, 16 February 1941; official biography claims 1942 – 17 December 2011), was the supreme leader of North Korea (DPRK) from 1994 to 2011. He succeeded his father and founder of the DPRK Kim Il-sung following the elder Kim's death in 1994. Kim Jong-il was the General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, and the supreme commander of the Korean People's Army, the fourth-largest standing army in the world. In April 2009, North Korea's constitution was amended to refer to him as the "supreme leader". His son Kim Jong-un was promoted to a senior position in the ruling Workers' Party and is his successor. In 2010, he was ranked 31st in Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People. The North Korean government announced his death on 19 December 2011. Following his death, he was succeeded by his third son Kim Jong-un. He was proclaimed the Eternal General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and Eternal Chairman of the National Defence Commission in 2012. His birthday is a public holiday in the country. Soviet records show that Kim was born in
    9.50
    2 votes
    57
    Maria Otero

    Maria Otero

    María Otero was sworn in as United States Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs on August 10, 2009. She oversees and coordinates U.S. foreign policy on a variety of global issues, including democracy, human rights, and labor; environment, oceans, health and science, population, refugees and migration, and trafficking in persons. She also serves as the Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues. Otero was formerly the president and CEO of ACCION International, a pioneer and leader in microfinance working in 25 countries in around the globe. Under Otero’s tenure as CEO, ACCION’s network of microfinance institutions expanded its reach from serving 460,000 people to over 3.7 million, through a combined portfolio that grew from $274 million to nearly $3.6 billion. She is a leading voice on sustainable microfinance, publishing extensively on the subject and speaking throughout the world on microfinance, women’s issues and poverty alleviation. Prior to ACCION, Otero was the Economist for Latin America for the Women in Development office of USAID. She also served for five years at the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA). Otero’s awards and recognition
    9.50
    2 votes
    58
    Peter R. Orszag

    Peter R. Orszag

    Peter Richard Orszag (/ˈɔrzæɡ/; born December 16, 1968) is an American economist who is a Vice Chairman of Global Banking at Citigroup. He is also a columnist at Bloomberg View, a Distinguished Scholar at New York University School of Law, and an adjunct senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. Before joining Citigroup, he was a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations and a contributing columnist for the New York Times Op-Ed page. Prior to that, he was the 37th Director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Barack Obama. Orszag is also a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science. He serves on the Boards of Directors of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, the Partnership for Public Service, and ideas42. Orszag grew up in Lexington, Massachusetts in a Jewish family from Hungarian descent. After graduating from Phillips Exeter Academy with high honors (1987), he earned an A.B. summa cum laude in economics from Princeton University in 1991, and a M.Sc. (1992) and a Ph.D. (1997) in economics from the London School of
    9.50
    2 votes
    59
    Robert H. Jackson

    Robert H. Jackson

    Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was United States Attorney General (1940–1941) and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1941–1954). He was also the chief United States prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. A "county-seat lawyer", he remains the last Supreme Court justice appointed who did not graduate from any law school (though Justice Stanley Reed who served from 1938–1957 was the last such justice to serve on the court), although he did attend Albany Law School in Albany, New York for one year. He is remembered for his famous advice, that "...any lawyer worth his salt will tell the suspect in no uncertain terms to make no statement to the police under any circumstances." and for his aphorism describing the Supreme Court, "We are not final because we are infallible, but we are infallible only because we are final." Many lawyers revere Justice Jackson as one of the best writers on the court, and one of the most committed to due process protections from overreaching federal agencies. Born on a family farm in Spring Creek Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania and raised in Frewsburg, New York, Jackson graduated from Frewsburg High
    5.33
    6 votes
    60
    Pierce Butler

    Pierce Butler

    Pierce Butler (March 17, 1866 – November 16, 1939) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1923 until his death in 1939. He is notable for being the first Justice from Minnesota, and for being a Democrat appointed by a Republican president. Butler was born to Patrick and Mary Ann Butler, Catholic immigrants from County Wicklow, Ireland. (The pair met in Galena, Illinois, after having left the same part of Ireland because of the Irish Potato Famine.) Soon, the couple settled in Pine Bend (now Rosemount), Dakota County, Minnesota. Their son Pierce Butler was the sixth of nine children born in a log cabin; all but his sister would live to adulthood. Butler graduated from Carleton College, where he was a member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. He read for the law and was admitted to the bar in 1888. Butler married Annie M. Cronin in 1891. He was elected as county attorney in Ramsey County in 1892, and re-elected in 1894. Butler joined the law firm of How & Eller in 1896, which became How & Butler after the death of Homer C. Eller the following year. He accepted an offer to practice in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he took care
    7.00
    4 votes
    61
    Felix Frankfurter

    Felix Frankfurter

    Felix Frankfurter (November 15, 1882 – February 22, 1965) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Frankfurter was born in Vienna and immigrated to New York at the age of 12. He graduated from Harvard Law School and was active politically, helping to found the American Civil Liberties Union. He was a friend and adviser of President Franklin Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939. Frankfurter served on the Supreme Court for 23 years, and was a noted advocate of judicial restraint in the judgments of the Court. Frankfurter was born into a Jewish family on November 15, 1882, in Vienna, Austria, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the third of six children of Leopold and Emma (Winter) Frankfurter. His forebears had been rabbis for generations. In 1894, when he was twelve, his family immigrated to New York City's Lower East Side. Frankfurter attended P.S. 25, where he excelled at his studies and enjoyed chess and crap shooting on the street. He spent many hours reading at The Cooper Union and attending political lectures, usually on subjects such as trade unionism, socialism and communism. After graduating in 1902 from City College of
    6.75
    4 votes
    62
    Kenneth Clarke

    Kenneth Clarke

    Kenneth Harry Clarke, PC, QC, MP (born 2 July 1940) is a British Conservative politician, currently the Member of Parliament for Rushcliffe and a Minister without Portfolio in the UK Government. He was first elected to Parliament in 1970, and appointed as a minister in Edward Heath's Government in 1972. One of Britain's best-known politicians, he has served in the Cabinet as Education Secretary, Health Secretary, Justice Secretary, Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Since 1997 he has been the President of the Tory Reform Group. He has contested the Conservative Party leadership three times — in 1997, 2001 and 2005 — being defeated each time. Although he is considered popular with the general public, his pro-European views conflict with the Conservative Party's Euro-sceptic stance. Notably, he is President of the Conservative Europe Group and Vice-President of the European Movement UK. Kenneth Clarke's father (also named Kenneth) worked as a mining electrician and then a watchmaker and jeweller. He was born in West Bridgford, near Nottingham in 1940 and was educated at Langley Mill Boys' School, Derbyshire, Highbury Primary School, Nottingham and Nottingham High School
    6.75
    4 votes
    63
    Steven E. Koonin

    Steven E. Koonin

    Steven E. Koonin was the Under Secretary of Energy for Science at the United States Department of Energy. He left that post in November 2011 for a position at the Institute for Defense Analyses. He was previously Chief Scientist for BP plc, where he was responsible for guiding the company’s long-range technology strategy, particularly in alternative and renewable energy sources. Dr. Koonin joined BP in 2004 following a 29-year career at the California Institute of Technology as a Professor of Theoretical Physics, including a 9-year term as the Institute's provost. He has served on numerous advisory bodies for the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy and its various national laboratories. Koonin's research interests have included theoretical and computational physics, as well as global environmental science. On April 23, 2012, Koonin was named director of NYU's Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP). Koonin received his Bachelor of Science from Caltech and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    6.75
    4 votes
    64
    Herbert M. Allison

    Herbert M. Allison

    Herbert M. Allison, Jr. (born 1943) is currently conducting a review of loans to energy companies, on behalf of the Obama administration. Mr. Allison served as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Financial Stability of the United States having been confirmed by the Senate on June 19, 2009. He left the Treasury Department in September 2010. As assistant secretary, he developed and coordinated United States Department of the Treasury policies concerning financial stability. As part of his duties he also oversaw the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), the $700 billion fund to purchase assets and equity from financial institutions in order to strengthen the financial sector of the economy. His previous position was as President and CEO of Fannie Mae, a post to which he was appointed in September 2008, after Fannie was placed into conservatorship. Prior to that, Mr. Allison was Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of TIAA-CREF from 2002 until his retirement in 2008. Mr. Allison began his career at Merrill Lynch as an associate in investment banking and served variously as Treasurer, Director of Human Resources, Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President,
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    Clarence Thomas

    Clarence Thomas

    Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Succeeding Thurgood Marshall, Thomas is the second African American to serve on the Court. Thomas grew up in Savannah, Georgia and was educated at the College of the Holy Cross and at Yale Law School. In 1974, he was appointed an Assistant Attorney General in Missouri and subsequently practiced law there in the private sector. In 1979, he became a legislative assistant to Senator John Danforth (R-MO) and in 1981 was appointed Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the U.S. Department of Education. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Thomas Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC); he served in that position until 1990, when President George H. W. Bush nominated him for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. On July 1, 1991, after 16 months of service as a judge, Thomas was nominated by Bush to fill Marshall's seat on the United States Supreme Court. Thomas's confirmation hearings were bitter and intensely fought, centering on an accusation that he had made unwelcome sexual comments to attorney Anita Hill, a
    7.67
    3 votes
    66
    John McLean

    John McLean

    John McLean (March 11, 1785 – April 4, 1861) was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Courts, and was often discussed for the Whig and Republican nominations for President. McLean was born in Morris County, New Jersey, the son of Fergus McLean and Sophia Blackford. After living in a succession of frontier towns, Morgantown, Virginia; Nicholasville, Kentucky; and Maysville, Kentucky; in 1797 his family settled in Ridgeville, Warren County, Ohio. His brother William was also a successful Ohio politician. His brother Finis McLean was a United States Representative from Kentucky. He read law and was admitted to the bar in 1807. That same year he founded The Western Star, a weekly newspaper at Lebanon, the Warren County seat, where he practiced law. He was elected to the U.S. House for the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses, serving from March 4, 1813, until he resigned in 1816 to take a seat on the Ohio Supreme Court, to which he had been elected on February 17, 1816, replacing William W. Irvin. He resigned his judgeship in 1822 to take President James Monroe's appointment
    7.67
    3 votes
    67
    Maurice S. Parker

    Maurice S. Parker

    Maurice S. Parker is a United States diplomat and career foreign service officer of the State Department. As of 2008, he is the United States Ambassador to Swaziland. President Bush nominated him as ambassador on April 30, 2007. He took the oath of office on July 20, 2007 and presented his credentials to the government of Swaziland in September 2007. Parker received his bachelor's degree from the University of California at Berkeley and his master's degree from San Francisco State University. He is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, with the class of Minister-Counselor. Prior to his posting in Mbabane, he was Director of the Office of Employee Relations and Foreign Service Assignments in the Bureau of Human Resources. He was also Director of Consular and International Programs at the Homeland Security Council at the White House and Principal Officer at the consulates in Ciudad Juárez and Barcelona. His other overseas assignments have included Nigeria, Scotland, Colombia and Guyana.
    7.67
    3 votes
    68
    Robin R. Sanders

    Robin R. Sanders

    Robin Renee Sanders is the former United States Ambassador to Nigeria. She was appointed by President George W. Bush on November 19, 2007. Prior to her appointment as ambassador, she served as the International Advisor and Deputy Commandant of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces at the National Defense University in Washington, D.C. Prior to that she served as United States Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo (2002–2005) and as Director for Public Diplomacy for Africa for the U.S. State Department (2000–2002). She served twice as the Director for Africa at the National Security Council at the White House (under President George H. W. Bush from 1988 to 1989, and President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 1999). From 1996 to 1997, she was the Special Assistant for Latin America, Africa, and International Crime for the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. From 1994 to 1996 she served as the Chief of Staff and Senior Foreign Policy Advisor for a member of the House International Relations Committee. Sanders received her Bachelor of Arts from Hampton University and her Master of Arts in international relations and Africa studies and Masters of Science in communications
    7.67
    3 votes
    69
    Byron White

    Byron White

    Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White (June 8, 1917 – April 15, 2002) won fame both as a football halfback and as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Appointed to the court by President John F. Kennedy in 1962, he retired in 1993, being the twelfth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history. He was married to Marion Lloyd Stearns in 1946 and the father of two children, Charles (Barney) Byron White and Nancy Pitkin White. White was born in Fort Collins, Colorado. He was raised in the nearby town of Wellington, Colorado, where he obtained his high school diploma in 1930. He made a point of returning to Wellington on an annual basis for his high school reunions up until 1999 when his physical health worsened significantly. He died in Denver at the age of 84 from complications of pneumonia. He was the first and only Supreme Court Justice from the state of Colorado. After graduating at the top of his Wellington high school class, White attended the University of Colorado at Boulder on a scholarship. He joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and served as student body president his senior year. Graduating in 1938, he won a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of
    10.00
    1 votes
    70
    Edward Terry Sanford

    Edward Terry Sanford

    Edward Terry Sanford (July 23, 1865 – March 8, 1930) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice on the United States Supreme Court from 1923 until his death in 1930. Prior to his nomination to the high court, Sanford served as an Assistant Attorney General under President Theodore Roosevelt from 1905 to 1907, and as a federal district court judge from 1908 to 1923. Sanford is typically viewed as a conservative justice, favoring strict adherence to antitrust laws, and often voted with his mentor, Chief Justice William Howard Taft. A graduate of Harvard Law School, Sanford practiced law in his hometown of Knoxville, Tennessee, during the 1890s and early 1900s (decade). As Assistant Attorney General, he rose to national prominence as lead prosecutor during the high-profile trial of Joseph Shipp in 1907, which to date is the only criminal trial conducted by the Supreme Court. Sanford's most lasting impact on American law is arguably his majority opinion in the landmark case, Gitlow v. New York (1925). This case, which introduced the incorporation doctrine, helped pave the way for many of the Warren Court's decisions expanding civil rights and civil liberties in the 1950s
    10.00
    1 votes
    71
    John Hessin Clarke

    John Hessin Clarke

    John Hessin Clarke (September 18, 1857 – March 22, 1945) was an American lawyer and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1916 to 1922. Born in New Lisbon, Ohio, Clarke was the third child and only son of John Clarke, a lawyer and judge, and his wife Melissa Hessin. He attended New Lisbon High School and Western Reserve College, where he became a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1877. Clarke did not attend law school but studied the law under his father's direction and passed the bar exam cum laude in 1878. After practicing law in New Lisbon for two years, Clarke moved to Youngstown, where he purchased a half-share in the Youngstown Vindicator. The Vindicator was a Democratic newspaper and Clarke, a reform-minded Bourbon Democrat, wrote several articles opposing the growing power of corporate monopolies and promoting such causes as civil-service reform. He also became involved in local party politics and civic causes. His efforts to prevent Calvin S. Brice's renomination as the party's candidate for the United States Senate in 1894 ended in failure, but he worked successfully to oppose the election
    10.00
    1 votes
    72
    Joseph Story

    Joseph Story

    Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845. He is most remembered today for his opinions in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee and The Amistad, along with his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century, this work is one of the chief cornerstones of early American jurisprudence. It is the first comprehensive treatise ever written on the U.S. Constitution, and remains a great source of historical information of the formation and early struggles to define the American republic. Story had opposed Jacksonian democracy and said it was "oppression" of property rights by republican governments when popular majorities in the 1830s began to restrict and erode the property rights of the minority of rich men. Newmyer (1985) presents Story as a "Statesman of the Old Republic" who tried to be above democratic politics and to shape the law in accordance with the republicanism of Story's heroes, Alexander Hamilton and John Marshall, as well as the New England Whigs of the 1820s and 1830s such as Daniel
    10.00
    1 votes
    73
    Miguel H. Díaz

    Miguel H. Díaz

    Miguel Humberto Díaz is the current United States Ambassador to the Holy See. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 5, 2009. He was formerly a Professor of Theology at the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University in Minnesota. He was nominated by President Barack Obama and is the first Hispanic U.S. Ambassador accredited to the Holy See. Díaz was born in Havana, Cuba, and he and his family departed for Spain when he was 9. Two years later, he emigrated to Florida. He comes from a modest background, his father having worked as a waiter and his mother, a data entry clerk, having never attended High School. Díaz holds a B.A. from St. Thomas University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Theology from the University of Notre Dame. In addition to being a Professor of Theology at the College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University in Minnesota, Díaz is the co-editor of the book From the Heart of Our People: Explorations in Catholic Systematic Theology and author of On Being Human: U.S. Hispanic and Rahnerian Perspectives, named "Best Book of the Year" by the Hispanic Theological Initiative at Princeton Theological Seminary. Díaz taught Religious Studies and Theology at
    10.00
    1 votes
    74
    Potter Stewart

    Potter Stewart

    Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915 – December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. During his tenure, he made, among other areas, major contributions to criminal justice reform, civil rights, access to the courts, and Fourth Amendment jurisprudence. Stewart was born in Jackson, Michigan, approximately 30 miles (50 km) south of Lansing, Michigan, while his family was on vacation. His father, James Garfield Stewart, a prominent Republican from Cincinnati, Ohio, served as mayor of Cincinnati for seven years and was later a justice on the Ohio Supreme Court. Potter Stewart attended the Hotchkiss School, graduating in 1933. Then, he went on to Yale University, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon (Phi chapter) and Skull and Bones graduating class of 1937. He was awarded Phi Beta Kappa and served as chairman of the Yale Daily News. He graduated from Yale Law School in 1941, where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal and a member of Phi Delta Phi. Other members of that era included Gerald R. Ford, Peter H. Dominick, Walter Lord, William Scranton, R. Sargent Shriver, Cyrus R. Vance, and Byron R. White. The last would later become his colleague on
    10.00
    1 votes
    75
    Thomas A. Shannon, Jr.

    Thomas A. Shannon, Jr.

    Thomas A. Shannon, Jr. (born 1958) is an American diplomat. President Barack Obama nominated him as U.S. Ambassador to Brazil. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 24, 2009. Previously he served as Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, the head of the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs within the Department of State of the United States from 2005 through 2009. Shannon holds a Doctorate and a Master's degree in politics from Oxford University, and a B.A. in Government and Philosophy from the College of William and Mary. During his career as a Foreign Service Officer he also served as Special Assistant to the Ambassador at the U.S. Embassy in Brasilia, Brazil from 1989 to 1992; as Country Officer for Cameroon, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe from 1987 to 1989; and as the Consular/Political Rotational Officer at the U.S. Embassy in Guatemala City, Guatemala from 1984 to 1986. Shannon served as Director for Inter-American Affairs at the National Security Council from 1999 to 2000; as Political Counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Caracas, Venezuela from 1996 to 1999; and as Regional Labor Attaché at the U.S. Consulate General in Johannesburg,
    6.50
    4 votes
    76
    Thomas Stanley Matthews

    Thomas Stanley Matthews

    Thomas Stanley Matthews (July 21, 1824 – March 22, 1889), known as Stanley Matthews, was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from May 1881 to his death in 1889. Matthews was the Court's 46th justice. Before his appointment to the Court by President James Garfield, Matthews served as a senator from his home state of Ohio. Matthews was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and studied at Kenyon College. He practiced law in Cincinnati before moving to Maury County, Tennessee, where he practiced from 1840 to 1845. After editing the Cincinnati Herald for two years from 1846 to 1848, Matthews was selected to serve as the clerk of the Ohio House of Representatives and as a county judge in Hamilton County. He was then elected to the Ohio State Senate, where he served in 1856 and 1857. He was then appointed as the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Ohio, serving from 1858 to 1861. In 1861, Matthews resigned as United States Attorney to serve as a lieutenant colonel with the 23rd Ohio Infantry of the Union Army during the American Civil War. Matthews ran for the United States House of Representatives in 1876, but was defeated. A year later, he won a special election
    6.50
    4 votes
    77
    A. Thomas McLellan

    A. Thomas McLellan

    A. Thomas McLellan (born May 29, 1949, in Staten Island, New York) is a psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania and founder and Executive Director of the Treatment Research Institute, a not-for-profit research and evaluation institute in Philadelphia. McLellan received his B.A. from Colgate University and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Bryn Mawr College. He received postgraduate training in psychology at Oxford University. He has since worked for the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania. McLellan was the principal developer of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and the Treatment Services Review (TSR), widely used substance abuse instruments. He has served as an adviser to many government and nonprofit scientific organizations, including the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the National Practice Laboratory of the American Psychiatric Association, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the World Health Organization, and the Greek government. McLellan served as the Deputy Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy under the Obama administration. Among McLellan’s many honors and awards
    8.50
    2 votes
    78
    Harold Hitz Burton

    Harold Hitz Burton

    Harold Hitz Burton (June 22, 1888 – October 28, 1964) was an American politician and lawyer. He served as the 45th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, as a U.S. Senator from Ohio, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was known as a dispassionate jurist who prized equal justice under the law. He was born in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, to Alfred E. Burton and Anna Gertrude Hitz. His father was a Dean at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was also an explorer. He had accompanied Robert Peary on several expeditions to the North Pole. He was also a second cousin of J. Edgar Hoover on their mothers' side. Their common great-grandparents were Johannes (Hans) Hitz, first Swiss Consul General to the United States, and wife Anna Kohler. Burton attended Bowdoin College, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society, was quarterback of the football team, and graduated summa cum laude. His roommate and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Theta chapter) brother was Owen Brewster, later a U.S. Senator from Maine. He went on to Harvard Law School, graduating in 1912. After graduating, he moved to Cleveland and began the practice of law there.
    8.50
    2 votes
    79
    Howard Koh

    Howard Koh

    Howard Kyongju Koh (Hangul: 고경주, Hanja: 高京柱; born March 15, 1952) is the 14th United States Assistant Secretary for Health for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), after being nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate in 2009. As the Assistant Secretary for Health, Dr. Koh oversees the HHS Office of Public Health and Science, the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service, and the Office of the Surgeon General. He also serves as senior public health advisor to the Secretary. At the Office of Public Health and Science, he leads an array of interdisciplinary programs relating to disease prevention, health promotion, the reduction of health disparities, women’s and minority health, HIV/AIDS, vaccine programs, physical fitness and sports, bioethics, population affairs, blood supply, research integrity and human research protections. In these various roles, he is dedicated to the mission of creating better public health systems for prevention and care so that all people can reach their highest attainable standard of health. Dr. Koh previously served as the Harvey V. Fineberg Professor of the Practice of Public Health, Associate
    8.50
    2 votes
    80
    William Garvelink

    William Garvelink

    William John Garvelink (born May 22, 1949) is an American diplomat and former United States Ambassador to the Democratic Republic of the Congo by George W. Bush on May 30, 2007 and sworn in on October 22, 2007. Garvelink was born in Holland, Michigan and graduated from Calvin College (B.A.) in 1971 and the University of Minnesota (M.A.); along with post-graduate studies at the University of North Carolina in Latin American history, but ran out of money before earning his Ph.D. Garvelink joined the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1979. Before he joined AID, Garvelink was a professional staff member of the Subcommittee on International Organizations and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives. Garvelink's responsibilities included oversight of USAID’s worldwide humanitarian assistance and democracy programs. Offices within the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance include the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Office of Transition Initiatives, Office of Food for Peace, Office of Democracy and Governance, Office of Conflict Management and Mitigation and the Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation.
    8.50
    2 votes
    81
    Antonin Scalia

    Antonin Scalia

    Antonin Gregory Scalia (/skəˈlijə/; born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. As the longest-serving justice currently on the Court, Scalia is the Senior Associate Justice. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia has been described as the intellectual anchor of the Court's conservative wing. Scalia was born in Trenton, New Jersey, and attended public grade school and Catholic high school in New York City, where his family had moved. He attended Georgetown University as an undergraduate and obtained his Bachelor of Laws degree from Harvard Law School. After spending six years in a Cleveland law firm, he became a law school professor. In the early 1970s, he served in the Nixon and Ford administrations, first at minor administrative agencies, and then as an assistant attorney general. He spent most of the Carter years teaching at the University of Chicago, where he became one of the first faculty advisers of the fledgling Federalist Society. In 1982, he was appointed as a judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by President Ronald Reagan. In
    7.33
    3 votes
    82
    Horace Gray

    Horace Gray

    Horace Gray (March 24, 1828 – September 15, 1902) was an American jurist who ultimately served on the United States Supreme Court. He was active in public service and a great philanthropist to the City of Boston. Gray was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to the prominent Boston Brahmin merchant family of William Gray. He enrolled at Harvard College at the age of 13, graduated four years later and traveled in Europe for a time before returning home following a series of business problems for his family. He studied law at Harvard, although he did not receive a degree. Gray entered the bar in 1851. Gray's home later became the site of the Third Church of Christ, Scientist (Washington, D.C.) Horace Gray's half-brother, John Chipman Gray went on to become a lawyer and long-time professor at Harvard Law School. In 1854, he was named Reporter of Decisions for the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, a very prestigious appointment for so young a man and one which allowed him to edit numerous volumes of court records and provided for some independent legal writing, all of which earned him a very good reputation as a scholar and legal historian. This reputation made him a natural choice when
    7.33
    3 votes
    83
    John Beyrle

    John Beyrle

    John R. Beyrle (born February 11, 1954), a career Foreign Service Officer and specialist in Russian and Eastern European affairs, was Ambassador of the United States to the Russian Federation from July 3, 2008 until January 10, 2012, when he was succeeded by Michael McFaul. He was Ambassador to Bulgaria 2005 - 2008. Beyrle was Ambassador in Moscow during the "reset" of Russian-American relationship, which saw the signing of the New START arms control treaty, agreement on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization, and liberalized visa formalities for American and Russian travelers. Amb. Beyrle retired from the State Department in July 2012 with the rank of Career Minister, the diplomatic equivalent of a three-star general. He serves on the Board of Directors of the US-Russia Foundation, and provides consulting services on Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and other countries of the former Soviet Union. Beyrle was born on February 11, 1954 in Muskegon, Michigan. His father, Joseph Beyrle, was a decorated World War II veteran, who was one of the very few American soldiers in World War II to serve with both the United States Army and the
    7.33
    3 votes
    84
    John M. McHugh

    John M. McHugh

    John Michael McHugh (born September 29, 1948) is the 21st United States Secretary of the Army and a former Republican politician from the state of New York, who represented the state's 23rd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. On June 2, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated him to the position of United States Secretary of the Army. The United States Senate confirmed McHugh in a voice vote on September 16, 2009. He was sworn in as the 21st Secretary of the Army at a Pentagon ceremony on September 21, 2009. McHugh was born in Watertown, New York. He graduated from Watertown High School in 1966 and went on to Utica College where he graduated with a B.A. in political science in 1970. He later went on to receive a Master of Public Administration degree from the Nelson A. Rockefeller Graduate School of Public Affairs at the State University of New York at Albany in 1977. McHugh served as an assistant to Watertown's city manager from 1971 to 1977. He then served as an aide to State Senator H. Douglas Barclay from 1977 to 1984, when he was elected as his successor. He served as a member of the State Senate until his election to Congress. He ran
    7.33
    3 votes
    85
    Michele Leonhart

    Michele Leonhart

    Michele Marie Leonhart is an American career law enforcement officer and the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Since the resignation of Administrator Karen P. Tandy in the fall of 2007, Leonhart also served as Acting Administrator of the DEA. On 2 February 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Leonhart for the position of DEA Administrator; the nomination was sent to the Senate Judiciary Committee for consideration (nomination no. PN1430-111). Leonhart graduated from Bemidji State University in 1978 with a degree in criminal justice, and began her career in law enforcement as a patrol officer in Baltimore, Maryland before entering the DEA in late 1980 as a Special Agent. She became DEA's first female Special Agent in Charge in 1997. President George W. Bush announced his intention to nominate Leonhart as Deputy Administrator on 31 July 2003, and submitted her nomination to the United States Senate on 3 October 2003. The Senate confirmed her nomination on 8 March 2004. On 15 April 2008, the White House announced that President Bush intended to nominate Leonhart to succeed Tandy as the next Administrator of DEA. Leonhart's nomination was received by the
    7.33
    3 votes
    86
    Susan E. Rice

    Susan E. Rice

    Susan Elizabeth Rice (born November 17, 1964) is an American diplomat, former think-tank fellow, and the current United States Ambassador to the United Nations. Rice served on the staff of the National Security Council and as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs during President Bill Clinton's second term. Rice was confirmed as UN Ambassador by the U.S. Senate by unanimous consent on January 22, 2009. Rice was born in Washington, D.C. Her father, Emmett J. Rice (1919–2011), was a Cornell University economics professor and the second black governor of the Federal Reserve System. Her mother is education policy scholar Lois Dickson Fitt, currently at the Brookings Institution. Her parents divorced during her youth, but remained active in her life. Her brother, John Rice, received an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School and is the founder of Management Leadership for Tomorrow, an organization which develops top minority talent for leadership roles in the business and non-profit sector. She is not related to Condoleezza Rice. Rice was a three-sport athlete, student council president, and valedictorian at National Cathedral School in Washington, D.C., a private day girls'
    7.33
    3 votes
    87
    Frank Murphy

    Frank Murphy

    William Francis (Frank) Murphy (April 13, 1890 – July 19, 1949) was a politician and jurist from Michigan. He served as First Assistant U.S. District Attorney, Eastern Michigan District (1920–23), Recorder's Court Judge, Detroit (1923–30). Mayor of Detroit (1930–33), the last Governor-General of the Philippines (1933–35), U.S. High Commissioner of the Philippines (1935–36), the 35th Governor of Michigan (1937–39), United States Attorney General (1939–40), and United States Supreme Court Associate Justice (1940–49). Murphy was born in Harbor Beach, Michigan, then known as "Sand Beach", in 1890. His Irish parents, John T. Murphy and Mary Brennan, raised him as a devout Catholic. He followed in his father’s footsteps by becoming a lawyer. He attended the University of Michigan Law School, and graduated with a BA in 1912 and LLB in 1914. He was a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity and the senior society Michigamua. Murphy was stricken with Diphtheria in the winter of 1911 but was allowed to begin his course in the Law Department from which he received his LL.B. degree in 1914. He performed graduate work at Lincoln's Inn in London and Trinity College, Dublin, which was said to be
    6.25
    4 votes
    88
    Jeh Johnson

    Jeh Johnson

    Jeh Charles Johnson (born September 11, 1957) is an American civil and criminal trial lawyer, currently serving as General Counsel of the Department of Defense. Johnson is a graduate of Morehouse College and Columbia Law School, and is grandson of noted sociologist and Fisk University president Dr. Charles S. Johnson. Johnson’s first name (pronounced “Jay”) is taken from a Liberian chief who reportedly saved his grandfather’s life while Dr. Johnson was on a League of Nations mission to Liberia in 1930. Johnson served as Assistant United States Attorney in the Southern District of New York from 1989-1991. From 1998-2001 he was General Counsel of the Department of the Air Force under President Bill Clinton. Prior to his appointment as General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Johnson was a partner at the New York law firm Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP, and was the first African American to be elected to that firm’s partnership. He was elected a fellow in the American College of Trial Lawyers in 2004. In June 2008, Johnson was named to The National Law Journal's list of the "50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America." On January 8, 2009, he was named by
    6.25
    4 votes
    89
    Stuart A. Levey

    Stuart A. Levey

    Stuart A. Levey was the first Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence within the United States Department of the Treasury. He was sworn in on July 21, 2004 and served until March 2011. According to the Bush administration, Levey has played a central role in their efforts to combat North Korea's and Iran's allegedly illicit conduct in the international financial system. Prior to his nomination, Levey served as the Principal Associate Deputy Attorney General at the U.S. Department of Justice. He had previously served as an Associate Deputy Attorney General and as the Chief of Staff of the Deputy Attorney General. He was succeeded by David S. Cohen. He grew up near Akron, Ohio, where his father had practiced dentistry. In 1986 he graduated from Harvard College summa cum laude, and in 1989 he graduated magna cum laude from Harvard Law School. He clerked for Judge Laurence Silberman on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit from 1989 through 1990. Prior to joining the Justice Department in 2001, Mr. Levey spent 11 years in private practice at the Washington law firm Miller, Cassidy, Larroca & Lewin LLP (which merged into Baker Botts LLP). He had a litigation
    6.25
    4 votes
    90
    Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.

    Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr.

    Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He developed a reputation as a judicial moderate, and was known as a master of compromise and consensus-building. He was known for drafting the Powell Memorandum, a confidential memorandum for the US Chamber of Commerce that described a road map to defend and further their concept of free-enterprise capitalism against real and/or perceived socialist, communist, and fascist cultural trends. Powell was born in Suffolk, Virginia. He attended Washington and Lee University, earning both an undergraduate and a law degree from that university. He was elected president of student body as an undergraduate with the help of Mosby G. Perrow, Jr., and the two would later serve together on the Virginia State Board of Education in the 1960s. Powell was a member of Phi Kappa Sigma fraternity and the Sigma Society. At a leadership conference, he met Edward R. Murrow and they became close friends. He attended Harvard Law School for a master's degree. During World War II, he served years in Europe and North Africa. He started as a First Lieutenant, and eventually rose
    7.00
    3 votes
    91
    Timothy J. Roemer

    Timothy J. Roemer

    Timothy John "Tim" Roemer (born October 30, 1956) is an American political figure, who previously served as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of India. He also served in the United States House of Representatives from 1991 to 2003 as a Democrat from Indiana's 3rd Congressional district before becoming the president of the Center for National Policy (CNP), a Washington, D.C-based national security think tank. He resigned the position following his appointment as Ambassador to India. Tim Roemer was born in 1956 in South Bend, Indiana. His grandfather, William F. Roemer, was a philosophy professor at the University of Notre Dame; and his grandmother was an elementary school teacher. Roemer's parents, James and Mary Ann Roemer also worked at Notre Dame as Dean of Students and Coordinator of Volunteer Activities, respectively. Roemer graduated from Penn High School in 1975 and worked at various jobs from the age of 14 to help pay for college. Tim Roemer graduated from the University of California, San Diego with a B.A. degree in 1979. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame; his 1985 dissertation was titled "The Senior Executive Service: Retirement and Public
    7.00
    3 votes
    92
    Willis Van Devanter

    Willis Van Devanter

    Willis Van Devanter (April 17, 1859 – February 8, 1941) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, January 3, 1911 to June 2, 1937. Born in Marion, Indiana, he received a LL.B. from the Cincinnati Law School in 1881. He was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity and the Knights of Pythias. After three years private practice in Marion, he moved to the Wyoming Territory where he served as city attorney of Cheyenne, Wyoming and a member of the territorial legislature. At the age of 30, he was appointed chief judge of the territorial court. Upon statehood, he served as Chief Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court for four days,. and again took up private practice for seven years, including much work for the Union Pacific and other railroads. In 1896 he represented the state of Wyoming before the U.S. Supreme Court in Ward v. Race Horse 163 U.S. 504 (1896). At issue was a state poaching charge for hunting out of season, and its purported conflict with an Indian treaty that allowed the activity. The Native Americans won in the U.S. Federal District Court; the judgment was revised on appeal to the Supreme Court by a 7-1 majority. In the summer and fall of 1896, Van
    5.20
    5 votes
    93
    Gabriel Duvall

    Gabriel Duvall

    Gabriel Duvall (December 6, 1752 – March 6, 1844) was an American politician and jurist. Duvall was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1835 during the tenure of Chief Justice John Marshall. Previously, Duvall was the Comptroller of the Treasury, a Maryland state court judge, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland, and a Maryland state legislator. Whether Duvall is deserving of the title of "the most insignificant" Justice in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court has been the subject of much academic interest, most notably a debate between University of Chicago Law Professors David P. Currie and (now-Judge) Frank H. Easterbrook in 1983. Currie argued that "impartial examination of Duvall's performance reveals to even the uninitiated observer that he achieved an enviable standard of insignificance against which all other Justices must be measured." Easterbrook responded that Currie's analysis lacked "serious consideration of candidates so shrouded in obscurity that they escaped proper attention even in a contest of insignificance," and concluded that Duvall's colleague, Justice Thomas Todd, was even more
    6.00
    4 votes
    94
    Steven Chu

    Steven Chu

    Steven Chu (Chinese: 朱棣文) is an American physicist and the 12th and current United States Secretary of Energy. Chu is known for his research at Bell Labs in cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997, along with his scientific colleagues Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William Daniel Phillips. At the time of his appointment as Energy Secretary, he was a professor of physics and molecular and cellular biology at the University of California, Berkeley and the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where his research was concerned primarily with the study of biological systems at the single molecule level. Previously, he had been a professor of physics at Stanford University. He is a vocal advocate for more research into renewable energy and nuclear power, arguing that a shift away from fossil fuels is essential to combating climate change. For example, he has conceived of a global "glucose economy", a form of a low-carbon economy, in which glucose from tropical plants is shipped around like oil is today. Chu, a Chinese American, was born in St. Louis, Missouri, with ancestry from Taicang, in Jiangsu province, and
    6.00
    4 votes
    95
    David Josiah Brewer

    David Josiah Brewer

    David Josiah Brewer (June 20, 1837 – March 28, 1910) was an American jurist and an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court for 20 years. Brewer was born to Emilia Field Brewer and Rev. Josiah Brewer, who at the time of his birth were running a school for Greeks in Izmir, Turkey; Mrs. Brewer's brother Stephen Johnson Field, a future Supreme Court colleague of Brewer's, was living with the couple at the time. His parents returned to the United States in 1838 and settled in Connecticut. Brewer attended college at Wesleyan University (1851–1854) and Yale University, graduating Phi Beta Kappa from the latter in 1856. While at Yale, Brewer was a classmate of Henry Billings Brown and was "greatly influenced by the political scientist-protestant minister Theodore Dwight Woolsey." After graduation, Brewer read law for one year in the office of his uncle David Dudley Field, then enrolled at Albany Law School in Albany, New York, graduating in 1858. Upon graduating from law school, Brewer moved to Kansas City, Missouri and after attempting to start a law practice, left for Colorado in search of gold, returning empty-handed in 1859 to nearby Leavenworth, Kansas. He was named Commissioner
    8.00
    2 votes
    96
    Edward Douglass White

    Edward Douglass White

    Edward Douglass White, Jr. (November 3, 1844 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States senator, Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States. He was best known for formulating the Rule of Reason standard of antitrust law. He also sided with the Supreme Court majority in the 1896 decision of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which upheld the legality of segregation in the United States, though he did write for a unanimous court in Guinn v. United States (1915), which struck down many Southern states' grandfather clauses that disenfranchised blacks. White was born on his parents' plantation near the town of Thibodeauxville (now Thibodaux) in Lafourche Parish in south Louisiana. He was the son of Edward Douglass White, Sr., a former governor of Louisiana, and grandson of Dr. James White, a U.S. representative, physician, and judge. On his mother's side, he was the grandson of U.S. Marshal Tench Ringgold, and related to the Lee family of Virginia. The White family's large plantation cultivated sugar cane and refined it into a finished product. White's paternal ancestors were of Irish descent, and he was a
    8.00
    2 votes
    97
    Henry Baldwin

    Henry Baldwin

    Henry Baldwin (January 14, 1780 – April 21, 1844) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 18, 1830, to April 21, 1844. Descended from an aristocratic British family dating back to the seventeenth century, Baldwin was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Michael Baldwin and Theodora Walcott. He is the half-brother of Abraham Baldwin. He attended Hopkins School, and received a B.A at age 17 from Yale College in 1797, he attended Litchfield Law School and read law in 1798. He was a Deputy state attorney general of Allegheny County and eventually Crawford County, Pennsylvania (after its founding in 1800) from 1799 to 1801. He was also the publisher of The Tree of Liberty, a Republican newspaper. After the death of his first wife, Marana Norton, Baldwin married Sally Ellicott, and they established a residence in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. Baldwin was elected to the United States Congress as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1816, representing Pennsylvania, but resigned after six years because of his declining health and failing finances. He strongly supported the election of Andrew Jackson in the election of 1828. On January
    8.00
    2 votes
    98
    Jacob Lew

    Jacob Lew

    Jacob Joseph "Jack" Lew (born August 29, 1955) is the 25th and current White House Chief of Staff. Previously, he was the Director of the Office of Management and Budget from 1998 to 2001 and from 2010 to 2012. Lew was born in New York City. He attended New York City public schools, graduating from Forest Hills High School. His father was a lawyer and rare-book dealer who came to the United States from Poland as a child. Lew attended Carleton College in Minnesota where his faculty adviser was Paul Wellstone, who eventually represented Minnesota in the U.S. Senate. He graduated from Harvard College in 1978 and the Georgetown University Law Center in 1983. He worked as an aide to Rep. Joe Moakley (D-Mass.) from 1974 to 1975. He then was a senior policy adviser to House Speaker Tip O'Neill. Under O'Neill he served at the House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee as Assistant Director and then Executive Director, and was responsible for work on domestic and economic issues including Social Security, Medicare, budget, tax, trade, appropriations, and energy issues. Lew practiced as an attorney for five years as a partner at Van Ness, Feldman and Curtis. His practice dealt primarily
    8.00
    2 votes
    99
    James Clark McReynolds

    James Clark McReynolds

    James Clark McReynolds (February 3, 1862 – August 24, 1946) was an American lawyer and judge who served as United States Attorney General under President Woodrow Wilson and as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He served on the Court from October 12, 1914 to his retirement on January 31, 1941, and was known for his conservative opinions opposing much of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation. Born in Elkton, Kentucky, the son of Dr. John Oliver and Ellen (née Reeves) McReynolds. His parents were both members of the fundamentalist Campbellite sect of the Disciples of Christ Church. He graduated from the prestigious Green River Academy and later matriculated at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, graduating with status as a valedictorian in 1882. At the University of Virginia School of Law, Professor John B. Minor – "a man of stern morality and firm conservative convictions" – profoundly influenced McReynolds. McReynolds received his law degree in 1884. He was secretary to Senator Howell Edmunds Jackson, who later became an associate justice himself. McReynolds practiced law in Nashville and served for three years as an Adjunct professor
    8.00
    2 votes
    100
    Larry Miles Dinger

    Larry Miles Dinger

    Ambassador Larry Miles Dinger (born 1946) was the U.S. chargé d'affaires to Burma since his appointment on September 9, 2008. Since there has not been a United States Ambassador to Burma since 1990, the chargé d'affaires is the chief of mission and the most senior official in the embassy. Ambassador Dinger is a graduate of Macalester College (BA 1968), Harvard Law School (JD 1975), and the National War College (MA 2000). After graduating from Macalester College in 1968, Ambassador Dinger entered the Naval Officer Candidate School, Newport, Rhode Island, and was commissioned as a Navy "line" officer in April 1969. He first served in Nha Be, Vietnam. His then served in the Fleet Operations Control Center Europe in London, England, from 1970 to 1972. After the Navy and law school, Ambassador Dinger worked in politics from 1975–1980, including on the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee staff, ran for office in his home state of Iowa, and practiced law in 1981-82 as a sole practitioner in Riceville, Iowa before entering the Foreign Service in 1983. In his early career, Dinger served as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (1995–96),
    8.00
    2 votes
    101
    Mahlon Pitney

    Mahlon Pitney

    Mahlon Pitney (February 5, 1858 – December 9, 1924) was an American jurist and Republican Party politician from New Jersey, who served in the United States Congress and as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Pitney was born in Morristown, New Jersey, the son of Sarah Louise (née Halsted) and Henry Cooper Pitney. Pitney was a graduate of Princeton College. Pitney served two terms in Congress as a Representative from New Jersey from the 4th congressional district, and also served in the state senate and on the New Jersey Supreme Court. He was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by President William Howard Taft in 1912, and resigned in 1922 after suffering a stroke. He was one of only two Supreme Court Justices nominated by President Taft who also later served during Taft's tenure as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Pitney died in 1924 in Washington, D.C., and was interred at Evergreen Cemetery, in Morristown, New Jersey. With his wife Florence Theodora Shelton, Pitney was the great-grandfather of actor Christopher Reeve.
    8.00
    2 votes
    102
    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" majority opinion in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, and is one of the most influential American common law judges through his outspoken judicial restraint philosophy. Holmes retired from the Court at the age of 90 years, 309 days, making him the oldest Justice in the Supreme Court's history. He also served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and was Weld Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School, of which he was an alumnus. Profoundly influenced by his experience fighting in the American Civil War, Holmes helped move American legal thinking away from formalism and towards legal realism, as summed up in his maxim: "The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience." Holmes espoused a
    8.00
    2 votes
    103
    Ruth Bader Ginsburg

    Ruth Bader Ginsburg

    Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) and the first Jewish female justice. She is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the Court. Ginsburg spent a considerable portion of her legal career before becoming a judge as an advocate for the advancement of women's rights as a constitutional principle. She advocated as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsel in the 1970s. She was a professor at Rutgers School of Law–Newark and Columbia Law School. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Ruth Joan Bader was the second daughter of Nathan and Celia (née Amster) Bader. The family nicknamed her "Kiki". They belonged to the East Midwood Jewish Center, where she took her religious confirmation seriously. At age thirteen, Ruth acted as the "camp rabbi" at a
    8.00
    2 votes
    104
    Stephen Breyer

    Stephen Breyer

    Stephen Gerald Breyer ( /ˈbraɪər/; born August 15, 1938) is an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Appointed by President Bill Clinton in 1994, and known for his pragmatic approach to constitutional law, Breyer is generally associated with the more liberal side of the Court. Following a clerkship with Supreme Court Associate Justice Arthur Goldberg in 1964, Breyer became well known as a law professor and lecturer at Harvard Law School, starting in 1967. There he specialized in administrative law, writing a number of influential textbooks that remain in use today. He held other prominent positions before being nominated for the Supreme Court, including special assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust and assistant special prosecutor on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. In his 2005 book Active Liberty, Breyer made his first attempt to systematically lay out his views on legal theory, arguing that the judiciary should seek to resolve issues in a manner that encourages popular participation in governmental decisions. Breyer was born in San Francisco, the son of Anne A. (née Roberts) and Irving Gerald Breyer, and raised in a
    8.00
    2 votes
    105
    William Rehnquist

    William Rehnquist

    William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the Supreme Court of the United States, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an Act of Congress as exceeding federal power under the Commerce Clause. Rehnquist presided as Chief Justice for nearly 19 years, making him the fourth-longest-serving Chief Justice after John Marshall, Roger Taney, and Melville Fuller, and the longest-serving Chief Justice who had previously served as an Associate Justice. The last 11 years of Rehnquist's term as Chief Justice (1994–2005) marked the second-longest tenure of a single unchanging roster of the Supreme Court. He is the eighth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history. Rehnquist was born William Donald Rehnquist in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 1, 1924. He grew up in the suburb of Shorewood. His father,
    8.00
    2 votes
    106
    Aneesh Chopra

    Aneesh Chopra

    Aneesh Chopra has been named as the United State's first Chief Technology Officer by President Barack Obama, on April 18, 2009.
    9.00
    1 votes
    107
    Gary Gensler

    Gary Gensler

    Gary S. Gensler (born October 18, 1957) is the chairman of the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission under President Barack Obama. Gensler was Undersecretary of the Treasury (1999-2001) and Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1997-1999) in the United States. Barack Obama selected him to lead the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, which has jurisdiction over $5 trillion in trades. Gensler was sworn in on May 26, 2009. Gensler was born in Baltimore in 1957. His father was a Vending Machine Operator and was very active in the Baltimore Democratic Party. He has a twin brother, Robert Gensler, who went to the same college and now runs an actively managed fund for T. Rowe Price. He also has a sister Barbra Gensler Skarzynski and two other brothers Kenny Gensler and David Gensler. In 1978, he received a summa cum laude Economics B.S. from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. The next year, he earned a Master of Business Administration from Wharton. Gary Gensler joined Goldman Sachs in 1988 and spent 18 years there. He became a partner at the age of 30, youngest in Goldman Sachs history. He later became head of the company’s fixed income and currency trading operations
    9.00
    1 votes
    108
    Gary Locke

    Gary Locke

    Gary Faye Locke (born January 21, 1950) is an American politician and the current United States Ambassador to China. He was the 21st Governor of Washington, serving from 1997 to 2005. He was appointed by President Barack Obama as United States Secretary of Commerce which he served until August 1, 2011, when he was appointed as Ambassador to China. He was the first Governor of a state in the Continental United States of Asian descent, and is the only Chinese American ever to serve as a Governor. Locke was born on January 21, 1950 in Seattle, Washington, and spent his early years with his family living in the Yesler Terrace public housing project. A third-generation American with paternal ancestry from Taishan, China, Locke is the second of five children of James Locke, who served as a staff sergeant in the U.S. Fifth Armored Division during World War II, and his wife Julie, who is from Hong Kong, which at that time was a British crown colony. His paternal grandfather left China in the 1890s and moved to the United States, where he worked as a houseboy in Olympia, Washington, in exchange for English lessons. Gary Locke did not learn how to speak English until he was five years old
    9.00
    1 votes
    109
    Gene Cretz

    Gene Cretz

    Gene Allan Cretz (born 1950) is a career diplomat, who is the U.S. Ambassador to Ghana, after being confirmed by the U.S. Senate in August of 2012. Before this, he was the first U.S. Ambassador to Libya since 1972, after being nominated in July 2007 by President Bush. His nomination was confirmed by the US Senate on November 21, 2008. He was sworn-in as U.S. Ambassador to Libya by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on December 17, 2008, at the State Department. He arrived in Libya on December 27, 2008. Cretz speaks a number of languages, including Arabic, Dari, Urdu, and Chinese. President Barack Obama nominated him for the post to Ghana in April of 2012. He was sworn-in as the U.S. Ambassador to Ghana by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton on September 11th, 2012. Gene Cretz previously served in key diplomatic posts in Israel, Egypt and Syria. In addition to these postings, he has also been stationed in Pakistan, India, China, and in Washington D.C. Prior to assuming his post in Libya, he was a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs. Cretz was born in Albany, New York and attended Albany High School, where he taught from 1977 to 1979. He received a
    9.00
    1 votes
    110
    Margaret A. Hamburg

    Margaret A. Hamburg

    Dr. Margaret Ann Hamburg (born July 12, 1955, Chicago, Illinois) is an American physician and medical/public health administrator. She currently serves as Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. She has served as Vice President for Biological Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the New York City Commissioner of Health. She was nominated in March 2009 by President Barack Obama to become the Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and was sworn in on May 22, 2009. Margaret Hamburg is the daughter of Beatrix Hamburg and David A. Hamburg, both physicians. Her mother was the first African-American woman to attend Vassar College and to earn a degree from the Yale University School of Medicine (which had previously excluded black students). Her father, of Jewish descent, had a career in academic medicine and mental illness research, public policy, and philanthropic leadership. He was the president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. She is married to artificial intelligence researcher Peter Fitzhugh Brown, with whom she has two children.
    9.00
    1 votes
    111
    Michael C. Polt

    Michael C. Polt

    Ambassador Polt was sworn in as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Estonia on November 30, 2009. He presented his credentials to Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves on December 10, 2009. Prior to his latest diplomatic mission, he led the Department of State's Bureau of Legislative Affairs as Acting Assistant Secretary and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary during the transition between Presidential Administrations in 2009. The Ambassador was on temporary assignment at the German Marshall Fund of the United States as Senior Transatlantic Fellow in 2008. During 2004-2007, Mr. Polt served as United States Ambassador to Serbia and Montenegro. During his three decades as a career diplomat, Mr. Polt served as U.S. Minister and Deputy Chief of Mission of the U.S. Embassy in Berlin, Germany and Deputy Chief of Mission and Chargé d′Affaires of the U.S. Embassy in Bern, Switzerland. He has also served as Senior Advisor to the Director General of the Foreign Service for Management Reform and was a key member of the Senior Management Steering Board directing the State Department's 2003-2005 multimillion dollar reinvention of its Diplomatic Communications System. Ambassador Polt has held
    9.00
    1 votes
    112
    Roger Brooke Taney

    Roger Brooke Taney

    Roger Brooke Taney ( /ˈtɔːni/ TAW-nee; March 17, 1777 – October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office or sit on the Supreme Court of the United States. He was also the eleventh United States Attorney General. He is most remembered for delivering the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), that ruled, among other things, that African Americans, having been considered inferior at the time the Constitution was drafted, were not part of the original community of citizens and could not be considered citizens of the United States. Taney was a Jacksonian Democrat when he became Chief Justice. Described by his and President Andrew Jackson's critics as "[a] supple, cringing tool of Jacksonian power," Taney was a believer in states' rights but also the Union; a slaveholder who regretted the institution and manumitted his slaves. From Prince Frederick, Maryland, he had practiced law and politics simultaneously and succeeded in both. After abandoning Federalism as a losing cause, he rose to the top of the state's Jacksonian machine. As U.S. Attorney
    9.00
    1 votes
    113
    Ron Kirk

    Ron Kirk

    Ronald "Ron" Kirk (born June 27, 1954) is the 16th United States Trade Representative, serving in the Obama administration. He served as mayor of Dallas, Texas from 1995 to 2002; he also ran for the United States Senate in 2002. Born in Austin, Texas, Kirk is the youngest of four children; his father was a U.S. postal worker and the family was politically active. He grew up in a predominantly black community, and attended Austin's public schools. He was a leader in high school, and was elected student council president in his senior year at John H. Reagan High School (Austin, Texas). Kirk attended Austin College, graduating with a degree in both political science and sociology in 1976. He then went to the University of Texas School of Law. Upon receiving his Juris Doctor in 1979, he practiced law until 1981 when he left to work in the office of then-Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen. In 1983, Kirk returned to Texas to lobby the state legislature in Austin, first as an attorney with the city of Dallas, and later with a law firm. In 1994, Kirk worked for then-Texas Governor Ann Richards as Secretary of State of Texas. The following year, Kirk ran for mayor of Dallas. With support of
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    1 votes
    114
    Smith Thompson

    Smith Thompson

    Smith Thompson (January 17, 1768 – December 18, 1843) was a United States Secretary of the Navy from 1818 to 1823, and a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1823 until his death in 1843. Born in Amenia, New York, Thompson graduated from Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in 1788, taught for a short period thereafter, then studied law under James Kent and subsequently set up a law practice. He practiced in Troy, New York from 1792 to 1793, and in Poughkeepsie, New York from 1793 to 1802. He was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1800, and attended the New York Constitutional Convention of 1801. He was appointed to the New York State Supreme Court in 1802, serving as Associate Justice from 1802 to 1814, and Chief Justice from 1814 to 1918. He was a founding vice president of the American Bible Society and provided a copy to every officer and enlisted man in the Navy. He was appointed Secretary of the Navy by President James Monroe, and campaigned for the Democratic-Republican presidential nomination in 1824. When Andrew Jackson won the nomination, Thompson only reluctantly accepted his appointment to the United States Supreme Court.
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    1 votes
    115
    William Henry Moody

    William Henry Moody

    William Henry Moody (December 23, 1853 – July 2, 1917) was an American politician and jurist, who held positions in all three branches of the Government of the United States. Born a son of farmers in Newbury, Massachusetts, Moody graduated from Phillips Academy in 1872 and from Harvard, Phi Beta Kappa in 1876, where he was a classmate and friend of future President Theodore Roosevelt. After 4 months attending Harvard Law School, he departed and instead took the then-common but now-unusual step of reading law (under Richard Henry Dana, Jr.) to pass the bar. Early in his legal career, Moody first was elected city solicitor of Haverhill in 1888. After appointment as the U.S. Attorney for Eastern Massachusetts in 1890, he gained widespread notoriety in 1893 as the junior prosecutor in the Lizzie Borden murder case. While his efforts were unsuccessful he was generally acknowledged as the most competent and effective of the attorneys on either side. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts, and served from 1895 until 1902 where he served on the powerful Appropriations Committee. During President Theodore Roosevelt's administration, Moody served as the
    9.00
    1 votes
    116
    William Paterson

    William Paterson

    William Paterson (December 24, 1745 – September 9, 1806) was a New Jersey statesman, a signer of the U.S. Constitution, and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, who served as the 2nd governor of New Jersey, from 1790 to 1793. William Paterson was born in County Antrim, now in Northern Ireland, moved to what is now the United States at the age of two, and entered the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) at age 14. After graduating, he studied law with the prominent lawyer Richard Stockton and was admitted to the bar in 1768. He also stayed connected to his alma mater, helping found the Cliosophic Society with Aaron Burr. He was selected as Somerset County, New Jersey delegate for the first three provincial congresses of New Jersey, where, as secretary, he recorded the 1776 New Jersey State Constitution. After Independence, Paterson was appointed as the first Attorney General of New Jersey, serving from 1776 to 1783, maintaining law and order and establishing himself as one of the state's most prominent lawyers. He was sent to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he proposed the New Jersey Plan for a unicameral legislative
    9.00
    1 votes
    117
    Abe Fortas

    Abe Fortas

    Abraham "Abe" Fortas (June 19, 1910 – April 5, 1982) was a U.S. Supreme Court associate justice from 1965 to 1969. Originally from Tennessee, Fortas became a law professor at Yale, and subsequently advised the Securities and Exchange Commission. He then worked at the Interior Department under Franklin D. Roosevelt, and subsequently Harry Truman appointed him to delegations that helped set up the UN. Later, in private practice, Fortas represented Lyndon Johnson in an electoral dispute, and formed close ties with the president-to-be. Fortas also represented Clarence Earl Gideon before the U.S. Supreme Court, in a case involving the right to counsel. As a Johnson appointee to the Court, Fortas maintained a close working relationship with the president, and in 1968 Johnson tried to elevate Fortas to the position of Chief Justice, but that nomination faced a filibuster due at least in part to ethics problems that later caused him to step down from the Court. Fortas returned to private practice, sometimes appearing before the judges with whom he had served. Fortas was born in Memphis, Tennessee. He was the youngest of five children. His father, a native of Great Britain, was an Orthodox
    6.67
    3 votes
    118
    Harry Blackmun

    Harry Blackmun

    Harold Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 – March 4, 1999) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. He is best known as the author of Roe v. Wade. Harry Blackmun was born in Nashville, Illinois, and grew up in Dayton's Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota. He attended the same grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, with whom he eventually served on the Supreme Court for some sixteen years. He attended Harvard College on scholarship, earning an A.B. summa cum laude in mathematics and graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1929. While at Harvard, Blackmun joined Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity and sang with the Harvard Glee Club (with whom he performed for President Herbert Hoover in 1929, Blackmun's first visit to Washington). He attended Harvard Law School (among his professors there was Felix Frankfurter), graduating in 1932. He served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, and adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law (then the St. Paul College of Law). Blackmun's practice as an attorney at the law firm now known as Dorsey &
    6.67
    3 votes
    119
    Horace Harmon Lurton

    Horace Harmon Lurton

    Horace Harmon Lurton (February 26, 1844 – July 12, 1914) was an American jurist who served for four years as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Appointed at the age of 65, Lurton was the oldest justice appointed to the Court. Lurton was born in Newport, Kentucky, the son of a physician turned clergyman. He was a Sergeant Major in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, serving in the 5th Tennessee Infantry, 2nd Kentucky Infantry, and 3rd Kentucky Cavalry. He was twice captured by Union forces, the second time sent as a prisoner of war to Johnson's Island Prison Camp in Sandusky Bay, Ohio. He was later paroled by President Lincoln because of pleas for mercy from his mother. Before the war, he attended Douglas University, and then earned an LL.B. in 1867 at Cumberland School of Law which was then part of Cumberland University, but is now part of Samford University. At Cumberland he was a member of Beta Theta Pi. Lurton then practiced law in Clarksville, Tennessee. In 1875, Lurton left private practice after being chosen as a judge of the Tennessee Chancery Court for the Sixth Chancery Division. After three years, Lurton then returned to his practice until 1886,
    6.67
    3 votes
    120
    Janet Napolitano

    Janet Napolitano

    Janet Napolitano (/nəpɒlɨˈtænoʊ/; born November 29, 1957) is the third and incumbent United States Secretary of Homeland Security, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She is the fourth person (including an acting Secretary) to hold the position, which was created after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A member of the Democratic Party, she was the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009. She was Arizona's third female governor, and the first woman to win re-election. Prior to her election as governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2002. She was the first woman and the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico. Forbes ranked her as the world's 9th most powerful woman in 2012. Janet Napolitano was born on November 29, 1957, in New York City, the daughter of Jane Marie (née Winer) and Leonard Michael Napolitano, who was the dean of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. She is of half Italian ancestry and is a Methodist. She was the eldest of three children; she has a younger brother and sister. She was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she
    6.67
    3 votes
    121
    Jon Huntsman, Jr.

    Jon Huntsman, Jr.

    Jon Meade Huntsman, Jr. (born March 26, 1960) is an American politician, businessman, and diplomat who served as the 16th Governor of Utah from 2005 to 2009, and as United States Ambassador to Singapore from 1992 to 1993, and China from 2009 to 2011. He has served in the administrations of four U.S. Presidents and was a candidate for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. Huntsman began his career as a White House staff assistant for Ronald Reagan, and he was appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce and United States Ambassador to Singapore by George H.W. Bush. Later as Deputy U.S. Trade Representative, Huntsman launched global trade negotiations in Doha in 2001 and guided the accession of China into the World Trade Organization. He has also served as CEO of his family owned, Huntsman Corporation and chairman of the Huntsman Cancer Foundation. While governor, Huntsman was named chairman of the Western Governors Association, and joined the Executive Committee of the National Governors Association. Under his leadership, Utah was named the best managed state in America by the Pew Center on the States. He won re-election in 2008 with nearly 78% of the vote and left office
    6.67
    3 votes
    122
    Peter Vivian Daniel

    Peter Vivian Daniel

    Peter Vivian Daniel (April 24, 1784 – May 31, 1860) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Daniel was born in Stafford County, Virginia, in 1784 to a family of old colonial heritage. He was educated at home, and attended the College of New Jersey for one year before returning to Virginia. He read law under former Attorney General of the United States Edmund Randolph in Richmond, and was admitted to the bar in 1808. Daniel married Randolph's daughter. In 1809, Daniel was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, and in 1812 became a member of the advisory Virginia Privy Council. He remained on the Council and in 1818 was elected Lieutenant Governor. He would retain both of these positions until 1836, when President Andrew Jackson appointed him to the federal judiciary. On April 6, 1836, Daniel was nominated by President Jackson to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia vacated by the elevation of Philip Pendleton Barbour to the Supreme Court. Daniel was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 19, 1836, and received his commission the same day. On February 26, 1841, Daniel
    6.67
    3 votes
    123
    Richard Verma

    Richard Verma

    Richard Verma (born 1969) was the Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs, at the U.S. Department of State until March 2011. He was nominated by President Obama in 2009. He is a lawyer with extensive experience in national security and nonproliferation issues. He graduated from Georgetown University, Lehigh University, and American University. He served in the U.S. Air Force, as an Air Force judge advocate. He worked with the law firm Steptoe & Johnson. He was a senior adviser to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid from 2002 to 2007. In 2008, he was a member of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD proliferation and terrorism. After leaving the United States Department of State in 2011, he joined the Washington, D.C. office of Steptoe & Johnson.
    6.67
    3 votes
    124
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Ward Hunt

    Ward Hunt

    Ward Hunt (June 14, 1810 – March 24, 1886), was an American jurist and politician. He was Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals from 1868 to 1869, and an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1873 to 1882. He was the son of Montgomery Hunt, long-time Cashier of the Bank of Utica. He was a classmate of Horatio Seymour at the Oxford and Geneva Academies, and graduated from Union College in 1828, where he was an early member of the Kappa Alpha Society. Then he studied law with Juge James Gould at Litchfield Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut and with Hiram Denio in Utica, and was admitted to the bar in 1831. He was a Democratic member from Oneida County of the New York State Assembly in 1839, and was Mayor of Utica in 1844. In 1848, he joined the Free Soil Party, and in 1855 he was among the founders of the New York Republican Party. He remained in private practice until 1865, when he was elected to an eight-year term on the New York Court of Appeals on the Republican ticket, to succeed to the seat held by his former law teacher and partner Hiram Denio. Hunt became Chief Judge in 1868 after the sudden death of Chief Judge William B. Wright. In 1870, he was
    6.67
    3 votes
    126
    Wiley Blount Rutledge

    Wiley Blount Rutledge

    Wiley Blount Rutledge, Jr. (July 20, 1894 – September 10, 1949) was an American educator, lawyer, and justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Rutledge was born in Cloverport, Kentucky (more specifically, at nearby Tar Springs) to Wiley Blount Rutledge, Sr. (d. 1944), a Southern Baptist minister, and Mary Lou Wigginton Rutledge (d. 1903). Another son died in infancy, and then his sister Margaret was born in 1897. His family moved about while he was young, but he attended college at Maryville College and then the University of Wisconsin–Madison, graduating from there in 1914. Rutledge taught high school in Indiana while attending the predecessor of the now Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law part-time. He later moved to Colorado, and received a degree from the University of Colorado School of Law in Boulder. While matriculating at Colorado, Rutledge joined the Pi Chapter of Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity. On August 28, 1917, Rutledge married Annabel Person. The couple had three children: Mary Lou (1922), Jean Ann (1925), and Neal (1927). Rutledge worked in private practice in Boulder for a few years before deciding to instead pursue an academic career. He
    6.67
    3 votes
    127
    Alexander Vershbow

    Alexander Vershbow

    Alexander Russell "Sandy" Vershbow (born July 3, 1952) is the Deputy Secretary-General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and an American. Until October 2008, he was the United States Ambassador to South Korea; he was appointed to the position in October 2005. Before that post he had been the ambassador to the Russian Federation from 2001 to 2005 and the ambassador to NATO from 1998 to 2001. For his work with NATO he was awarded the State Department's Distinguished Service Award. In March, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Vershbow as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, a position that holds responsibility for U.S. policy toward NATO, coordination of U.S. security and defense policies relating to the nations and international organizations of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. He was confirmed in April, 2009. After almost three years with the U.S. Department of Defense, in February 2012, Vershbow moved back to Brussels where he took the position of Deputy Secretary General of NATO. Vershbow was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He attended the Buckingham Browne & Nichols School before moving on to Yale College, from which he graduated in
    5.75
    4 votes
    128
    Elena Kagan

    Elena Kagan

    Elena Kagan (pronounced /ˈkeɪɡən/; born April 28, 1960) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kagan is the Court's 112th justice and fourth female justice. Kagan was born and raised in New York City. After attending Princeton, Oxford, and Harvard Law School, she completed federal Court of Appeals and Supreme Court clerkships. She began her career as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School, leaving to serve as Associate White House Counsel, and later as policy adviser, under President Clinton. After a nomination to the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, which expired without action, she became a professor at Harvard Law School and was later named its first female dean. President Obama appointed her Solicitor General on January 26, 2009. On May 10, 2010, Obama nominated her to the Supreme Court to fill the vacancy from the impending retirement of Justice John Paul Stevens. After Senate confirmation, Kagan was sworn in on August 7, 2010, by Chief Justice John G. Roberts. Kagan's formal investiture ceremony before a special sitting of the United States Supreme Court took place on October 1, 2010. Kagan was born in New York
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Catherine Zoi

    Catherine Zoi

    Cathy Zoi is the former Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) at the U.S. Department of Energy. She is currently employed by Silver Lake Kraftwerk, "a partnership between Soros Fund Management and Silicon Valley private equity giant Silver Lake." Zoi is the founding chief executive officer of the Alliance for Climate Protection, which was established and chaired by former Vice President Al Gore. Zoi served as the Chief of Staff in the White House Office on Environmental Policy in the Clinton-Gore administration, where she managed the team working on environmental and energy issues. She has also served as a manager at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), where she pioneered the Energy Star Program. She has worked for several energy-focused organizations, serving as the group executive director at the Bayard Group, recently renamed Landis+Gyr Holdings, which is a world leader in energy measurement technologies and systems; as the assistant director general of the New South Wales EPA in Sydney, Australia; and as the founding chief executive officer of the New South Wales Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA), a $50 million fund to
    7.50
    2 votes
    130
    Johnnie Carson

    Johnnie Carson

    Johnnie Carson (born April 7, 1943) is a career diplomat from the United States who has served as United States Ambassador to several African nations. In 2009 he was nominated to become U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs by President Barack Obama. Carson was born April 7, 1943, in Chicago, IL. Carson is married, has three children, and resides in Reston, VA. He graduated from Drake University with a B.A. in History and Political Science in 1965 and later obtained a Master of Arts in International Relations from the prestigious School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London in 1975. Before joining the Foreign Service, Ambassador Carson was a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania from 1965-1968. In March 2009, Carson was nominated to become U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs by President Barack Obama. Carson joined the United States National Intelligence Council as National Intelligence Officer for Africa in September 2006 after a 37-year career in Foreign Service. Prior to this appointment, Carson served as the Senior Vice President of the National Defense University in Washington D.C. (2003–2006). Carson's Foreign Service career
    7.50
    2 votes
    131
    Ron Bloom

    Ron Bloom

    From February 2009 to August 2011, Ron Bloom served as a senior official in the Obama Administration. From February 2011 to August 2011, Bloom served at the White House as the Assistant to the President for Manufacturing Policy. Prior to holding that role, Bloom served at the Department of the Treasury, first as a Senior Advisor to the Secretary of the Treasury and member of the President’s Task Force on the Automotive Industry and subsequently as Senior Counselor to the U.S. President for Manufacturing Policy. Ron Bloom was born in New York City and raised in Swarthmore, PA. His mother, Paula Yackira, was an educator, and his father, Joel Bloom, served 21 years as President of the Franklin Institute Science Museum. The elder Bloom was a prime mover in the conception and development of the Mandell Futures Center, a 90,000-square-foot (8,400 m) wing that transformed the institute “from a dusty bin of outmoded exhibits into what is probably the most advanced science museum in the world.” A co-author of the influential ‘’Museums for a New Century: A Report of the Commission on Museums for a New Century’’, he was a president of the American Association of Museums (the first science
    7.50
    2 votes
    132
    William J. Brennan, Jr.

    William J. Brennan, Jr.

    William Joseph Brennan, Jr. (April 25, 1906 – July 24, 1997) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990. As the seventh longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history, he was known for being a leader of the Court's liberal wing. He was known for his outspoken progressive views, including opposition to the death penalty and support for abortion rights. He authored several landmark case opinions, including Baker v. Carr, establishing the "one person, one vote" principle, and New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, which required "actual malice" in a libel suit against those deemed "public figures". Due to his ability to shape a wide variety of opinions and "bargain" for votes in many cases, he was considered to be among the Court's most influential members. Justice Antonin Scalia has called Brennan "probably the most influential Justice of the [20th] century." On November 30, 1993, Justice Brennan was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton. Brennan was the second of eight children. His parents, William and Agnes (McDermott) Brennan, were Irish immigrants. They met in the United States,
    7.50
    2 votes
    133
    Anne E. Derse

    Anne E. Derse

    Anne Elizabeth Derse (born 1954 in Lakewood, Ohio) is the current US Ambassador to Lithuania since September 28, 2009. Anne E. Derse completed her Bachelor of Arts in French and Linguistics from Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1976 and her Master of Arts in International Relations from Johns Hopkins University's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) in 1981. She also graduated with distinction from the State Department's Economic and Commercial Studies program in 1989. Derse is married to fellow Foreign Service officer E. Mason "Hank" Hendrickson. Derse joined the Department of State in 1981, and served in Trinidad and Tobago from 1981–83. From 1985–88 she followed her husband to Singapore, where he served as First Secretary of the United States Embassy in Singapore there; however, he was expelled by the Singaporean government in May 1988 for his alleged involvement with opposition politicians Francis Seow and Patrick Seong, in an incident which came to be known as the "Hendrickson affair". Her most influential role came in 1999 when, as Minister Counselor for Economic Affairs at the U.S. Mission to the European Union (USEU), she led the
    5.50
    4 votes
    134
    Douglas Kmiec

    Douglas Kmiec

    Douglas W. Kmiec (pronounced kih-MECK) (born September 24, 1951) is an American legal scholar, author, and former U.S. ambassador. He is the Caruso Family Chair and Professor of Constitutional Law at Pepperdine University School of Law. Kmiec came to prominence during the United States presidential election, 2008 when, although a Republican, he endorsed Democrat Barack Obama. In July 2009, he was nominated by President Obama to serve as U.S. Ambassador to Malta. He was confirmed by the Senate and served for close to two years as ambassador to Malta. He resigned his post effective May 31, 2011. Kmiec received his undergraduate degree with honors from Northwestern University in 1973 and his Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the University of Southern California in 1976. He was a member of the school's law review and was awarded the Legion Lex Commencement Prize for Legal Writing. Kmiec was a member of the faculty at Valparaiso University School of Law, then taught at Notre Dame Law School from 1980 to 1999, with several leaves to serve in the Office of Legal Counsel for Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. At Notre Dame, he directed the Thomas White Center on Law & Government and
    5.50
    4 votes
    135
    Anne W. Patterson

    Anne W. Patterson

    Anne Woods Patterson (born 1949) is an American diplomat and career Foreign Service Officer. She currently serves as the United States Ambassador to Egypt. She previously served as acting United States Ambassador to the United Nations in 2005 and as United States Ambassador to Pakistan from July 2007 to October 2010. Patterson was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas. She attended The Hockaday School in Dallas, Texas. She received her Bachelor of Arts degree from Wellesley College and attended graduate school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for one year. Patterson is married to David R. Patterson, a retired Foreign Service officer. The couple have two children. Patterson entered the Foreign Service in 1973. She served as a US State Department Economic Officer and Counselor to Saudi Arabia from 1984 to 1988 and then as a Political Counselor at the United States Mission to the United Nations in Geneva from 1988 to 1991. Patterson served as State Department Director for the Andean Countries from 1991 to 1993. She served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Inter-American Affairs from 1993 to 1996. Patterson served as United States Ambassador to El Salvador from 1997 to 2000,
    6.33
    3 votes
    136
    Dan Rooney

    Dan Rooney

    Daniel Milton "Dan" Rooney, (born July 20, 1932) is the United States Ambassador to Ireland. He is chairman emeritus of the Pittsburgh Steelers football team in the National Football League (NFL), which was founded by his father, Art Rooney. Rooney was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2000 for his contributions to the game. He is credited with spearheading a requirement that NFL teams with head coach and general manager vacancies interview at least one minority candidate, which has become known as the "Rooney Rule". Rooney is also co-founder of the Ireland-related fundraising organization The Ireland Funds. Rooney was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Kathleen (née McNulty) and Pittsburgh Steelers' owner Art Rooney. In the Steelers organization, Rooney has been involved in every aspect of the franchise since he was a young boy, often assisting his father at Pitt Stadium and Forbes Field. He grew up in the North Side neighborhood of Pittsburgh and attended North Catholic High School where he excelled as the team's quarterback. He shared quarterback duties with future CIA Director and lifelong friend Michael Hayden, both of whom also attended Duquesne
    6.33
    3 votes
    137
    Nancy Jo Powell

    Nancy Jo Powell

    Nancy Jo Powell (b. 1947, Cedar Falls, Iowa) is the United States Ambassador to India. Powell was Director General of the United States Foreign Service, a position she assumed after serving as the U.S. Ambassador to Nepal. Powell is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service. Ambassador Powell joined the United States Foreign Service in 1977, and has held assignments in Africa and South Asia. Other overseas assignments have included Islamabad, Pakistan; Katmandu, Nepal; and Ottawa, Canada; and previous Washington assignments were those of Nepal Desk Officer and Refugee Assistance Officer.
    6.33
    3 votes
    138
    Patrick F. Kennedy

    Patrick F. Kennedy

    Patrick F. Kennedy is a career foreign service officer, currently U.S. State Department's Under Secretary of State for Management. He was Director of the Office of Management Policy, Rightsizing and Innovation. He has been Deputy Director for Management at the cabinet level Office of the Director of National Intelligence; he returned to the Department of State on May 7, 2007. Kennedy was U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations for Management and Reform and previously served as Chief of Staff for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq. He was the Assistant Secretary of State for the Clinton Administration from 1993 to 2001. Kennedy holds a B.S.F.S. degree from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University. During the U.S. Presidential election, 2008 Patrick F. Kennedy ordered State Department employees in Europe be barred from attending Sen. Barack Obama's speech in Berlin on July 24, 2008 to ensure they displayed political neutrality. Kennedy labeled Obama's visit as a partisan political activity and he forbade employees from attending.
    6.33
    3 votes
    139
    Ron Sims

    Ron Sims

    Ronald Cordell Sims (born July 5, 1948), is the former Deputy Secretary of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, having served in the position from May 8, 2009 to July 2011. He is also the former King County Executive. Sims ran unsuccessfully for higher office twice: United States Senator in 1994 and for Governor of Washington in 2004. Sims was born in Spokane, Washington, to Reverend James C. Sims Sr. and Lydia T. Sims. He graduated from Lewis and Clark High School and attended Central Washington University in Ellensburg, where he earned a B.A. in psychology. Between graduation and his election to the King County Council he worked in the office of the Washington State Attorney General, for the Federal Trade Commission, for the juvenile offenders program of the city of Seattle, and as an aide in the state senate. He is an ordained Baptist minister. In 1985, Sims was elected to the King County Council , being reelected in 1989 and 1993. During his first term, he and fellow Councilman Bruce Laing successfully led a campaign to have the county rededicate its name in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., a change not officially recognized by Washington State until
    6.33
    3 votes
    140
    Christine A. Varney

    Christine A. Varney

    Christine A. Varney is an American lawyer, lobbyist, and internet policy and antitrust expert who is most widely known as a former U.S. Assistant Attorney General for the Antitrust Division for the Obama Administration and as a Federal Trade Commissioner for the Clinton Administration. Since August 2011, Varney has been a partner at the New York law firm Cravath, Swaine & Moore. Varney earned a degree at Trinity College, Dublin (1975), a B.A. at the State University of New York at Albany (1977), an M.P.A. from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University (magna cum laude 1982), and a J.D. at Georgetown Law School (1986). Varney worked as an associate at the firm of Pierson, Semmes & Finley (1986–1989), general counsel to the Democratic National Committee (1989–1992), chief counsel to the Clinton/Gore Campaign (1991), general counsel to the 1992 Presidential Inaugural Committee (1992), associate at the firm of Hogan & Hartson (1991–1993), and Assistant to the President and Secretary to the Cabinet (1993–1994). In her latter role, she acted as a liaison between the White House and cabinet departments. She stated the Clinton Administration's philosophy
    8.00
    1 votes
    141
    Ellen Tauscher

    Ellen Tauscher

    Ellen O'Kane Tauscher (born November 15, 1951) is a American politician. She was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, representing California's 10th congressional district from 1997 until her resignation in 2009 upon joining the State Department. Tauscher served as the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs until February 2012. She currently serves as Special Envoy for Strategic Stability and Missile Defense at the State Department and Vice Chair-Designate of the Atlantic Council's Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security. Ellen Tauscher was born in Newark, New Jersey. Her parents were a secretary and a shop steward for the United Food and Commercial Workers Union. The first member of her family to attend college, she graduated in 1974 from Seton Hall University, where she obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in early childhood education. She then worked as an investment banker with Bache & Co. and, at age 25, became a member of the New York Stock Exchange. She also served as an officer of the American Stock Exchange from 1979 to 1983, after which she worked for Bear Stearns and a subsidiary of Drexel
    8.00
    1 votes
    142
    James T. Conway

    James T. Conway

    James Terry Conway (born December 26, 1947) is a retired United States Marine Corps four-star General who was the 34th Commandant of the Marine Corps. Among his previous postings were Director of Operations (J-3) on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Commanding General of 1st Marine Division and I Marine Expeditionary Force, taking part in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and First Battle of Fallujah. Conway was born in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas. He graduated from Roosevelt High School in St. Louis, Missouri and then attended Southeast Missouri State University, where he was a member of the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, graduating in 1969 with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology. He was commissioned as an infantry officer in 1970. His first assignment was command of a rifle platoon with 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, based at Camp Pendleton. He also served as the battalion's 106mm recoilless rifle platoon commander. Later, he served as Marine executive officer aboard the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) and as commanding officer of the Sea School at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. After graduating with honors from the Army's Infantry Officers Advanced Course, Conway commanded two
    8.00
    1 votes
    143
    Lisa P. Jackson

    Lisa P. Jackson

    Lisa Perez Jackson (born February 8, 1962) is an American chemical engineer currently serving as the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Previously, she worked at the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) for 6 years, first as an assistant commissioner and later as commissioner. Prior to that, she was employed by the EPA for 16 years. Lisa Jackson was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was adopted weeks after her birth. She grew up in Pontchartrain Park, a predominantly African-American middle-class neighborhood of New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1979, Jackson graduated as valedictorian from Saint Mary's Dominican High School in New Orleans. She received a scholarship from the National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering & Science due to her strong performance in mathematics. This allowed her to gain early exposure to a college environment. She attended Tulane University with a scholarship from Shell Oil Company. A dean at the Tulane School of Engineering got her interested in that discipline as an academic path, and she graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering in 1983.
    8.00
    1 votes
    144
    Timothy F. Geithner

    Timothy F. Geithner

    Timothy Franz Geithner ( /ˈɡaɪtnər/; born August 18, 1961) is an American economist and central banker. He is the 75th and current United States Secretary of the Treasury, serving under President Barack Obama. He was previously the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Geithner's position includes a large role in directing the Federal Government's spending on the late-2000s financial crisis, including allocation of $350 billion of funds from the Troubled Asset Relief Program enacted during the previous administration. At the end of his first year in office, he continued to deal with multiple high visibility issues, including administration efforts to restructure the regulation of the nation's financial system, attempts to spur recovery of both the mortgage market and the automobile industry, demands for protectionism, President Obama's tax changes, and negotiations with foreign governments on approaches to worldwide financial issues. Geithner was born in Brooklyn, New York City, the son of Deborah (née Moore) and Peter Franz Geithner. His father was the director of the Asia program at the Ford Foundation in New York in the 1990s. Geithner's father is of German descent,
    8.00
    1 votes
    145
    William Johnson

    William Johnson

    William Johnson (December 17 or December 27, 1771 - August 4, 1834) was a state legislator and judge in South Carolina, and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1804 to his death in 1834. Johnson was born in Charleston. His father, William Johnson, was a revolutionary, and represented Charleston in the general assembly of South Carolina. The elder Johnson was deported by Sir Henry Clinton to St. Augustine with other distinguished patriots of South Carolina. His mother, Sarah Johnson, née Nightingale, was also a revolutionary. "During the siege of Charleston, [she quilted] her petticoats with cartridges, which she thus conveyed to her husband in the trenches." The younger Johnson studied law at Princeton and graduated with an A.B. in 1790. He read law in the office of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney before passing the bar in 1793. In 1794, he married Sarah Bennett. They had at least one child, Anna Hayes Johnson, who was the second wife of Romulus Mitchell Saunders and mother of Jane Claudia Saunders Johnson (wife of General Bradley Tyler Johnson, Confederate Civil War General from Maryland.) Johnson followed in his father's footsteps, representing the city of
    8.00
    1 votes
    146
    Hilda Solis

    Hilda Solis

    Hilda Lucia Solis (/sɵˈliːs/; born October 20, 1957) is the 25th United States Secretary of Labor, serving in the Obama administration. She is a member of the Democratic Party and served in the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2009, representing the 31st and 32nd congressional districts of California that include East Los Angeles and the San Gabriel Valley. Solis was raised in La Puente, California by immigrant parents from Nicaragua and Mexico. She gained degrees from the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona) and the University of Southern California (USC) and worked for two federal agencies in Washington, D.C. Returning to her native state, she was elected to the Rio Hondo Community College Board of Trustees in 1985, the California State Assembly in 1992, and the California State Senate in 1994. She was the first Hispanic woman to serve in the State Senate, and was reelected there in 1998. Solis sought to pass environmental justice legislation. She was the first female recipient of the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award in 2000. Solis defeated a long-time Democratic incumbent as part of getting elected to the U.S. House of
    7.00
    2 votes
    147
    Kristie Kenney

    Kristie Kenney

    Kristie Anne Kenney (born May 24, 1955 in Washington, D.C.) is an American diplomat and the current United States ambassador to Thailand. She previously served as the United States ambassador to the Republic of the Philippines. She is the first female U.S. ambassador to both countries. Kenney holds a masters degree in Latin American studies from Tulane University and a bachelor's degree in political science from Clemson University. In July 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Kenney as the United States ambassador to the Kingdom of Thailand. She was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 29, 2010. Prior to being the U.S. ambassador to Thailand. Kenney served as the U.S. ambassador to Ecuador and the Philippines. Before working for the United States Foreign Service, she worked as a United States senate page, a tour guide in the United States capitol, an intern in the House of Representatives, and as a staff member of the Senate Human Resources Committee. At the State Department, she was appointed overseas as economic counselor at the United States Mission to International Organizations in Geneva, economic officer at the U.S. Embassy in Argentina, and consular officer
    7.00
    2 votes
    148
    R. Niels Marquardt

    R. Niels Marquardt

    R. Niels Marquardt (born 1954 in San Diego, California) is an American diplomat and current United States Consul General in Sydney, Australia. R. Niels Marquardt graduated from Lewis and Clark College in 1975 with a B.A., the American Graduate School of International Management in 1980, and from the National War College in 1994. He joined the U.S. foreign service in 1980. Marquardt is married to Judith Marquardt and they have four daughters, Kaia, Kelsey, Torrin, and Yannika. He served as the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Madagascar and the Union of the Comoros from 2007 to 2010. He was nominated by President George W. Bush on March 26, 2007. On May 25, 2007, the Senate confirmed his nomination. He was sworn in on August 17, 2007. He also served as the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Cameroon from 2004 to 2007 and as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Equatorial Guinea from 2004 to 2006. From 2001 to 2004, he served as the Special Coordinator for Diplomatic Readiness. In this role, he was responsible for coordinating the largest increase in State Department recruiting, hiring, and training in its history. A senior Foreign Service officer, class of Minister-Counselor, he
    7.00
    2 votes
    149
    Samuel Alito

    Samuel Alito

    Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr. (/əˈliːtoʊ/; born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was nominated by President George W. Bush and has served on the court since January 31, 2006. Raised in Hamilton Township, New Jersey and educated at Princeton University and Yale Law School, Alito served as U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey and a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit prior to joining the Supreme Court. He is the 110th justice, the second Italian American and the eleventh Roman Catholic to serve on the court. Alito has been described by the Cato Institute as a conservative jurist with a libertarian streak. Alito was born in Trenton, New Jersey, to Italian American parents: Italian immigrant Samuel A. Alito, Sr., and the former Rose Fradusco. Alito's father, now deceased, was a high school teacher and then became the first Director of the New Jersey Office of Legislative Services, a position he held from 1952 to 1984. Alito's mother is a retired schoolteacher. Alito grew up in Hamilton Township, New Jersey, a suburb of Trenton. He attended Steinert High School in Hamilton Township and graduated from Princeton
    7.00
    2 votes
    150
    Shaun Donovan

    Shaun Donovan

    Shaun L.S. Donovan (born January 24, 1966) is the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, serving in the cabinet of President Barack Obama. Prior to this he headed the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development. On December 13, 2008, in his weekly national radio address, President-elect Barack Obama announced that he would appoint Donovan to his cabinet. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate through unanimous consent on January 22, 2009 and sworn-in on January 26. Born in New York, Donovan earned undergraduate and graduate degrees from Harvard University, graduating from Harvard College in 1987, and earning a Master of Public Administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government and a Master of Architecture from the Graduate School of Design in 1995. During the Clinton administration and the transition to the Bush administration, Donovan was Deputy Assistant Secretary for Multifamily Housing at HUD, and was acting FHA commissioner. He became Commissioner of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development in 2004. While Secretary, Donovan oversaw the allocation of 75% of HUD's share of the American Recovery and
    7.00
    2 votes
    151
    Vilma Socorro Martínez

    Vilma Socorro Martínez

    Vilma Socorro Martínez (born in 1943) is an American lawyer, civil rights activist and diplomat currently serving as the U.S. Ambassador to Argentina. She is the first woman to hold this position. Vilma Socorro Martínez was born to a Mexican American family in San Antonio, Texas, in 1943, and was raised in a climate of certain racial hostility. An honor student in high school, for example, she found herself steered away from academics by a counselor who tried to convince her that someone of her background would be better off attending a trade school than a major university. Martínez ignored that advice and instead enrolled in the University of Texas at Austin. While working her way through college in the biochemistry lab, Martínez met a professor who recognized her potential. In marked contrast to her high-school counselor, the professor insisted she pursue further education; after receiving her bachelor's degree, Martínez went on to Columbia Law School, and graduated in 1967. She then joined the Legal Defense and Educational Fund of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In her job, she defended a number of poor and minority clients. She also
    7.00
    2 votes
    152
    David Pearce

    David Pearce

    David D. Pearce (born June 9, 1950 Portland, Maine) is United States foreign service officer and ambassador. As of May 2011, he is the Assistant Chief of Mission at the U.S. embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. He previously served as the United States Ambassador to Algeria, 2008–11. He graduated from Bowdoin College, and from Ohio State University with an M.A. in journalism in 1973. He worked for nearly a decade as a reporter and a foreign correspondent for several publications including the Washington Post before he joined the US Foreign Service in 1982. He had been serving there since then when President George W. Bush nominated him to become ambassador to Algeria on June 28, 2008. He became ambassador in August.
    6.00
    3 votes
    153
    Fred M. Vinson

    Fred M. Vinson

    Frederick Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) served the United States in all three branches of government and was the most prominent member of the Vinson political family. In the legislative branch, he was an elected member of the United States House of Representatives from Louisa, Kentucky, for twelve years. In the executive branch, he was the Secretary of Treasury under President Harry S. Truman. In the judicial branch, he was the 13th Chief Justice of the United States, appointed by President Truman. Frederick Vinson, known universally as "Fred", was born in the newly built, eight-room, red brick house in front of the Lawrence County jail, Louisa, Kentucky, where his father served as the Lawrence County Jailer. As a child he would help his father in the jail and even made friends with prisoners who would remember his kindness when he later ran for public office. Vinson worked odd jobs while in school. He graduated from Kentucky Normal School in 1908 and enrolled at Centre College, where he graduated at the top of his class. While at Centre, he was a member of the Kentucky Alpha Delta chapter of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. He became a lawyer in Louisa, a small
    6.00
    3 votes
    154
    John Fernandez

    John Fernandez

    John Fernandez is an Indiana politician, the former mayor of Bloomington, Indiana from 1995 to 2003. A graduate of Indiana University, he was nominated by President Barack Obama to the post of Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Economic Development, leading the Economic Development Administration. Fernandez was sworn into office on September 14, 2009. As the Administrator of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Economic Development Administration (EDA), Fernandez is charged with leading the federal economic development agenda by promoting innovation and competitiveness, preparing American regions for growth and success in the global economy. With over 13 years of executive experience, Fernandez has earned a reputation as a strategic thinker, creative problem solver and effective manager. Prior to his appointment, Fernandez led the new development and acquisition team at First Capital Group, an Indiana-based real estate investment firm. Fernandez played a critical role in expanding the firm’s regional and national investment footprint. Fernandez also served as Of Counsel for Krieg DeVault LLP, an Indianapolis-based law firm, where he advised private and governmental organizations on
    6.00
    3 votes
    155
    John McKinley

    John McKinley

    John McKinley (May 1, 1780 – July 19, 1852) was a U.S. Senator from the state of Alabama and an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. Born in Culpeper County, Virginia, his family moved to Kentucky when he was an infant. In that state he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1800, practicing in Frankfort and Louisville from 1800 to 1819 before moving to Huntsville, Alabama. After serving in the Alabama House of Representatives, he was elected to the U.S. Senate, serving his first term from November 27, 1826 to March 3, 1831, being elected to fill out the rest of the term of Henry H. Chambers. Israel Pickens served as interim senator until McKinley was elected. He was reelected to the Senate, but served only from March 4, 1837 until his abrupt resignation on April 22 of that same year. McKinley received a recess appointment from President Martin Van Buren on April 22, 1837, to a newly created seat (one of two which had been created by Congress - 5 Stat. 176) on the Supreme Court. Formally nominated on September 18, 1837, McKinley was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 25, 1837, and received his commission the same day. There was no interim senator
    6.00
    3 votes
    156
    William Burnham Woods

    William Burnham Woods

    William Burnham Woods (August 3, 1824 – May 14, 1887) was an American jurist, politician, and soldier. Woods was born on August 3, 1824 in Newark, Ohio. He was the older brother of Charles R. Woods, another future Civil War general. He attended college at both Western Reserve University and Yale University, graduating from Yale in 1845. Upon his graduation he returned home to Newark and studied law, being admitted to the bar in 1847 and establishing a practice with his tutor. Woods, a loyal Democrat, was elected mayor of Newark in 1856, and to the Ohio General Assembly in 1858, being named Speaker of the House shortly thereafter. He opposed the Civil War but, not being a proponent of slavery, came to see the necessity of a Union victory. In 1862 he left the Ohio state house and joined the Union Army. He was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 76th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which served in the Western Theater. He fought at the battles of Shiloh and Vicksburg, and was promoted to brigadier general. Woods commanded a brigade under William T. Sherman during the Atlanta Campaign and a division during Sherman's March to the Sea. During the Carolinas Campaign, he fought with distinction at
    6.00
    3 votes
    157
    Roderick W. Moore

    Roderick W. Moore

    Roderick W. Moore is the Principal Deputy High Representative and Brcko District Supervisor at the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to beginning his assignment at OHR, Moore served for three years (2007-2010) as the first American Ambassador to Montenegro. He was nominated for that posting by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on June 29, 2007. Senator Barack Obama chaired the Senate confirmation hearing in June 2007 at which Ambassador-designate Moore testified. Then Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs, R. Nicholas Burns, swore him in on September 12, 2007, in the Treaty Room of the State Department. He arrived to Montenegro and presented his credentials to Montenegrin President Filip Vujanovic on September 18, 2007. He left post in August of 2010. Prior to his appointment to OHR in September 2010, Moore served as the first U.S. Ambassador to Montenegro from September 2007 to August 2010. Before Montenegro, Rod Moore served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade from January 2004 – June 2007. He also served (2000–2003) as Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Sofia,
    5.00
    4 votes
    158
    Dan Mozena

    Dan Mozena

    Dan Mozena (born May 1, 1949 in Dubuque, Iowa) is a United States Foreign Service Officer and a member of the Senior Foreign Service. He served as the United States Ambassador to Angola 2007–2010. On May 16, 2011, President Obama nominated Mozena to be the next United States Ambassador to Bangladesh. Amb. Mozena joined the U.S. Foreign Service as a Political Officer in 1981. 1982 - 1983: Consular Officer, U.S. Embassy, Lusaka, Zambia 1983 - 1985: Economic Officer and Political Officer, U.S. Embassy, Kinshasa, Zaire 1985 - 1988: Public Diplomacy Officer, Office of Strategic Nuclear Policy, Political-Military Bureau, Dept. of State 1988 - 1989: Hindi language study, Foreign Service Institute 1989 - 1992: Deputy Counselor for Political Affairs, U.S. Embassy, New Delhi, India 1992 - 1993: Officer-in-Charge, South African Affairs, Dept. of State 1993 - 1995: Deputy Director, Office of Southern African Affairs, Dept. of State 1995 - 1998: Deputy Counselor for Political Affairs, U.S. Embassy, Islamabad, Pakistan 1998 - 2001: Counselor for Political and Economic Affairs, U.S. Embassy, Dhaka, Bangladesh 2001 - 2004: Deputy Chief of Mission, U.S. Embassy, Lusaka, Zambia 2004 - 2007:
    5.67
    3 votes
    159
    Esther Brimmer

    Esther Brimmer

    Esther Brimmer is an American foreign policy expert and current Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. She received her D.Phil. (Ph. D.) and Master’s degrees in International Relations from the University of Oxford, UK, and her B.A. in International Relations from Pomona College in Claremont, California, USA. Brimmer has served in the United States government and in international affairs think tanks. From 1999-2001 she was a Member of the Office of Policy Planning at the U.S. Department of State working on the European Union, Western Europe, the United Nations, and multilateral security issues. From 1995-1999 she managed projects as a Senior Associate at the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. She also served as a Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (1993-1995) and as a Legislative Analyst at the Democratic Study Group in the United States House of Representatives (1991-1993). From 1989-1991 she was a management consultant with McKinsey. From September 2005 on Brimmer was a visiting professor at the College of Europe. She was nominated to her present position by United States President Barack Obama on
    5.67
    3 votes
    160
    John Roberts

    John Roberts

    John Glover Roberts, Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is the 17th and current Chief Justice of the United States. He has served since 2005, having been nominated by President George W. Bush after the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist. He has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy in his jurisprudence. Roberts grew up in northern Indiana and was educated in a private school before attending Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he was managing editor of the Harvard Law Review. After being admitted to the bar, he served as a law clerk for Judge Henry Friendly and then Justice Rehnquist before taking a position in the Attorney General's office during the Reagan Administration. He went on to serve the Reagan Administration and the George H. W. Bush administration in the Department of Justice and the Office of the White House Counsel, before spending 14 years in private law practice. During this time, he argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court. In 2003, he was appointed as a judge of the D.C. Circuit by President George W. Bush, where he served until his nomination to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, initially to succeed retiring Justice
    5.67
    3 votes
    161
    Stanley Forman Reed

    Stanley Forman Reed

    Stanley Forman Reed (December 31, 1884 – April 2, 1980) was a noted American attorney who served as United States Solicitor General from 1935 to 1938 and as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1938 to 1957. He was the last Supreme Court Justice who did not graduate from law school (though Justice Robert H. Jackson who served from 1941 to 1954 was the last such justice appointed to the Supreme Court). Stanley Reed was born in the small town of Minerva in Mason County, Kentucky, on the last day of 1884 to John and Frances (Forman) Reed. His father was a wealthy physician and a Protestant who adhered to no particular organized church. The Reeds and Formans traced their history to the earliest colonial period in America, and these family heritages were impressed upon young Stanley at an early age. Reed attended Kentucky Wesleyan College and received a B.A. degree in 1902. He then attended Yale University as an undergraduate, and obtained a second B.A. in 1906. He studied law at the University of Virginia (where he was a member of St. Elmo Hall) and Columbia University, but did not obtain a law degree. Reed married the former Winifred Elgin in May 1908. The couple had
    5.67
    3 votes
    162
    Bushrod Washington

    Bushrod Washington

    Bushrod Washington (June 5, 1762 – November 26, 1829) was a U.S. Supreme Court associate justice and the nephew of George Washington. Washington was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, and was the son of John Augustine Washington, brother of the first president. Bushrod attended Delamere, an academy administered by the Rev. Bartholomew Booth and attended the Chapel in the Woods. He graduated from the College of William and Mary, where he was one of the first members of Phi Beta Kappa. His uncle sponsored Bushrod's legal studies with fellow Founder James Wilson. Bushrod lived in Richmond, Virginia at William Byrd III's estate, Belvidere, until his appointment to the Supreme Court in 1798. He inherited Mount Vernon from George after the latter died in 1799. Washington received a recess appointment to the seat vacated by James Wilson on September 29, 1798, after another Federalist, John Marshall, turned John Adams down and endorsed Washington. Formally nominated on December 18, 1798, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 20, 1798, and received his commission the same day. He became an associate justice on February 4, 1799, at the age of 36. After Marshall became
    6.50
    2 votes
    163
    David Hoadley Thorne

    David Hoadley Thorne

    David Thorne (born September 16, 1944) is an American businessman and diplomat who serves as United States Ambassador to Italy and Ambassador to San Marino. He was nominated by President Barack Obama and sworn in August 17, 2009. Son of Alice Smith (Barry) and Landon K. Thorne Jr., David lived in Italy for a decade while his father helped administer the Marshall Plan. He is the twin brother of Julia Thorne, the first wife of John Kerry. Thorne graduated from Yale University in 1966, where he roomed with Kerry and both were members of Skull and Bones , served in the United States Navy during the Vietnam War, and worked in political consulting, real estate development, and publishing. He is married and has two grown children. Media related to David Thorne at Wikimedia Commons
    6.50
    2 votes
    164
    Don Beyer

    Don Beyer

    Donald Sternoff "Don" Beyer, Jr. (born June 20, 1950) is the U.S. ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In addition, he owns automobile dealerships in Virginia, and has a long record involved in community, political and philanthropic work. From 1990–98 he served as the 36th Lieutenant Governor of Virginia as a Democrat during the gubernatorial administrations of Democrat Doug Wilder (1990–1994) and Republican George Allen (1994–1998). Beyer was born in the Free Territory of Trieste now Trieste, Italy, the son of U.S. Army officer Don Beyer and his wife, Nancy. The oldest of six children, he was raised in Washington, D.C. In 1968 he graduated from Gonzaga College High School, where he was salutatorian of his class; in 1972 he graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Williams College, magna cum laude, in economics. Beyer was a presidential scholar in 1968, and was a National Merit Scholarship winner. He graduated from a winter Outward Bound course at Dartmouth College in January 1971, and attended Wellesley College that year as part of the "12 College Exchange" program. During his tenure as Lieutenant Governor he served as president of the Virginia Senate. He chaired the Virginia
    6.50
    2 votes
    165
    Emily Thornberry

    Emily Thornberry

    Emily Anne Thornberry (born 27 July 1960) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Islington South and Finsbury since 2005. She is currently the Shadow Attorney General. Thornberry was born in north Surrey to Cedric Thornberry, a Visiting Professor of War Studies at King's College London, and his wife Sally Thornberry, a teacher. Her parents divorced when Thornberry was aged seven and she and her two brothers lived with her mother who later became a Labour Councillor and Mayor. Her father went on to become United Nations Assistant Secretary General and work for NATO. She was educated at the University of Kent at Canterbury where she studied law. She went on to practice as a barrister specialising in human rights law from 1985 to 2005 under Michael Mansfield at Tooks Chambers. Thornberry joined the Transport and General Workers Union in 1985. In the late 1980s she became friends with Waheed (now Lord) Alli, and persuaded him to join the Labour Party. In the 2001 general election she stood for Parliament in Canterbury and was defeated by the Conservative incumbent, Julian Brazier by a margin of over 2,000 votes. Following the retirement of
    6.50
    2 votes
    166
    James Iredell

    James Iredell

    James Iredell (October 5, 1751 – October 20, 1799) was one of the first Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was appointed by President George Washington and served from 1790 until his death in 1799. His son, James Iredell, Jr., became governor of North Carolina. James Iredell was born in Lewes, England, the oldest of five children of a Bristol merchant. The failure of his father's business (and health) impelled James to immigrate to the Colonies in 1767 at the age of 17. Relatives assisted him in obtaining a position in the customs service as deputy collector, or comptroller, of the port of Edenton, North Carolina. While working at the customs house, Iredell read law under Samuel Johnston (later governor of North Carolina), began the practice of law and was admitted to the bar in 1771. The grandson of a clergyman, he was a devout Anglican throughout his life and his writings display an interest in spirituality and metaphysics beyond a simple attachment to organized religion. In 1773, Iredell married Johnston's sister Hannah and the two had four children. The following year (1774) he was made collector for the port. Although employed by the British government,
    6.50
    2 votes
    167
    Jonathan Adelstein

    Jonathan Adelstein

    Jonathan Steven Adelstein, the former Administrator of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Utilities Service, is a former Commissioner on the Federal Communications Commission. On September 17th, 2012, Adelstein assumed the role of president/ceo] of the PCIA (The Wireless Infrastructure Association). Jonathan S. Adelstein was nominated by President Obama and unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate in July 2009, to serve as the 17th Administrator of USDA's Rural Utilities Service. He was previously confirmed unanimously twice by the Senate to serve as Commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission from 2002 to 2009. As RUS Administrator, Adelstein oversaw a $60 billion portfolio of rural electric, water and telecommunications infrastructure loans. As part of the Recovery Act of 2009, he spearheaded the investment of $3.5 billion in rural broadband expansion to create jobs and provide new or improved broadband service to 7 million residents, businesses and community facilities. Adelstein also simultaneously managed the investment of over $3 billion in Recovery Act loans and grants in the repair and upgrade of rural water and waste systems. He leads RUS's
    6.50
    2 votes
    168
    Joseph McKenna

    Joseph McKenna

    Joseph McKenna (August 10, 1843 – November 21, 1926) was an American politician who served in all three branches of the U.S. federal government, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Attorney General and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. He is one of a small number of members of the House of Representatives who have subsequently served on the Supreme Court. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Irish Catholic immigrants, he attended St. Joseph's College and the Collegiate Institute at Benicia, California. After being admitted to the California bar in 1865, he became District Attorney for Solano County and then served in the California State Assembly for two years (1875–1877). He retired after one term and an unsuccessful bid for Speaker of the House. After two unsuccessful attempts, McKenna was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1885 and served for four terms. He was appointed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in 1892 by President Benjamin Harrison. In 1897 he was appointed the 42nd Attorney General of the United States by President William McKinley, and served in that capacity until 1898. He was then appointed an
    6.50
    2 votes
    169
    Owen Josephus Roberts

    Owen Josephus Roberts

    Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875 – May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court for fifteen years. He also led the fact-finding commission that investigated the attack on Pearl Harbor. At the time of World War II, he was the only Republican appointed Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and one of only three to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt's orders for Japanese American internment camps in Korematsu v. United States. Roberts was born in Philadelphia and attended Germantown Academy and the University of Pennsylvania, where he was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society and was the editor of The Daily Pennsylvanian. He completed his bachelor's degree in 1895 and went on to graduate at the top of his class from University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1898. He first gained notice as an assistant district attorney in Philadelphia. He was appointed by President Calvin Coolidge to investigate oil reserve scandals, known as the Teapot Dome scandal. This led to the prosecution and conviction of Albert B. Fall, the former Secretary of the Interior, for bribe-taking. Roberts was appointed to the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover after Hoover's
    6.50
    2 votes
    170
    Tom Vilsack

    Tom Vilsack

    Thomas James "Tom" Vilsack (/ˈvɪlsæk/; born December 13, 1950) is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and currently the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. He served as the 40th Governor of the state of Iowa. He was first elected in 1998 and re-elected to a second four-year term in 2002. On November 30, 2006, he formally launched his candidacy for the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election, but ended his bid on February 23, 2007. Barack Obama announced Vilsack's selection to be the United States Secretary of Agriculture under his administration on December 17, 2008. Vilsack's nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate by unanimous consent on January 20, 2009. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Tom Vilsack was abandoned at birth and placed in a Roman Catholic orphanage. He was adopted in 1951 by Bud and Dolly Vilsack. Bud Vilsack was a real-estate agent and insurance salesman, and Dolly was a homemaker. Vilsack attended Shady Side Academy, a preparatory high school in Pittsburgh. He received a Bachelor's degree in 1972 from Hamilton College in New York. While at Hamilton he joined the Delta Upsilon Fraternity.
    6.50
    2 votes
    171
    William J. Lynn III

    William J. Lynn III

    William J. Lynn III (born January 1, 1954) is a former United States Deputy Secretary of Defense. Before that he was Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) and a lobbyist for Raytheon. Lynn graduated from Dartmouth College in 1976, and later studied at Cornell Law School to receive his law degree in 1980 and graduated from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University in 1982 with an M.A. in public affairs. After this he was employed by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he was the executive director of the Defense Organization Project from 1982 to 1985. That last year he published the book Toward a More Effective Defense. At some point in time he was a senior fellow studying strategic nuclear forces and arms control at the National Defense University's Strategic Concepts Development Center, and went on to be the legislative counsel for defense and arms control matters for Massachusetts Senator Edward Kennedy between 1987 and 1993. During this time he also worked as Kennedy's staff representative on the Committee on Armed Services. Lynn later worked as an assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Budget, and in April 1993 joined the office of the
    6.50
    2 votes
    172
    Earl Warren

    Earl Warren

    Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953-1969) and the 30th Governor of California. He is known for the sweeping decisions of the Warren Court, which ended school segregation and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school-sponsored prayer, and requiring "one-man-one vote" rules of apportionment. He made the Court a power center on a more even base with Congress and the presidency especially through four landmark decisions: Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Reynolds v. Sims (1964), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Warren is one of only two people to be elected Governor of California three times, the other being Jerry Brown. Before holding these positions, he was a district attorney for Alameda County, California, and Attorney General of California. Warren was also the vice-presidential nominee of the Republican Party in 1948, and chaired the Warren Commission, which was formed to investigate the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy. His tenure as chief justice is often seen
    4.75
    4 votes
    173
    Daisy Bates

    Daisy Bates

    Daisy May Bates, CBE (16 October 1859 – 18 April 1951) was an Irish Australian journalist, welfare worker and lifelong student of Australian Aboriginal culture and society. She was known among the native people as 'Kabbarli' (grandmother). Bates was born as Margaret Dwyer in County Tipperary, Ireland in 1859. Her mother, Bridget (née Hunt), died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1862. Her father married Mary Dillon on 21 September 1864 and died en route to the United States, so Bates was raised, by relatives, in Roscrea and educated at the National School in the town. On 22 November 1882, aged 23, she emigrated to Australia on the R.M.S. Almora, by which time she had changed her name to Daisy May O'Dwyer. Some accounts (based on Bates's own claims) say that she left Ireland for 'health reasons', but Bates's biographer Julia Blackburn discovered that, after getting her first job as a governess in Dublin at age 18, there was a scandal, presumably sexual in nature, which resulted in the young man of the house taking his own life. Bates was forced to leave Ireland and, keen to cover up her sordid past, she re-invented her history, setting a pattern for the rest of her life. It was not
    5.33
    3 votes
    174
    James Wilson

    James Wilson

    James Wilson (1742–1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. Wilson was elected twice to the Continental Congress, and was a major force in drafting the United States Constitution. A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed by George Washington to the Supreme Court of the United States. One of seven children, Wilson was born to a Presbyterian farming family on September 14, 1742 in Carskerdo, Fife, Scotland to William Wilson and Alison Landall. Wilson attended a number of Scottish universities without attaining a degree. Imbued with the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in British America in 1766, carrying valuable letters of introduction. These helped Wilson to begin tutoring and then teaching at The Academy and College of Philadelphia (now the University of Pennsylvania). He petitioned there for a degree and was awarded an honorary Master of Arts several months later. Wilson began to read the law at the office of John Dickinson a short time later. After two years of study he attained the bar in Philadelphia,and in the following
    5.33
    3 votes
    175
    Matthew Barzun

    Matthew Barzun

    Matthew Winthrop Barzun (born October 23, 1970 in New York City, New York) was selected by President Barack Obama as National Finance Chair for the Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012. He is an American business executive who is known for his work with CNET Networks and for his volunteer work on Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign. He served as U.S. Ambassador to Sweden from 2009 to 2011. Barzun grew up in Lincoln, Massachusetts and received his A.B. in history and literature magna cum laude from Harvard College in 1993. In his testimony to the Senate during his confirmation vetting, Barzun noted that he had served as a summer intern to Massachusetts Senator John Kerry in 1989. Prior to his college education Matthew Barzun was a student at St. Paul’s School in New Hampshire. After graduating from Harvard College, Barzun began working with CNET Networks. Barzun’s small-dollar fundraisers were supporter driven via online event pages, and replicated throughout the country. In The Audacity to Win, author and political strategist David Plouffe describes Matthew Barzun’s grassroots campaign idea as “citizen fundraisers” that drove Obama’s connection with supporters. The Senate
    5.33
    3 votes
    176
    Samuel Chase

    Samuel Chase

    Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and earlier was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. Early in life, Chase was a "firebrand" states-righter and revolutionary. His political views changed over his lifetime, and, in the last decades of his career, he became well known as a staunch Federalist and was impeached for allegedly letting his partisan leanings affect his court decisions. Chase was acquitted by the Senate. Samuel was the only child of the Reverend Thomas Chase (c. 1703–1779) and his wife, Matilda Walker (?-by 1744), born near Princess Anne, Maryland. His father was a clergyman who immigrated to Somerset County to become a priest in a new church. Samuel was educated at home. He was eighteen when he left for Annapolis where he studied law under attorney John Hall. He was admitted to the bar in 1761 and started a law practice in Annapolis. It was during his time as a member of the bar that his colleagues gave him the nickname of "Old Bacon Face." In May 1762, Chase married Ann Baldwin, daughter of Thomas Baldwin and his wife Agnes. Samuel and Ann had
    5.33
    3 votes
    177
    Charles Rivkin

    Charles Rivkin

    Charles Hammerman Rivkin (born April 1962) is the current United States Ambassador to France. Selected by President Barack Obama, he was sworn in by Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg following unanimous confirmation by the United States Senate on July 10, 2009. Rivkin is the youngest Ambassador in nearly 60 years to serve as his country’s senior representative in France. The Embassy in Paris is America’s first and one of its largest diplomatic missions, which now has seven constituent posts throughout France and represents over 50 federal agencies and departments. Rivkin earned a B.A. from Yale University in 1984 where he graduated with distinction in political science and international relations. At Yale he also sang with the famed Whiffenpoofs, America's oldest collegiate a cappella singing group. He then earned an M.B.A. from Harvard University in 1988. He speaks fluent French and spent years as a youth studying, traveling and working in France, including studying in Rennes with School Year Abroad and working as an intern at Renault. Business interests have taken him to Paris or Cannes every year for the past 20 years. Rivkin's father, William R. Rivkin, was United
    7.00
    1 votes
    178
    Christopher R. Hill

    Christopher R. Hill

    Christopher Robert Hill (born 1952) is an American diplomat who served as the U.S. Ambassador to Iraq. On July 1, 2010, Hill was chosen to be the dean of the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver He also serves on the board of International Relief and Development Inc. Hill's father was a diplomat in the Foreign Service and as a child Hill traveled with the family to many countries. After American diplomats were expelled from Haiti, Hill's family moved to Little Compton, Rhode Island where Hill attended Moses Brown School in Providence, Rhode Island, graduating in 1970. He then went on to study at Bowdoin College, earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics in 1974. Hill was a volunteer in Cameroon from 1974 to 1976. Hill credits his work with the Peace Corps for teaching him his first lessons in diplomacy. As a volunteer, Hill worked with credit unions and when he discovered that one board of directors had stolen 60 percent of their members' money, he reported on the malfeasance to their members, who promptly re-elected them because the board reflected carefully balanced tribal interests and it really did not matter to the members if the board
    7.00
    1 votes
    179
    Clifford Sobel

    Clifford Sobel

    Clifford M. Sobel (born 1949, to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, NY) is a U.S. diplomat and former ambassador. Most recently, he served as the United States Ambassador to Brazil. He was nominated for the post by President Bush on May 23, 2006, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 29, 2006, and sworn in by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on July 20, 2006. He presented his credentials to the Brazilian Foreign Ministry on August 2, 2006. Ambassador Sobel is the 53rd Chief of Mission to Brazil. He resigned as Ambassador in August 2009. From 2001-2005, Sobel was the 62nd Ambassador of the United States to the Netherlands. President George W. Bush nominated him on July 3, 2001 and he was sworn in by Secretary of State Colin Powell on November 8, 2001. On December 5, 2001, he presented his credentials to Her Majesty Queen Beatrix. Sobel first attended the University of Vermont, and in 1972, he graduated with honors from New York University's School of Commerce with the Bachelor of Science degree in management. In 1999, he was awarded an honorary Doctorate of Laws degree from Kean University in recognition of his public service contribution. During the 1970s and 1980s, he founded
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    1 votes
    180
    Daniel Benjamin

    Daniel Benjamin

    Ambassador-at-large Daniel Benjamin is the coordinator for counterterrorism at the United States Department of State appointed by Secretary Clinton. He was a 1983 Marshall Scholar at New College, Oxford where he studied for BA in PPE. He worked as a journalist for Time and the Wall Street Journal. He was a scholar on international security. From 1994 to 1999, he served on the National Security Council. He was a Senior Fellow in the International Security Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He wrote a column for Slate Magazine. He was a 2004 Berlin prize fellow by the American Academy in Berlin. From December 2006 to May 2009, he served as the Director for the Center on the United States and Europe, and Senior Fellow of Foreign Policy Studies at The Brookings Institution. He is currently the US State Department's Coordinator for counter-terrorism, with the rank of Ambassador-at-Large. Together with Steven Simon, he wrote The Age of Sacred Terror (Random House, 2002), which documents the rise of al Qaeda and religiously motivated terrorism, as well as America's efforts to combat that threat. They review the history of Islamist political thought from ibn
    7.00
    1 votes
    181
    James F. Moriarty

    James F. Moriarty

    James F. Moriarty is a United States diplomat and career foreign service officer with the rank of Minister-Counselor. As of 2008 he is the current U.S. Ambassador to Bangladesh. His appointment was confirmed as by the Senate on March 14, 2008 and he was sworn in on March 26, 2008. Prior to this assignment, Mr. Moriarty served as U.S. Ambassador to Nepal between 2004 and 2007. Before moving to Nepal, Ambassador Moriarty served in 2002–2004 as Special Assistant to the President of the United States of America and Senior Director at the National Security Council. He was responsible for advising on and coordinating U.S. policy on East Asia, South Asia, and the Pacific region. Ambassador Moriarty also worked in the White House in 2001–2002 as National Security Council Director for China Affairs. In 1998–2001, Ambassador Moriarty served as Minister-Counselor for Political Affairs at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing. In 1994–1998, he led the General Affairs (Political) Section at the American Institute in Taiwan. Ambassador Moriarty shaped the U.S. response to Chinese missile tests in the Taiwan Strait, the U.S. bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, and the ramming of a U.S. EP-3 plane
    7.00
    1 votes
    182
    John Marshall Harlan

    John Marshall Harlan

    John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833 – October 14, 1911) was a Kentucky lawyer and politician who served as an associate justice on the Supreme Court. He is most notable as the lone dissenter in the Civil Rights Cases (1883), and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which, respectively, struck down as unconstitutional federal anti-discrimination legislation and upheld Southern segregation statutes. These dissents, among others, led to his nickname, "the Great Dissenter." Harlan was born into a prominent Kentucky slaveholding family whose presence in the region dated back to 1779. Harlan's father was James Harlan, a lawyer and politician; his mother, Elizabeth, née Davenport, was the daughter of a pioneer from Virginia. After attending school in Frankfort, Harlan enrolled at Centre College, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi and graduated with honors. Though his mother wanted Harlan to become a merchant, James insisted that his son follow him into the legal profession, and Harlan joined his father's law practice in 1852. Yet while James Harlan could have trained his son in the office as was the norm in that era, he sent John to attend law school at Transylvania University in 1853, where
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    1 votes
    183
    Kathleen Merrigan

    Kathleen Merrigan

    Kathleen Merrigan was sworn in as the United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture on April 8, 2009. Merrigan helped develop USDA's organic labeling rules while head of the Agricultural Marketing Service from 1999-2001. Between her USDA positions, she worked at Tufts University as Director of the Agriculture, Food and Environment Program. She has a PhD in environmental planning from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    7.00
    1 votes
    184
    Rajiv Shah

    Rajiv Shah

    Rajiv “Raj” Shah (born March 9, 1973) is an American economic development specialist and physician who is currently the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). He was confirmed by the Senate on December 24, 2009, replacing acting chief Alonzo Fulgham. In this capacity, he has led USAID in efforts to provide relief to the earthquake victims in Haiti and to flood victims in Pakistan. Prior to his appointment at USAID, Shah worked in a range of leadership roles at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation including Director of Agricultural Development, Director of Financial Services, leader of the Strategic Opportunities initiative and manager of the Foundation’s $1.5 billion commitment to the Vaccine Fund. Before joining the Gates Foundation, Shah was a health care policy advisor on the Al Gore presidential campaign, 2000 and a member of Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell's transition committee on health. President Obama announced Shah’s selection as Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist on April 17, 2009. Shah’s nomination was confirmed by the United States Senate by unanimous consent on May 12,
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Arthur Goldberg

    Arthur Goldberg

    Arthur Joseph Goldberg (August 8, 1908 – January 19, 1990) was an American statesman and jurist who served as the U.S. Secretary of Labor, Supreme Court Justice and Ambassador to the United Nations. Goldberg was born and raised on the West Side of Chicago, the youngest of eight children of Jewish immigrants from the Russian Empire. The paternal side of the family (Goldberg-Flaumen) originally came from the town of Oświęcim, in modernday Poland. The maternal side of the family originally came from a shtetl called Zenkhov in Ukraine. Goldberg's father, a produce peddler, died in 1916, forcing Goldberg's siblings to quit school and go to work to support the family. As the youngest child, Goldberg was allowed to continue school, graduating from high school at the age of 16. Goldberg's interest in the law was sparked by the noted murder trial in 1923 of Leopold and Loeb, two wealthy young Chicagoans who were spared the death penalty with the help of their high-powered defense attorney, Clarence Darrow. Goldberg later pointed to this case as inspiration for his opposition to the death penalty on the bench, since he had seen how inequality of social status could lead to unfair application
    6.00
    2 votes
    186
    Ashton Carter

    Ashton Carter

    Ashton Baldwin Carter (born September 14, 1954) is a United States national security professional serving as the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense. Prior to that, He served as Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L) for President Barack Obama. He is currently on leave from his post as Co-Director (with former Secretary of Defense William J. Perry) of the Preventive Defense Project, a research collaboration of Harvard and Stanford universities. He is also on leave from the International Relations, Security, and Science faculty at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He is a member of the guiding coalition of the Project on National Security Reform. On August 2, 2011, President Obama nominated Carter to be the new Deputy Secretary of Defense, and on September 23, 2011 the United States Senate confirmed him by unanimous consent. He assumed his office as Deputy Secretary of Defense on October 6, 2011. Carter served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy in the Clinton Administration from 1993 to 1996. He was nominated to his current post on March 18, 2009. Dr Carter served as a member of the Defense
    6.00
    2 votes
    187
    James Steinberg

    James Steinberg

    James Braidy "Jim" Steinberg (born July 5, 1953) is an American academic and political advisor, and former Deputy Secretary of State. He is currently Dean and Professor of Social Science, International Affairs, and Law at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. He was educated at Phillips Academy (1970), Harvard College (1973), and Yale Law School (1978). His previous positions included a senior fellowship for US Strategic Policy at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, UK (1985–1987), and senior analyst at RAND Corporation (1989–1993). During the national elections which brought U.S. President Jimmy Carter into office, Steinberg worked on the presidential campaign of the Carter-Mondale ticket. Steinberg served as US State Department Director of Policy Planning (1994–1996), then Deputy National Security Advisor (December 1996–2001) to US President Bill Clinton. He also served on the Project on National Security Reform's Guiding Coalition. After serving in the Clinton administration, Steinberg was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. and the Institution's vice president and director of Foreign
    6.00
    2 votes
    188
    John Marshall

    John Marshall

    John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was the Chief Justice of the United States (1801–1835) whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Previously, Marshall had been a leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800. He was Secretary of State under President John Adams from 1800 to 1801. The longest-serving Chief Justice and the fourth longest-serving justice in US Supreme Court history, Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review, by disregarding purported laws if they violate the Constitution. Thus, Marshall cemented the position of the American judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, Marshall's court made several important decisions relating to federalism, affecting the balance of power between the federal
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Laurie S. Fulton

    Laurie S. Fulton

    Laurie Fulton has a national practice in federal and state courts in complex civil litigation, internal investigations and white collar criminal defense. In July 15 2009 she was sworn in as the United States Ambassador to Denmark.
    6.00
    2 votes
    190
    Philip Pendleton Barbour

    Philip Pendleton Barbour

    Philip Pendleton Barbour (May 25, 1783 – February 25, 1841) was a U.S. Congressman from Virginia and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He was also the brother of Virginia governor and U.S. Secretary of War James Barbour as well as the first cousin of John S. Barbour and first cousin, once removed of John S. Barbour, Jr.. Barbour was born near Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia. He was named for his ancestor Philip Pendleton through whom he was related to politician and judge, Edmund Pendleton. He attended common and private schools and graduated from the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1799. A year later he was admitted to the bar, and began practicing law in Bardstown, Kentucky. In 1801, he moved his law practice to Gordonsville in Orange County, Virginia. Barbour started his public life as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1812 to 1814. When U.S. Representative John Dawson died, Barbour won the special election to fill the seat, and served as a Democratic-Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives from September 19, 1814 to March 4, 1825, reaching the office of Speaker from 1821 to 1823. He declined to run for
    6.00
    2 votes
    191
    Samuel Freeman Miller

    Samuel Freeman Miller

    Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 – October 13, 1890) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1862–1890. He was a physician and lawyer. Born in Richmond, Kentucky, Miller was the son of yeoman farmers. He earned a medical degree in 1838 from Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky. While practicing medicine for a decade, he studied the law on his own and was admitted to the bar in 1847. Favoring the abolition of slavery, which was prevalent in middle Kentucky, he supported the Whigs in Kentucky. Miller moved to Keokuk, Iowa, a state more amenable to his views on slavery. Active in Hawkeye politics, he supported Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election. Lincoln nominated Miller to the Supreme Court on July 16, 1862, after the beginning of the American Civil War. His reputation was so high that Miller was confirmed half an hour after the Senate received notice of his nomination. His opinions strongly favored Lincoln's positions, and he upheld his wartime suspension of habeas corpus and trials by military commission. After the war, his narrow reading of the Fourteenth Amendment—he wrote the opinion in the Slaughterhouse Cases—limited the effectiveness of
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    James Moore Wayne

    James Moore Wayne

    James Moore Wayne (1790 – July 5, 1867) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and was a United States Representative from Georgia. Born in Savannah, Georgia, Wayne was the son of Richard Wayne, who came to the US in 1760 and married, on Sept. 14th, 1769, Elizabeth Clifford (? - 1804), born in Charleston, SC. Wayne graduated from Princeton University in 1808, read law to be admitted to the bar in 1810, and began his practice in Savannah. He served in the United States Army during the War of 1812, from 1812 to 1815, as an officer in the Georgia Hussars. He served in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1815 to 181. He then served as the mayor of Savannah from September 8, 1817 to July 12, 1819, thereafter returning to private practice in Savannah until 1824. He then served as a Judge, first of the Court of Common Pleas in Savannah, Georgia from 1819 to 1824, and then of the Superior Court of Georgia from 1824 to 1829, until he was elected as a Jacksonian to the United States Congress from March 4, 1829, to January 13, 1835. He resigned to accept the appointment as an Associate Justice to the Supreme Court. He was nominated by President Andrew Jackson
    5.00
    3 votes
    193
    Oliver Ellsworth

    Oliver Ellsworth

    Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807) was an American lawyer and politician, a revolutionary against British rule, a drafter of the United States Constitution, United States Senator from Connecticut, and the third Chief Justice of the United States. While at the Federal Convention, Ellsworth moved to strike the word National from the motion made by Edmund Randolph of Virginia. Randolph had moved successfully to call the government the National Government of United States. Ellsworth moved that the government should continue to be called the United States Government. Ellsworth was born in Windsor, Connecticut, to Capt. David and Jemima (née Leavitt) Ellsworth. He entered Yale in 1762, but transferred to the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at the end of his second year. He continued to study theology and, while attending, helped found the American Whig–Cliosophic Society along with Aaron Burr and William Paterson. He received his A.B. degree, Phi Beta Kappa after 2 years. Soon afterward, however, Ellsworth turned to the law. After four years of study, he was admitted to the bar in 1771 and later became a successful lawyer and politician . In 1772, Ellsworth
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    3 votes
    194
    Anthony Kennedy

    Anthony Kennedy

    Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, having been appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1988. Since the retirement of Sandra Day O'Connor, Kennedy has often been the "swing vote" on many of the Court's 5–4 decisions. Kennedy was born and raised in Sacramento, California, the son of Anthony J. Kennedy, an attorney with a reputation for influence in the California legislature, and Gladys (née McLeod), who participated in many local civic activities. As a boy, Kennedy came into contact with prominent politicians of the day, such as California Governor and later U.S. Chief Justice Earl Warren. He served as a page in the California State Senate as a young man. He is not a member of the Kennedy political family. Kennedy graduated from C. K. McClatchy High School in 1954. He was an undergraduate student at Stanford University from 1954–58, graduating with a B.A. in Political Science, after spending his senior year at the London School of Economics. He earned an LL.B from Harvard Law School, graduating cum laude in 1961. Kennedy was in private practice in San Francisco from 1961 to 1963. In 1963, following his father's
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    2 votes
    195
    5.50
    2 votes
    196
    Leon Panetta

    Leon Panetta

    Leon Edward Panetta (born June 28, 1938) is the 23rd and current United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama since 2011. Prior to taking office, he served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. An Italian-American Democratic politician, lawyer, and professor, Panetta served as President Bill Clinton's White House Chief of Staff from 1994 to 1997, Director of the Office of Management and Budget from 1993–1994, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1993. He is the founder of the Panetta Institute for Public Policy, served as Distinguished Scholar to Chancellor Charles B. Reed of the California State University System and professor of public policy at Santa Clara University. In January 2009, President Obama nominated Panetta for the post of CIA Director. Panetta was confirmed by the full Senate in February 2009. As director of the CIA, Panetta oversaw the U.S. military operation that led to Osama bin Laden's death. On April 28, 2011, Obama announced the nomination of Panetta as Defense Secretary when Robert Gates retired. In June the Senate confirmed Panetta unanimously as Secretary of
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    2 votes
    197
    Alfred Moore

    Alfred Moore

    Alfred Moore (May 21, 1755 – October 15, 1810) was a distinguished North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor. Moore was buried at the St. Philip's Church near Wilmington. Moore was born in New Hanover County, North Carolina. Moore's father, Maurice, preceded him in the practice of law and served as a colonial judge in North Carolina. Alfred was sent to Boston to complete his education, but he returned to North Carolina and read law as an apprentice to his father before being admitted to the bar at the age of twenty. In 1775 the American Revolutionary War broke out and Alfred served as a captain in the First Regiment, North Carolina Line, of which his uncle, James Moore, was colonel, and took part in the defense of Charleston, S.C. in June 1776. He resigned in 1777, but served in the militia against Cornwallis after the battle of Guilford Court House. The war was costly to the Moore family. British troops captured the Moore plantation and burned the family home, and Alfred’s father, brother, and an uncle were among those who
    6.00
    1 votes
    198
    Gayleatha B. Brown

    Gayleatha B. Brown

    Gayleatha Beatrice Brown is a United States foreign service officer and ambassador. She has served in several diplomatic posts during her career with the U.S. Department of State including U.S. ambassador to Benin and Burkina Faso. President Obama nominated Brown for the ambassadorial post to Burkina Faso on July 2, 2009. She was confirmed by the Senate on August 4. Brown was educated in the Red Jacket Elementary School, Matewan Elementary and High Schools in Mingo County, West Virginia. She graduated from high school at Edison High School in Edison, New Jersey. She has BA and MA honor degrees from Howard University. She conducted post-graduate work in international relations at the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. Before joining the Department of State, Ambassador Brown was a Special Assistant to the Agency for International Development (USAID) Assistant Administrator for Africa and a legislative assistant in the House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress. Brown’s postings with the Department of State have included: Ambassador Brown speaks English, French and Swahili. She writes poetry, enjoys reading (particularly mystery novels),
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    1 votes
    199
    John Marshall Harlan II

    John Marshall Harlan II

    John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971. His namesake was his grandfather John Marshall Harlan, another associate justice who served from 1877 to 1911. Harlan was a student at Upper Canada College and Appleby College and then at Princeton University. He continued his education at Balliol College, Oxford. Upon his return to the U.S. in 1923 Harlan worked in the law firm of Root, Clark, Buckner & Howland while studying at New York Law School. Later he served as Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York and as Special Assistant Attorney General of New York. In 1954 Harlan was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and a year later president Dwight Eisenhower nominated Harlan to the United States Supreme Court following the death of Justice Robert H. Jackson. Harlan is often characterized as a member of the conservative wing of the Warren Court. He advocated a limited role for the judiciary, remarking that the Supreme Court should not be considered "a general haven for reform movements". In general, Harlan adhered more
    6.00
    1 votes
    200
    John Rutledge

    John Rutledge

    John Rutledge (September 17, 1739 – July 23, 1800) was an American statesman and judge. He was the first Governor of South Carolina following the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the 31st overall. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, where he chaired a committee that wrote much of what was included in the final version of the United States Constitution, which he also signed. He served as an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court, and was the second Chief Justice of the Court from July to December 1795. He was the elder brother of Edward Rutledge, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Rutledge was born into a large family in Charleston. His father was Scots-Irish immigrant John Rutledge (Sr.) (1713–1750), a physician. His mother, South Carolina–born Sarah (nee Hext) (born September 18, 1724), was of English descent. John had six younger siblings: Andrew (1740–1772), Thomas (1741–1783), Sarah (1742–1819), Hugh (1745–1811), Mary (1747–1832), and Edward (1749–1800). John’s early education was provided by his father until the latter's death. The rest of Rutledge's primary education was provided by an Anglican priest. John took an early interest
    6.00
    1 votes
    201
    Karl Eikenberry

    Karl Eikenberry

    Karl Winfrid Eikenberry (born 1951) is a retired United States Army Lieutenant General and former U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan. He is currently the Frank E. and Arthur W. Payne Distinguished Lecturer at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. Eikenberry graduated from Goldsboro High School in Goldsboro, North Carolina in 1969 and then attended West Point, where he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant upon graduation in 1973. He received an M.A. in East Asian Studies from Harvard, where he would later return as National Security Fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, and an M.A. in political science from Stanford, where he was also a Ph.D candidate. In addition, Eikenberry has studied in Hong Kong at the UK Ministry of Defence Chinese Language School, earning the Foreign Office's Interpreter’s Certificate for Mandarin Chinese, and Nanjing University, earning an advanced degree in Chinese History. In the Army, Eikenberry commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 87th Infantry Regiment (Light) in the 10th Mountain Division, and commanded and held staff positions in airborne, ranger, and mechanized infantry units in the United States,
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    1 votes
    202
    Kathleen Sebelius

    Kathleen Sebelius

    Kathleen Sebelius (/sɨˈbiːliəs/; née Gilligan; born May 15, 1948) is an American politician currently serving as the 21st Secretary of Health and Human Services. She was the second female Governor of Kansas from 2003 to 2009, the Democratic respondent to the 2008 State of the Union address, and chair-emerita of the Democratic Governors Association. Sebelius was born and raised in Cincinnati, Ohio, the daughter of Mary Kathryn (née Dixon) and John Joyce "Jack" Gilligan. Her family was Roman Catholic, and had Irish descent. She attended the Summit Country Day School in Cincinnati and graduated from Trinity Washington University in Washington, D.C. with a B.A. in political science. She later earned a Master of Public Administration degree from the University of Kansas. She moved to Kansas in 1974, where she served for eight years as a representative in the Kansas Legislature and eight years as Insurance Commissioner before being elected governor. Sebelius is the daughter of former Democratic Ohio Governor and thus they became the first father/daughter governor pair in the United States after her election. Following passage of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010,
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    1 votes
    203
    Lori Garver

    Lori Garver

    Lori Beth Garver (born May 22, 1961 in Lansing, Michigan) is the Deputy Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). She was nominated on May 24, 2009, by President Barack Obama, along with Charles Bolden as NASA Administrator. She was confirmed by the United States Senate by unanimous consent on July 15, 2009. Garver was the lead civil space policy advisor for Obama's 2008 presidential campaign and led the agency review team for NASA during the post-election transition. She worked at NASA from 1996–2001, first as a special assistant to the NASA administrator and senior policy analyst for the Office of Policy and Plans, and then as the Associate Administrator for the Office of Policy and Plans. Lori Garver was born in Lansing, Michigan on May 22, 1961, and she graduated from Haslett High School in Haslett, Michigan in 1979. In 1983, she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science and economics from Colorado College. While working for Senator John Glenn from 1983–1984, she became interested in space, and went on to earn a Master of Arts degree in science, technology and public policy from the George Washington University in 1989. During her
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    1 votes
    204
    Warren E. Burger

    Warren E. Burger

    Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. Although Burger had conservative leanings and was considered a strict constructionist, the U.S. Supreme Court delivered a variety of transformative decisions on abortion, capital punishment, religious establishment, and school desegregation during his tenure. Burger was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, one of seven children. His parents, Katharine (née Schnittger) and Charles Joseph Burger, a traveling salesman and railroad cargo inspector, were of Swiss German descent. His grandfather, Joseph Burger, had emigrated from Switzerland and joined the Union Army when he was 14. Joseph Burger fought and was wounded in the Civil War, and was awarded the Medal of Honor. Burger grew up on the family farm near the edge of Saint Paul. He attended John A. Johnson High School, where he was president of the student council. He competed in hockey, football, track, and swimming. While in high school, he wrote articles on high school sports for local newspapers. He graduated in 1925. That same year, Burger also worked with the crew building the Robert Street Bridge, a crossing of
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    1 votes
    205
    David Davis

    David Davis

    David Davis (March 9, 1815 – June 26, 1886) was a United States Senator from Illinois and associate justice of the United States Supreme Court. He also served as Abraham Lincoln's campaign manager at the 1860 Republican National Convention, along with Ward Hill Lamon, one of Lincoln's former law partners who served as the President's primary bodyguard during the Civil War. Davis and Lamon, along with another Lincoln associate, Leonard Swett, helped engineer Lincoln's nomination, according to the 1949 doctoral thesis Ward Hill Lamon: Lincoln's Particular Friend, written by Lavern Marshall Hamand at the Graduate College of the University of Illinois. He was born to a wealthy family in Cecil County, Maryland, where he attended public school. After graduating from Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, in 1832, he went on to study law in Massachusetts and at Yale University. Upon his graduation from Yale in 1835, Davis moved to Bloomington, Illinois, to practice law. He also served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1845 and a delegate to the Illinois constitutional convention in McLean County, 1847. From 1848 to 1862, Davis presided over the court of the Illinois Eighth
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    206
    David J. Hayes

    David J. Hayes

    David J. Hayes is the Deputy Secretary of the Interior in the Obama administration. His nomination was confirmed on May 20, 2009 by the United States Senate and he took office on May 22, 2009. In an earlier confirmation attempt on May 13, Hayes received two Republican votes, Olympia Snowe of Maine and Jon Kyl of Arizona who has worked closely with Hayes in the past, but the 57 yea votes he obtained fell short of the 60 votes required to invoke cloture. Three Democrats did not vote because of absence and Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry M. Reid switched to a nay vote for strategic reasons forcing the confirmation to fail originally. However, Reid's move to nay allowed the Democrats to bring back the vote to the Senate floor after securing the votes to pass the nomination. Hayes served as Counselor to Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, and then as the Senate-confirmed Deputy Secretary of the Interior, during the Clinton administration (1997–2001). After leaving government, he has served as a Senior Fellow of the World Wildlife Fund, and as a senior fellow at the Progressive Policy Institute (the think tank affiliated with the Democratic Leadership Council). He also has
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    207
    David W. Ogden

    David W. Ogden

    David William Ogden (born November 12, 1953), known professionally as David W. Ogden, is the former Deputy Attorney General of the United States. An American lawyer, Ogden also was a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice and the United States Department of Defense during the administration of President Bill Clinton. Ogden is the son of Horace G. "Hod" Ogden (1925-1998), who was the first director of the Bureau of Health Education at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (and previously had worked for the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare), and Elaine Ogden. Ogden earned an A.B. summa cum laude from the University of Pennsylvania in 1976 and a J.D. magna cum laude in 1981 from Harvard Law School. He also served as an editor of the Harvard Law Review. In 1981-1982, Ogden worked as a law clerk for U.S. district judge Abraham David Sofaer, and in 1982-1983, Ogden clerked for U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Harry Blackmun. Ogden began his career in Washington, D.C. as an associate from 1983 until 1985 at the law firm of Ennis Friedman & Bersoff, and he served as a partner at that firm from 1986 until 1988. From 1988 until
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    2 votes
    208
    Donald Yamamoto

    Donald Yamamoto

    Donald Yamamoto is the former U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia (2006–2009), and current Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary within the Bureau of African Affairs. He was appointed by President George W. Bush in November, 2006, and presented his credentials to Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi in Addis Ababa on December 6, 2006. Yamamoto was born in Seattle, Washington and later graduated from Columbia University. He was formerly the United States Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, U.S. Ambassador to Djibouti (2000-2003), and U.S. Ambassador to Eritrea ad interim (1997-1998). From April 22–23, 2006, Yamamoto met with current Chadian President Idriss Déby to discuss Chad's dispute with the World Bank over allocation of its petroleum funds and the possibility of a U.S.-led, United Nations-monitored peace keeping force to end the Chadian-Sudanese conflict. Yamamoto tried unsuccessfully to convince President Déby to delay the upcoming presidential election which was held on May 3. Yamamoto later said, "We held a very direct and private discussion on the issue [of whether to postpone the election]... When people say that it's too late to delay an election... it's
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    209
    John Archibald Campbell

    John Archibald Campbell

    John Archibald Campbell (June 24, 1811 – March 12, 1889) was an American jurist. Campbell was born near Washington, Georgia, to Col. Duncan Greene Campbell (for whom the now-defunct Campbell County, Georgia was named). Considered a child prodigy, he graduated from the University of Georgia in 1825 at the age of 14, and immediately enrolled at the United States Military Academy for three years and would have graduated in 1830, but withdrew upon the death of his father (July 1828) and returned home to Georgia. He read law with former Georgia governor John Clark, and was admitted to the bar in 1829, at the age of 18 which required a special act of the Georgia legislature. While at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York, on 24–25 December 1826, Campbell was involved in the Eggnog Riot also known as the "Grog Mutiny". Proceedings began on December 26, 1826, courts-martial was complete on 16 March 1827, and ended on May 3, 1827, with the Presidents adjusting of some of the verdicts and approval of the rest. Campbell was among 70 cadets that were involved but a review concluded that only 20 (one soldier) be charged. Many notable cadets such as Jefferson Davis (involved
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    210
    John Blair

    John Blair

    John Blair, Jr. (1732 – August 31, 1800) was an American politician, Founding Father and jurist. Blair was one of the best-trained jurists of his day. A famous legal scholar, he avoided the tumult of state politics, preferring to work behind the scenes. But he was devoted to the idea of a permanent union of the newly independent states and loyally supported fellow Virginians James Madison and George Washington at the Constitutional Convention. His greatest contribution as a Founding Father came not in Philadelphia, but later as a judge on the Virginia court of appeals and on the U.S. Supreme Court, where he influenced the interpretation of the Constitution in a number of important decisions. Contemporaries praised Blair for such personal strengths as gentleness and benevolence, and for his ability to penetrate immediately to the heart of a legal question. Born in Williamsburg, Virginia, Blair was a member of a prominent Virginia family. His father served on the McDonalds Council and was for a time acting Royal governor. His granduncle, James Blair, was founder and first president of the College of William and Mary. Blair attended William and Mary, receiving an A.B. in 1754. In 1755
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    211
    Kurt M. Campbell

    Kurt M. Campbell

    Kurt M. Campbell is an American diplomat and academic, currently serving as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. He was previously the Chief Executive Officer and co-founder of the Center for a New American Security (CNAS), a national security think tank launched in January 2007. He also served as Director of the Aspen Strategy Group and the Chairman of the Editorial Board of the Washington Quarterly, and was the founder and Principal of StratAsia, a strategic advisory company focused on Asia. Prior to co-founding CNAS, he served as Senior Vice President, Director of the International Security Program, and the Henry A. Kissinger Chair in National Security Policy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. On June 26, 2009, Dr. Campbell was confirmed as Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. He is married to Lael Brainard, the current Under Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs, and they have three children. He received a B.A. from the University of California, San Diego, a certificate in music and political philosophy from the University of Erevan in Soviet Armenia, and a doctorate in international
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    212
    Joseph Philo Bradley

    Joseph Philo Bradley

    Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892) was an American jurist best known for his service on the United States Supreme Court, and on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election. The son of Philo Bradley and his wife Mercy Gardner Bradley, Bradley was born to humble beginnings in Berne, New York, and attended local schools. He began teaching at the age of 16. In 1833, the Dutch Reformed Church of Berne advanced young Joseph Bradley $250 to study for the ministry at Rutgers University. While there, he decided to study law instead, graduating in 1836. After graduation he was made Principal of the Millstone Academy. Not long afterward, he was persuaded by his Rutgers classmate Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to join him in Newark and pursue legal studies at the Office of the Collector of the Port of Newark. He was admitted to the bar in 1839. Bradley began in private practice in New Jersey, specializing in patent and railroad law, and he became very prominent in these fields and quite wealthy. Bradley remained dedicated to self-study throughout his life and collected an extensive library. He married Mary Hornblower in Newark in 1844. (His
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    213
    Eric Holder

    Eric Holder

    Eric Himpton Holder, Jr. (born January 21, 1951) is the 82nd and current Attorney General of the United States and the first African American to hold the position, serving under President Barack Obama. Holder previously served as a judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia and a United States Attorney. In that office he prosecuted Congressman Dan Rostenkowski (Democrat, Illinois) for corruption charges related to his role in the Congressional Post Office scandal. Later, he was Deputy Attorney General of the United States and worked at the law firm of Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C. He was senior legal advisor to then-Senator Barack Obama during Obama's presidential campaign and one of three members of Obama's vice-presidential selection committee. Eric Himpton Holder, Jr. was born in the Bronx, New York, to parents with roots in Barbados. Holder's father, Eric Himpton Holder, Sr. (1905–1970) was born in Saint Joseph, Barbados and arrived in the United States at the age of 11. He later became a real estate broker. His mother, Miriam, was born in New Jersey, while his maternal grandparents were immigrants from Saint Philip, Barbados. Holder grew up in East
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    214
    Kathleen Stephens

    Kathleen Stephens

    Kathleen Stephens was the United States ambassador to South Korea from 2008 to 2011. Stephens was born in west Texas and grew up in New Mexico and Arizona. She holds a B.A. in East Asian studies from Prescott College and a Master's degree from Harvard University, and also studied at Oxford University. After college, she was a Peace Corps volunteer in South Korea's Yesan, South Chungcheong from 1975–1977; it was then that she was given her Korean name Shim Eungyeong (심은경). She later lived in Hong Kong as an exchange student at the University of Hong Kong and an instructor with Outward Bound. She speaks Korean and Serbo-Croatian, with limited competence in Cantonese and Mandarin. Stephens joined the United States Foreign Service in 1978. Early in her career, Stephens served at U.S. missions in the People's Republic of China (1980–1982) and in Trinidad and Tobago (1978–1980). Her tour of duty in South Korea included roles as internal political unit chief at the U.S. Embassy in Seoul (1984–1987) and Principal Officer at the U.S. Consulate in Busan (1987–1989). Afterwards, she worked as a political officer at the U.S. missions in Belgrade and Zagreb (1991–1992), senior desk officer for
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    215
    Robert O. Blake, Jr.

    Robert O. Blake, Jr.

    Robert Orris Blake, Jr., is a career diplomat and current Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs and former United States Ambassador to Sri Lanka and the Maldives. He is the son of Robert O. Blake, retired U.S. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Blake is a career Foreign Service Officer, having entered the Foreign Service in 1985. He has served at the American Embassies in Tunisia, Algeria, Nigeria and Egypt. He also has held a number of positions at the State Department in Washington. Blake served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Mission in New Delhi, India from 2003–2006. Blake arrived in Sri Lanka on September 8, 2006 to take up his duties as Ambassador to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and the Republic of Maldives. Blake presented his credentials on September 9 to Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa. In January 2007 he met with President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom ‎to discuss renewable energy in the Maldives. In February 2007, Blake received minor injuries from a mortar blast while exiting a helicopter at a Sri Lankan air base in Batticaloa, where he was to attend a development meeting. Tamil rebels are believed to be
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    216
    William Strong

    William Strong

    William Strong (May 6, 1808 – August 19, 1895) was an American jurist and politician. He was a justice on the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Strong was born in Connecticut and later moved to Pennsylvania. He was the cousin of U.S. Representative Theron Rudd Strong of New York. William Strong attended the Munson Academy in Massachusetts, and graduated from Yale University in 1828 Phi Beta Kappa before starting his legal practice in Reading, Pennsylvania. In 1846, Strong was elected to the United States House of Representatives as an abolitionist Democrat. Strong served two terms in the House, and was the chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Elections during his second term. He did not seek reelection in 1850, but returned to private practice. Strong was elected to the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1857 as a Democrat. Strong switched to the Republican Party soon after taking the bench. He resigned from the court in 1868 to return to a lucrative private practice in Philadelphia. When Justice Robert C. Grier retired from the U.S. Supreme Court, Strong was suggested as a possible replacement. However, President
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    217
    Patricia McMahon Hawkins

    Patricia McMahon Hawkins

    Patricia McMahon Hawkins is a United States career foreign service officer and member of the U.S. State Department. She was the United States Ambassador to Togo from 2008 to 2011. Patricia was born in Pennsylvania. She is a graduate of East Stroudsburg University with a bachelor degree in education. She has also studied French at Georgetown University, the University of Dijon, and New York University. She is married to Richard S.D. Hawkins, formerly a director of quality improvement for the Otis Elevator Company who quit his job and applied to join the Foreign Service to spend more time with his wife, and has two children, Frédéric and Jessica. Her home in the United States is in Waterville Valley, New Hampshire. Her career started in the United States International Communications Agency in 1980. At USIA headquarters in Washington, D.C., she was the Country Affairs Officer for the eight countries of Francophone West Africa, and Policy Application and Coordination Officer (PACO) in the office of USIA's Assistant Director. She also served as the Public Affairs Advisor to the U.S. Delegation to the CSCE Conference on the Human Dimension, in Paris in 1989. Her first tour was in Paris,
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    218
    Andy Reed

    Andy Reed

    Andrew John Reed OBE (born 17 September 1964) is a British Labour Co-operative politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for the key marginal Constituency of Loughborough from 1997 to 2010. He is a notable sports enthusiast, a fortuitous coincidence as "Loughborough is home to the most comprehensive sports development programme of any University," as well as being headquarters for Team GB's 2012 Olympic preparation, whose requirements Reed became familiar with under the Parliamentary Sports Fellowship Scheme. Although regarded as a loyal MP, Reed was the first member of the Government to resign over Iraq. Reed was awarded the OBE in June 2012 for service to the community and sport in Leicestershire. Reed was brought up and educated in Leicestershire spending the first two years of his life on the Netherhall Estate in Leicester before moving to Birstall. He attended Riverside Junior School (now a primary school), Stonehill High School and Longslade Community College, all in Birstall, Charnwood and then completed a BA (Hons) degree in Public Administration at Leicester Polytechnic (now called De Montfort University). He joined the Labour Party in 1983/84, and was elected in
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    219
    Gerald Ford

    Gerald Ford

    Gerald Rudolph "Jerry" Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr.; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. As the first person appointed to the Vice Presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment, after Spiro Agnew had resigned, when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the first and to date only person to have served as both President and Vice President of the United States without being elected by the Electoral College. Before ascending to the Vice Presidency, Ford served nearly 25 years as the Representative from Michigan's 5th congressional district, eight of them as the Republican Minority Leader. As President, Ford signed the Helsinki Accords, marking a move toward détente in the Cold War. With the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam nine months into his presidency, U.S. involvement in Vietnam essentially ended. Domestically, Ford presided over arguably the weakest economy since the Great Depression, with growing inflation and a recession during his tenure. One of his more controversial
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    220
    Hillary Rodham Clinton

    Hillary Rodham Clinton

    Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( /ˈhɪləri daɪˈæn ˈrɒdəm ˈklɪntən/; born October 26, 1947) is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. In the 2008 election, Clinton was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination. A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham first attracted national attention in 1969 for her remarks as the first student commencement speaker at Wellesley College. She embarked on a career in law after graduating from Yale Law School in 1973. Following a stint as a Congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas in 1974 and married Bill Clinton in 1975. Rodham cofounded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families in 1977 and became the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978. Named the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979, she was twice listed as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America. First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992 with husband Bill
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    221
    Jeffrey Zients

    Jeffrey Zients

    Jeffrey "Jeff" D. Zients (born November 1966) is an American CEO, management consultant and entrepreneur. On January 17, 2012, he was named acting director of the Office of Management & Budget and assumed office on January 27, 2012. This is his second turn as acting director and White House aides have said it is likely he will serve in this capacity through the end of President Obama's first term. In 2009, President Obama appointed him to the new position of United States Chief Performance Officer and was confirmed by the Senate to be Deputy Director for Management of the Office of Management and Budget in the federal government of the United States. Zients is a native of Kensington, Maryland and lives in the Washington, D.C. area. He and his wife Mary have four children Sasha, Matt, Josh, and Jonny He graduated in 1984 from St. Albans School and earned a bachelor's of science degree at Duke University summa cum laude. Zients worked in management consulting for Mercer Management Consulting and Bain & Company and then was chief operating officer of DGB Enterprises, a holding company for the Advisory Board Company, Corporate Executive Board, and Atlantic Media Company . Zients was
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    222
    Louis Brandeis

    Louis Brandeis

    Louis Dembitz Brandeis (pronounced /ˈbrændaɪs/; November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky, to Jewish immigrant parents who raised him in a secular home. He enrolled at Harvard Law School, graduating at the age of twenty with the highest grade average in the college’s history. Brandeis settled in Boston where he became a recognized lawyer through his work on progressive social causes. Starting in 1890, he helped develop the "right to privacy" concept by writing a Harvard Law Review article of that title, and was thereby credited by legal scholar Roscoe Pound as having accomplished "nothing less than adding a chapter to our law". He later published a book titled Other People's Money And How the Bankers Use It, suggesting ways of curbing the power of large banks and money trusts, which partly explains why he later fought against powerful corporations, monopolies, public corruption, and mass consumerism, all of which he felt were detrimental to American values and culture. He also became active in the Zionist movement, seeing it as a solution to antisemitism in Europe
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    223
    Mark Gitenstein

    Mark Gitenstein

    Mark Henry Gitenstein is the United States Ambassador to Romania. He was nominated by President Barack Obama on June 11, 2009 and confirmed by the United States Senate on July 8, 2009. The Romanian English-language newsdaily Nine O’Clock selected Ambassador Gitenstein as the “The Foreign Diplomat of the Year for 2011.” Gitenstein has worked to strengthen relations with Romania on a variety of issues, focusing on fighting corruption, improving transparency, and strengthening the rule of law. He has actively promoted deeper development of Romania’s equity markets, as well as a fair and transparent business environment for all investors. He has also encouraged greater private sector involvement in state-owned enterprises (SOEs), including the introduction of a corporate governance code for SOEs. As a means of promoting social change, Gitenstein worked with TechSoup Romania to establish Restart Romania, a project designed to demonstrate the power of the internet and social media to find solutions to social justice problems, support transparency of public institutions, and promote grass roots efforts to fight corruption. The U.S. – Romanian Ballistic Missile Defense Agreement was
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    224
    Sherman Minton

    Sherman Minton

    Sherman "Shay" Minton (October 20, 1890 – April 9, 1965) was a Democratic United States Senator from Indiana and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. After attending college and law school, he served as a captain in World War I, following which he launched a legal and political career. In 1930, after multiple failed election attempts, and serving as a regional leader in the American Legion, he became a utility commissioner under the administration of Indiana Governor Paul V. McNutt. Four years later, Minton was elected to the United States Senate. During the campaign, he defended New Deal legislation in a series of addresses in which he suggested it was not necessary to uphold the Constitution during the Great Depression crisis. Minton's campaign was denounced by his political opponents, and he received more widespread criticism for an address that became known as the "You Cannot Eat the Constitution" speech. As part of the New Deal Coalition, the fiercely partisan Minton championed President Franklin D. Roosevelt's unsuccessful court packing plans in the Senate and became one of his top Senate allies. After Minton failed in his 1940 Senate re-election
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    225
    Tammy Duckworth

    Tammy Duckworth

    Ladda Tammy Duckworth (born 1968) is the former Assistant Secretary for Public and Intergovernmental Affairs in the United States Department of Veterans Affairs and the director of the Illinois Department of Veterans Affairs. Duckworth is an Iraq War veteran and former U.S. Army helicopter pilot whose severe combat wounds cost her both of her legs and damaged her right arm. She continues to serve as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Illinois Army National Guard along with her husband, Major Bryan W. Bowlsbey, a signal officer and fellow Iraq War veteran. In 2006, Duckworth was the Democratic nominee for the U.S. House of Representatives seat for Illinois's 6th congressional district, losing to her opponent Peter Roskam by 2%. She is currently the Democratic nominee in Illinois's 8th congressional district for the United States House of Representatives, facing incumbent Joe Walsh in the general election on November 6, 2012. Tammy Duckworth was born in Bangkok, Thailand, to Frank and Lamai Duckworth. Her American father, who died in 2005, was a longtime member of the U.S. military who traced his family roots in America back to the Revolutionary War, while her mother, a native of Thailand,
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    226
    William O. Douglas

    William O. Douglas

    William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. With a term lasting 36 years and 209 days, he is the longest-serving justice in the history of the Supreme Court. In 1975, a Time article called Douglas "the most doctrinaire and committed civil libertarian ever to sit on the court." During that time, he also established the records for the most opinions written, the most dissents written, the most speeches given, and the most books authored by any member of the Supreme Court. None of his successors has surpassed these records. Douglas was born in Maine Township, Otter Tail County, Minnesota, the son of an itinerant Scottish Presbyterian minister from Pictou County, Nova Scotia. His family moved to California, and then to Cleveland, Washington. His father died in Portland, Oregon, in 1904, when Douglas was only six years old. After moving from town to town in the West, his mother, with three young children, settled the family in Yakima, Washington. William, like the rest of the Douglas family, worked at odd jobs to earn extra money, and a college education appeared to be unaffordable. Though not the
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    227
    Charles Evans Whittaker

    Charles Evans Whittaker

    Charles Evans Whittaker (February 22, 1901 – November 26, 1973) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1957 to 1962. Whittaker was born on a farm near Troy, Kansas, and attended school until he dropped out in the ninth grade. He spent the next two years hunting, trapping and farming, but developed an interest in law by reading newspaper articles about criminal trials. He applied to the Kansas City School of Law (currently the University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law) and gained admission with the condition that he first acquire a high school education. He spent two years working, and taking high school courses from a private tutor before enrolling. While he was a student at the school, from 1922 to 1924, Harry S. Truman was a classmate. He received his law degree in 1924. Whittaker joined the law firm of Watson, Ess, Marshall & Enggas in Kansas City, Missouri and built up a practice in corporate law. He had close ties to the Republican party. This led to his first appointment as a judge on the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Missouri on July 8, 1954. He then was nominated to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals on June 5,
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    228
    David Souter

    David Souter

    David Hackett Souter ( /ˈsuːtər/; born September 17, 1939) is a former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served from 1990 until his retirement on June 29, 2009. Appointed by President George H. W. Bush to fill the seat vacated by William J. Brennan, Jr., Souter was the only Justice during his time on the Court with extensive prior court experience outside of a federal appeals court, having served as a prosecutor, a state's attorney general, and as a judge on state trial and appellate courts. Souter sat on both the Rehnquist and Roberts courts, and came to vote reliably with the court's liberal members. Following Souter's retirement announcement in 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor as his successor. Souter was born in Melrose, Massachusetts, on September 17, 1939, the only child of Joseph Alexander Souter (1904–1976) and Helen Adams (Hackett) Souter (1907–1995). At age 11, he moved with his family to their farm in Weare, New Hampshire. Souter attended Concord High School in New Hampshire and went on to Harvard College, concentrating in philosophy and writing a senior thesis on the legal positivism of Supreme Court Justice Oliver
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    229
    Eric Shinseki

    Eric Shinseki

    Eric Ken Shinseki (/ʃɨnˈsɛki/; born November 28, 1942) is a retired United States Army four-star general who is currently serving as the 7th United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs. His final U.S. Army post was as the 34th Chief of Staff of the Army (1999–2003). He is a veteran of combat in Vietnam, where he sustained a foot injury. Shinseki was born in Lihue, Kauai in the then Territory of Hawaii, to an American family of Japanese ancestry. His grandparents immigrated from Hiroshima to Hawaii in 1901. He grew up in a sugar plantation community on Kaua'i and graduated from Kaua'i High and Intermediate School in 1960. After high school, he attended the United States Military Academy and graduated in 1965 with a Bachelor of Science degree and a commission as a second lieutenant. He earned a Master of Arts degree in English Literature from Duke University. He was also educated at the Armor Officer Advanced Course, the United States Army Command and General Staff College, and the National War College. Shinseki served in a variety of command and staff assignments in the Continental United States and overseas, including two combat tours with the 9th and 25th Infantry Divisions in the
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    230
    George Shiras, Jr.

    George Shiras, Jr.

    George Shiras, Jr. (January 26, 1832 – August 2, 1924) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States who was nominated to the Court by Republican President Benjamin Harrison. At that time, he had 37 years of private legal practice, but had never judged a case. Shiras was the only Supreme Court justice, as of 2011, to have no record of public (political, governmental or judicial) service. Shiras was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania January 26, 1832. He attended Ohio University and graduated from Yale College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1853. He began law school at Yale Law School, but left before earning a law degree He finished his training by reading law at a law office, then practiced law in Dubuque, Iowa from 1855 to 1858, and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1858 to 1892. On July 19, 1892, Shiras was nominated by President Harrison to a Supreme Court seat vacated by Joseph P. Bradley. Shiras was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 26, 1892, and received his commission the same day. Although Shiras sat on the Court for more than 10 years authoring 253 majority decisions and 14 dissents, he is noted for his votes on just two landmark cases, Pollock v.
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    231
    Gil Kerlikowske

    Gil Kerlikowske

    Richard Gil Kerlikowske (born November 23, 1949) is the current Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, a position generally referred to as the United States "Drug Czar". He assumed office on May 7, 2009. Kerlikowske graduated from the University of South Florida in Tampa and the Executive Institute at the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Academy. He has served as Chief of Police in four cities and worked in the United States Justice Department. His longest term as a Chief of Police was between July 2001 and March 2009 in Seattle, Washington. Kerlikowske was raised in Florida by his mother and stepfather. He married Anna Laszlo in 1995. He has a son and daughter. Kerlikowske graduated from Fort Myers High School in 1968. He holds a B.A. and M.A. in criminal justice from the University of South Florida in Tampa. The school also gave him an honorary doctorate. He is a graduate of the National Executive Institute at the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Academy in Quantico, Virginia. Kerlikowske was drafted into the Army in 1970, and was stationed in Washington, D.C.. Part of his responsibility was saluting then-President Richard Nixon as he boarded the presidential
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    232
    Harlan Fiske Stone

    Harlan Fiske Stone

    Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer and jurist. A native of New Hampshire, he served as the dean of Columbia Law School, his alma mater, in the early 20th century. As a member of the Republican Party, he was appointed as the 52nd Attorney General of the United States before becoming an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. In 1941, Stone became the 12th Chief Justice of the court, serving until his death in 1946 – one of the shortest terms of any Chief Justice. Stone was the first Chief Justice not to have served in elected office. His most famous dictum was: "Courts are not the only agency of government that must be assumed to have capacity to govern." Stone was born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, to Fred L. and Ann S. (Butler) Stone. He prepared at Amherst High School, and graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Amherst College in 1894. From 1894 to 1895 he was the submaster of Newburyport High School. From 1895 to 1896 he was an instructor in history at Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn, New York. He also received his M.A. from Amherst College in 1897. Stone attended Columbia Law School from 1895 to 1898, received an LL.B., and was
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    233
    Henry Billings Brown

    Henry Billings Brown

    Henry Billings Brown (March 2, 1836 – September 4, 1913) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 5, 1891, to May 28, 1906. He was the author of the opinion for the Court in Plessy v. Ferguson, a decision that upheld the legality of racial segregation in public transportation. Brown grew up in a New England merchant family. He graduated from Yale in 1856, and received basic legal training at Yale and at Harvard, although he did not earn a law degree. His early law practice was in Detroit, where he specialized in admiralty law (shipping law on the Great Lakes). Brown hired a substitute to take his place in the Union Army during the Civil War, and served as United States Attorney. In 1864, Brown married Caroline Pitts, the daughter of a wealthy Detroit lumberman; they had no children. Brown kept diaries from his college days until his appointment as a federal judge in 1875. Now held in the Burton Historical Collection of the Detroit Public Library, they suggest that Brown was personally likeable (if ambitious), depressed and often full of doubt about himself. On March 17, 1875, Brown was nominated by President Ulysses Grant to a seat on the
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    234
    Ivo H. Daalder

    Ivo H. Daalder

    Ivo H. Daalder (born 1960, The Hague, Netherlands) has been the U.S. Permanent Representative on the Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization since May 2009. He is a specialist in European security. He was a member of the staff of United States National Security Council (NSC) during the administration of President Bill Clinton, and was one of the foreign policy advisers to President Barack Obama during his 2008 presidential campaign. Daalder was educated at the University of Kent, Oxford University, and Georgetown University, and received his Ph.D in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was fellow at Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs and the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. He received a Pew Faculty Fellowship in International Affairs and an International Affairs Fellowship of the Council on Foreign Relations. Daalder was an associate professor at the University of Maryland, College Park's School of Public Affairs, where he was also director of research at the Center for International and Security Studies. He was a Senior Fellow in foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution
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    235
    James F. Byrnes

    James F. Byrnes

    James Francis Byrnes (US: /ˈbɝnz/; May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. During his career, Byrnes served as a US Representative (1911–1925), a US Senator (1931–1941), a Justice of the Supreme Court (1941–1942), Secretary of State (1945–1947), and 104th governor of South Carolina (1951–1955). He is one of very few politicians to serve in all three branches of the American national government while also being active in state government. He was a confidant of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and was one of the most powerful men in American domestic and foreign policy in the mid-1940s. Byrnes was born at 538 King St. in Charleston, South Carolina and reared in Charleston, South Carolina. Byrnes' father died shortly after Byrnes was born. His mother, Elizabeth McSweeney Byrnes, was an Irish-American dressmaker. At the age of fourteen, he left St. Patrick's Catholic School to work in a law office, and became a court stenographer. In 1906, he married the former Maude Perkins Busch of Aiken, South Carolina, and became an Episcopalian. Though they had no children, he was the godparent of James Christopher Connor. Byrnes never
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    236
    John Jay

    John Jay

    John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–95). Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York City. He became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence and organized opposition to British rule. He joined a conservative political faction that, fearing mob rule, sought to protect property rights and maintain the rule of law while resisting British violations of human rights. Jay served as the President of the Continental Congress (1778–79). During and after the American Revolution, Jay was a Minister (Ambassador) to Spain and France, helping to fashion United States foreign policy. His major diplomatic achievement was to negotiate favorable trade terms with Great Britain in the Treaty of London of 1794. Jay, a proponent of strong, centralized government, worked to ratify the new Constitution in New York in 1788 by anonymously writing a few of the Federalist Papers, along with the main authors Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. As a leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was the
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    237
    John P. Holdren

    John P. Holdren

    John Paul Holdren (born March 1, 1944) is the senior advisor to President Barack Obama on science and technology issues through his roles as Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and Co-Chair of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) Holdren was previously the Teresa and John Heinz Professor of Environmental Policy at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, director of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program at the School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and Director of the Woods Hole Research Center. Holdren was born in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, and grew up in San Mateo, California. He trained in aeronautics, astronautics and plasma physics and earned a bachelor's degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 and a Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1970. He taught at Harvard for 13 years and at the University of California, Berkeley for more than two decades. His work has focused on the causes and consequences of global environmental change, energy technologies and policies, ways to reduce the dangers
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    238
    Joseph LeBaron

    Joseph LeBaron

    Joseph Evan LeBaron (born 1947) is the previous United States Ambassador to Qatar (July 18, 2008-July 29, 2011) and former United States Ambassador to Mauritania (September 1, 2003– November 22, 2007). He was sworn in as Ambassador to Qatar on July 18, 2008, in a ceremony at the Simon Benson House of Portland State University in Portland, Oregon. PSU Interim President Michael J. Reardon presided over the ceremony, and the oath of office was administered by Paul J. DeMuniz, the Chief Justice of Oregon's Supreme Court. LeBaron can speak Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and French. The event is believed to be the first time a career diplomat of the U.S. Foreign Service has been sworn in as ambassador in a public ceremony in the United States but outside Washington, D.C. LeBaron served in the United States Air Force. He joined the United States Foreign Service in 1980. Later, he was the ambassador to Mauritania from 2003 to 2006. LeBaron received a BS in Sociology from Portland State University, and a PHD in Near Eastern Studies from Princeton University. From 2001-2003, he served as a faculty member at The George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs. He is married
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    239
    Ken Salazar

    Ken Salazar

    Kenneth Lee "Ken" Salazar (/ˈsæləzɑr/; born March 2, 1955) is the current United States Secretary of the Interior, in the administration of President Barack Obama. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a United States Senator from Colorado from 2005 to 2009. He and Mel Martinez (R-Florida) were the first Hispanic U.S. Senators since 1977; they were joined by Bob Menendez (D-New Jersey) in January 2006. Prior to his election to the U.S. Senate, he served as Attorney General of Colorado from 1999 to 2005. On December 17, 2008, President-elect Obama announced he would nominate Salazar as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. The environmentalist movement's reaction to this nomination was mixed. Previously, Salazar supported the nomination of Gale Norton to Secretary of the Interior, President George W. Bush's first appointee who preceded Salazar as Colorado Attorney General. On January 20, 2009, Salazar was confirmed by unanimous consent in the Senate. Ken Salazar was born in Alamosa, Colorado, the son of Emma M. and Henry (Enrique) S. Salazar. His elder brother is former Congressman John Salazar. He grew up near Manassa, in the community of Los Rincones in the San Luis
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    240
    Levi Woodbury

    Levi Woodbury

    Levi Woodbury (December 22, 1789 – September 4, 1851) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a U.S. Senator, Governor of New Hampshire and cabinet member in three administrations. He was the first Justice to have attended law school. Woodbury was born in Francestown, New Hampshire. He graduated from Dartmouth College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1809, briefly attended Tapping Reeve Law School in Litchfield, Connecticut, and read law to be admitted to the New Hampshire Bar in 1812. He was in private practice in Francestown from 1812 to 1816. He also joined the Freemasons. Woodbury was a clerk of the New Hampshire State Senate from 1816 to 1817, and a Justice of New Hampshire state supreme court from 1817 to 1823. He was Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and was Speaker of the New Hampshire State House of Representatives, 1825. Woodbury served as a United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1825 to 1831. Elected to serve in New Hampshire state Senate in 1831, Woodbury did not take office due to his appointment as United States Secretary of the Navy under President Andrew Jackson, from 1831 to 1834. At the beginning of this term, he was instrumental in
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    241
    Melville Fuller

    Melville Fuller

    Melville Weston Fuller (February 11, 1833 – July 4, 1910) was the eighth Chief Justice of the United States between 1888 and 1910. Fuller was born in Augusta, Maine. Both his maternal grandfather, Nathan Weston and paternal grandfather, Henry Weld Fuller were judges. His father was a well-known lawyer. His parents divorced shortly after his birth, and he was raised by Nathan Weston. He attended college at Harvard University for one year before graduating from Bowdoin College, Phi Beta Kappa in 1853. He then spent six months at Harvard Law School, leaving without graduating in 1855. Fuller first studied law under the direction of an uncle, in Bangor, Maine. In 1855, he went into partnership with another uncle. He also became the editor of The Age, a leading Democratic newspaper in Augusta, Maine. Soon he got tired of Maine and moved to Chicago. In 1860, he managed Democrat Stephen Douglas' campaign for the Presidency of the United States At the time, Chicago was becoming the gateway to the West. Railroads had just linked it to the east. Fuller built a law practice in Chicago. Within two years, he appeared before the Supreme Court of Illinois in the case of Beach v. Derby. He became
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    242
    Michael Jabez Foster

    Michael Jabez Foster

    Michael Jabez Foster (born 26 February 1946) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Hastings and Rye from 1997 until 2010. He was the Minister for Equalities, responsible for the progress of the Government's Equalities Bill through the House of Commons, a role he held since June 2009. Michael Foster was born in Hastings, East Sussex and attended the local Hastings Secondary School for Boys and the Hastings Grammar School before attending the University of Leicester where he received a Master of Laws (LLM) degree. From 1963 to 1972 he worked as a litigation clerk. He was admitted as a solicitor in 1980 and worked as a partner of Fynmores Solicitors in Bexhill-on-Sea specialising in employment law until 1998. He was elected as a councillor to the Hastings Borough Council in 1970, becoming the Labour group leader for a year in 1973, serving on the council until 1977, he was again elected to the Borough Council 1981-1985. He received a dual mandate in 1974 when he was also elected as a councillor to the East Sussex County Council, becoming the deputy Labour group leader 1984-1992, he stood down from the county council in 1997. He unsuccessfully
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    243
    Nancy Sutley

    Nancy Sutley

    Nancy Helen Sutley leads the White House Council on Environmental Quality. She was confirmed by the United States Senate through unanimous consent January 22, 2009. In her role as chair, she serves as the principal environmental policy advisor to the president. The Council on Environmental Quality coordinates federal environmental efforts and works with agencies other than White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. Prior to being confirmed by the Senate to lead the CEQ, Sutley served as deputy mayor for Energy and Environment in Los Angeles, California, and as Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa's appointment to the board of directors for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. Mayor Villaraigosa turned to her to achieve his goal of transforming L.A. into one of the greenest big cities in America. As a result, Sutley retrofitted 500 of the city's oldest buildings to make them more energy efficient and imposed environmental standards on new large communities. Sutley has committed more than 20 years to protecting public health and the environment and to energy and climate change issues. She has also devoted much of her career to public
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    244
    Robert Cooper Grier

    Robert Cooper Grier

    Robert Cooper Grier (March 5, 1794 – September 25, 1870), was an American jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States. Grier was born in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania to a Presbyterian minister, who tutored him until he entered Dickinson College. Grier graduated from Dickinson in only one year, receiving a B.A. in 1812, and remained there as an instructor until taking a position at a school his father ran. He succeeded his father as headmaster in 1815. While a teacher, Grier read law on his own time, and passed the bar in 1817, at which time he entered private practice in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania until 1818, and then in Danville, Pennsylvania until 1833. Grier married Isabelle Rose in 1829 and the couple had one child. Grier was a political organizer for the Jacksonians in the Democrats. In 1833 Grier was rewarded with a patronage appointment to a judgeship on the Pennsylvania state District Court for Allegheny County, newly created for him. He served there for 13 years, developing a reputation for competence. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin died in 1844 during the administration of President Tyler. Tyler made two attempted appointments to the seat,
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    245
    Rosa Gumataotao Rios

    Rosa Gumataotao Rios

    Rosa "Rosie" Gumataotao Rios (born July 17, 1965) is the 43rd and current Treasurer of the United States. She is the sixth Latina to occupy the office as well as the third consecutive Californian. As U.S. Treasurer, Rios' duties include oversight of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the United States Mint, and the United States Savings Bonds Division (now the Savings Bond Marketing Office within the Bureau of the Public Debt). Additionally, she advises the Director of the Mint, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Deputy Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury on matters relating to coinage, currency and the production of other instruments by the United States. Rios, a first generation Mexican American, was born to Guadalupe Rios. Her parents divorced about 1974 and she and her eight siblings were raised in Hayward, California solely by their mother. In order to help out, Rios obtained a job processing books at an Alameda County library warehouse. She worked long hours, often coming home late at night and working on her homework into the early morning hours. Rios graduated from St. Clement School, in Hayward, California, in 1979. She then attended
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    246
    Samuel Blatchford

    Samuel Blatchford

    Samuel Blatchford (March 9, 1820 – July 7, 1893) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from April 3, 1882 until his death. Blatchford was born in Auburn, New York, where his father was a well known attorney and friend of Daniel Webster. He was educated at Columbia College, graduating when he was 17 years old. In 1840, he served as the private secretary to Governor William H. Seward. Blatchford read law while working for the governor and then entered into the private practice of law with his father and uncle. In 1854, he moved to New York City and started a law firm, Blatchford, Seward & Griswold, now known as Cravath, Swaine & Moore. He became well known for preparing summaries of United States circuit court cases, serving for a time as reporter of decisions for the Circuit Court in New York, and developed a lucrative practice in admiralty law. On what he thought was inside information, Blatchford sold out his shares on the eve of Fort Sumter and the onset of the Civil War, preserving his personal fortune. On May 3, 1867, Blatchford received a recess appointment from President Andrew Johnson to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern
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    247
    Thomas Johnson

    Thomas Johnson

    Thomas Johnson (November 4, 1732 – October 26, 1819) was an American jurist with a distinguished political career. He was the first Governor of Maryland, a delegate to the Continental Congress and an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Johnson was born in Calvert County, Maryland, on November 4, 1732 to Thomas and Dorcas Sedgwick Johnson. His grandfather, also named Thomas, was a lawyer in London who had emigrated to Maryland sometime before 1700. He was the fourth of ten children, some of whom also had large families. His brother Joshua's daughter, Louisa Johnson, married John Quincy Adams. The family, including Thomas, were educated at home. As a young man he was attracted to the law, studied it, and was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1753. By 1760, he had moved his practice to Frederick County, Maryland, and in 1761 he was elected to the provincial assembly for the first time. Johnson married Ann Jennings, the daughter of a judge from Annapolis on February 16, 1766. The couple had eight children: Thomas Jennings, Ann Jennings, Rebecca (who died in infancy), Elizabeth, Rebecca Jennings, James, Joshua, and Dorcas. In 1774 and 1775 the Maryland assembly
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    248
    Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Before becoming a judge, Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. He argued more cases before the United States Supreme Court than anyone else in history. He served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit after being appointed by President John F. Kennedy and then served as the Solicitor General after being appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. President Johnson nominated him to the United States Supreme Court in 1967. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland on July 2, 1908, the great-grandson of a slave who was born in modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. His grandfather was also a slave. His original name was Thoroughgood, but he shortened it to Thurgood in second grade because he disliked spelling it. His father, William Marshall, who was a railroad porter, and his mother Norma, a teacher,
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    249
    William Cushing

    William Cushing

    William Cushing (March 1, 1732 – September 13, 1810) was an early Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, from its inception to his death. He was the longest-serving of the Court's original members, sitting on the bench for 21 years. Had he accepted George Washington's appointment, he would have become the third Chief Justice of the United States. William Cushing was born in Scituate, Province of Massachusetts Bay, on March 1, 1732. The Cushing family had a long history in the area, settling Hingham in 1638. Cushing's father John Cushing was a provincial magistrate who in 1747 became an associate justice of the Superior Court of Judicature, the province's high court. Cushing graduated from Harvard College in 1751 and became a member of the bar in Boston in 1755. After briefly practicing law in Scituate, he moved to Pownalborough (present-day Dresden, Maine, then part of Massachusetts), and became the first practicing attorney in the province's eastern district (as Maine was then known). In 1762 he was called to become a barrister, again the first in Maine. He practiced law until 1772, when he was appointed by Governor Thomas Hutchinson to replace his father (who had
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    250
    William R. Day

    William R. Day

    William Rufus Day (April 17, 1849 – July 9, 1923) was an American diplomat and jurist, who served for nineteen years as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Day was born in Ravenna, Ohio, son of Luther Day of the Ohio Supreme Court. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1870 and spent the following year in the school's law department. He settled in Canton, Ohio in 1872, where he began practicing law in a partnership with William A. Lynch. For twenty-five years, Day worked as a criminal and corporate lawyer in the growing industrial town while participating in Republican politics. During these years, Day became a good friend of William McKinley. Day became McKinley's legal and political adviser during McKinley's candidacies for the Congress, the governorship of Ohio, and the presidency of the United States. After he won the presidency, McKinley appointed Day to be Assistant Secretary of State under Secretary of State John Sherman. Sherman was considered to be ineffective, and in 1898, President McKinley replaced Sherman with Day Five months later, Day vacated his cabinet position to helm the United States Peace Commission formed to negotiate an end to the
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