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The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USDP) is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning the formation of national security and defense policy. The position is considered the number three office in the Department of Defense, after the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense.
The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the request of the President and is currently serving in that position.
The position was created by President Jimmy Carter in October of 1977.
Mr. James N. Miller was Senate Confirmed on 24 May 2012 as the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USDP). Mr. James N. Miller was originally appointed by President Barack Obama and Senate Confirmed in February 2009 as the Principal Deputy Assistant Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (PDUSDP). Upon departure of the former USDP, Ms. Michèle Flournoy, Mr. James N. Miller was selected as replacement for the outgoing incumbent and
The Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs is a former position within the American Department of State that, according to the Department website, "coordinates U.S. foreign relations on a variety of global issues, including democracy, human rights, and labor; environment, oceans, and science; population, refugees, and migration; women's issues; and trafficking in persons." The office was last held by Maria Otero. Other former Under Secretaries were Timothy Wirth, Frank E. Loy., and Paula Dobriansky.
The State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 states the Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs had the responsibility to coordinate with the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs and other offices from regional bureaus to promote democracy in nondemocratic countries. The Under Secretary also advises the Secretary of the Department of State of the effects on human rights and democracy on a foreign country on any recommendation requested by another official, or any agency program. The position was created when Section 161(b) of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 authorized the appointment of a fifth Under
The Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs is a position within the U.S. Department of State that is intended to help ensure that public diplomacy is practiced in combination with public affairs and traditional diplomacy to advance U.S. interests and security. The Under Secretary oversees three bureaus at the Department of State: Educational and Cultural Affairs, Public Affairs, and International Information Programs. Also reporting to the Under Secretary are the Office of Policy, Planning and Resources for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs and the Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy.
The position was created on October 1, 1999, during the Clinton administration after Title XIII, Section 1313 of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681-776). Section 2305 of the Act (112 Stat. 2681-825) increased the number of Under Secretaries of State from five to six. Subdivision A of the Act, also known as the Foreign Affairs Agencies Consolidation Act of 1998, abolished the United States Information Agency and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
The Deputy Secretary of Commerce is a high ranking position within the United States Department of Commerce. It was created on December 13, 1979, when President Jimmy Carter sent a letter to the U.S. Senate and nominated Luther H. Hodges, Jr., who then currently held the title of Under Secretary of Commerce. The Deputy Secretary serves as the Department’s chief operating officer, with responsibility for the day-to-day management of its approximately $6.5 billion budget, 13 operating units, and 38,000 employees. In that capacity, the Deputy Secretary is also a member of the President’s Management Council.
The Deputy Secretary serves as the principal deputy of the Secretary of Commerce in all matters affecting the Department and performs continuing and special duties as the Secretary may assign including, as may be specified by the Secretary, the exercise of policy direction and general supervision over operating units not placed under other Secretarial Officers or other Department officials. In addition, the Deputy Secretary acts as Secretary if the Secretary has died, resigned, or is otherwise unable to perform the functions and duties of the office of Secretary.
Rebecca M. Blank
Police and Crime Commissioner is a post that has been created in England and Wales, but whose first incumbents will not be elected until 15 November 2012. The commissioner will be an elected representative charged with securing efficient and effective policing of a police area. Separate arrangements exist for London. Policing in Scotland and Northern Ireland has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly, respectively. In Northern Ireland, the Minister of Justice fulfills a similar role.
The post of Police and Crime Commissioner should not be confused with the police rank of Commissioner, held by the chief police officer for both the Metropolitan Police and the City of London Police (which cover the two police areas in London).
In the 2010 British general election campaign, both the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats' manifestos outlined plans, respectively, to replace or reform the existing police authorities, both parties raising concerns about the perceived lack of accountability of police authorities to the communities they serve. Following the election the 2010 Conservative – Liberal Democrat coalition agreement set out that:
We will introduce
A United States diplomatic representative to Romania has existed since 1880. The United States formally recognized Romania in 1878, following the Treaty of Berlin; diplomatic relations were opened in 1880, and American diplomats were sent to the country. Until the early 20th century, most ambassadors to Romania were also responsible for Greece, Serbia, and occasionally Bulgaria. No US Embassy was established in Romania for some time, ambassadors typically operated out of Athens until about 1905, at which point an embassy was established in Bucharest.
The main US embassy in Romania remains in Bucharest and is located at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9. For several years during World War II, following the death of Ambassador Franklin Mott Gunther there was no American ambassador to Romania. The latter country became an Axis country, and declared war on the Allies (see Romania during World War II). Preceded by American representation in the Allied Commission after 1945, the diplomatic mission was reopened in 1947. In 1994, the US embassy was expanded, and a branch office was opened in Cluj-Napoca. The current ambasador is Mark H. Gitenstein.
In 1832, shortly after the creation of the Kingdom of Belgium, the United States established diplomatic relations. Since that time, a long line of distinguished envoys have represented American interests in Belgium. These diplomats included men and women whose career paths would lead them to become Secretary of State (Hugh S. Legaré), Secretary of Commerce (Charles Sawyer) and Chair of the Federal Trade Commission (Joseph E. Davies).
Belgian-American Relations were cemented when Brand Whitlock, as representative of the neutral United States, worked tirelessly during World War I to bring humanitarian aid to help the millions of Belgians in danger of starvation caused by the British blockade and the German occupation (See Remembering Herbert Hoover ).
Future envoys found themselves in less tumultuous times working alongside Belgians to create peace, stability and security in Europe through the Marshall Plan, the foundation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and joint efforts with the European Union. In 1944, when Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Charles W. Sawyer to Ambassador to Belgium he remarked "What could be more interesting, than the carrefour [crossroads] of Europe in
Under Secretary for Management is a position within the American Department of State that serves as principal adviser to the Secretary of State and Deputy Secretary of State on matters relating to the allocation and use of Department of State budget, physical property, and personnel, including planning, the day-to-day administration of the Department, and proposals for institutional reform and modernization. The current Under Secretary is Patrick F. Kennedy, who was sworn in on November 6, 2007.
It is also the position to whom the Bureau of Administration, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Bureau of Human Resources, Bureau of Information Resource Management, Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations, Director of Diplomatic Reception Rooms, Foreign Service Institute, Office of Management Policy, Office of Medical Services, Office of Rightsizing the U.S. Government's Overseas Presence, and Office of White House Liaison report. The Under Secretary of Management gives direction to the Bureau of Resource Management, and the Chief Financial Officer serves as a part of the Under Secretary's senior management team. The Under Secretary for Management is the State
The position of United States Ambassador to Australia has existed since 1940. U.S.-Australian relations have been close throughout the history of Australia. Before World War II Australia was closely aligned with the United Kingdom, but it has strengthened its relationship with the United States since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia has declined and the United States' influence has increased. At the governmental level, United States-Australia relationships are formalised by the ANZUS treaty and Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.
The Embassy in Canberra has always been regarded as a desirable posting and hence has become a patronage position. U.S. Ambassadors to Australia have traditionally been friends, political allies or former business associates of the President of the day. Some have been major donors to the President's election campaign or political party. Few have been career diplomats (Marshall Green was a conspicuous exception). The two Ambassadors during the Bush Administration, for example, were Tom Schieffer, a former business associate of President Bush, and Robert McCallum, Jr., a Bush college friend. The actor Fess Parker was offered the post in 1985 by
The Secretary of the Army (SA or SECARMY) is a senior civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States of America with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and equipment acquisition, communications, and financial management.
The Secretary of the Army is nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate, the Secretary of the Army is a non-Cabinet position serving under the Secretary of Defense. This position was created on September 18, 1947, replacing the Secretary of War, when the Department of War became the Department of the Army and was made a department within the new Department of Defense.
The current Secretary of the Army, John M. McHugh, took office on September 21, 2009.
The Senior Leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians—the Secretary of the Army and the Under Secretary of the Army—and two military officers of four-star rank—the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army.
The Secretary of the Army (10 U.S.C. § 3013) is in effect the chief executive officer of
The United States Solicitor General is the person appointed to represent the federal government of the United States before the Supreme Court of the United States. The current Solicitor General, Donald B. Verrilli, Jr. was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 6, 2011 and sworn in on June 9, 2011. Verrilli's predecessor on a permanent basis, Elena Kagan, was nominated to the Supreme Court and confirmed by the Senate in August 2010. Between Kagan and Verrilli's tenures, the Principal Deputy, Neal Katyal, had served as Acting Solicitor General.
The Solicitor General determines the legal position that the United States will take in the Supreme Court. In addition to supervising and conducting cases in which the government is a party, the office of the Solicitor General also files amicus curiae briefs in cases in which the federal government has a significant interest in the legal issue. The office of the Solicitor General argues on behalf of the government in virtually every case in which the United States is a party, and also argues in most of the cases in which the government has filed an amicus brief. In the federal courts of appeal, the Office of the Solicitor General
The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the Department of Labor who exercises control over the department and enforces and suggests laws involving unions, the workplace, and all other issues involving any form of business-person controversies.
Previously there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Commerce, which is headed by a separate Secretary of Commerce. Seven women have served as Secretary of Labor, which is more than any other cabinet position.
Hilda Solis is the current United States Secretary of Labor. She took office after being confirmed by the United States Senate on February 24, 2009.
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence. The current Secretary of State is Hillary Rodham Clinton, the 67th person, and third woman to hold the post. The specific duties of the Secretary of State include:
The original duties of the Secretary of State include some domestic duties, such as:
Most of the domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to other agencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, and the drafting of certain proclamations. The Secretary also negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries. Under Federal Law , the resignation of a President or of a Vice-President is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the Secretary of State. Accordingly, the resignations of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in
The title, Chief of Staff, identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a Principal Staff Officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president.
In general, a chief of staff provides a buffer between a chief executive and that executive's direct-reporting team. The chief of staff generally works behind the scenes to solve problems, mediate disputes, and deal with issues before they bubble up to the Chief Executive. Often Chiefs of Staff act as a confidante and advisor to the Chief Executive, acting as a sounding board for ideas. Ultimately the actual duties depend on the actual position and the people involved.
In general, the positions listed below are not "chiefs of staff" as defined at the top of this page. In general, they are the heads of the various forces/commands. Note that, in general, they tend to have subordinates that do fulfill the "chief of staff" roles.
The Sovereign is the Commander-in-Chief. The CDS heads the Chiefs of Staff Committee and is assisted by the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff. The Queen is not the ceremonial
The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The position was created by the Homeland Security Act following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted primarily of components transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such as the Coast Guard, Federal Protective Service, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (which includes the Border Patrol), Secret Service, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It did not, however, include the FBI or the CIA.
On January 20, 2009, the Senate confirmed Barack Obama's appointment of Janet Napolitano to be the third Secretary of Homeland Security. To assure a smooth transition however, Michael Chertoff was asked not to resign until the morning of January 21, 2009.
Traditionally, the order of the presidential line of succession is determined (after the Vice President, Speaker of the House, and President pro tempore of the Senate) by the order of the
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors to Nigeria.
Note: The Embassy in Lagos was established October 1, 1960, with Ambassador Palmer in charge pending presentation of his letter of credence.
Note: The U.S. Embassy was transferred from Lagos to Abuja September 15, 2000.
The day before Niger's independence on August 3, 1960, the first American Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, Donald R. Norland, presented his credentials to take effect the following day. The first United States ambassador to Niger, R. Borden Reams was appointed that October 14 and presented his credentials on November 23.
Note: Donald R. Norland (resident in Abidjan) presented credentials as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, August 2, 1960, to take effect from August 3, 1960. During Reams' tenure as non-resident Ambassador, the Embassy in Niamey was established February 3, 1961, with Joseph W. Schutz as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Madagascar. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations since June 1960. The Embassy Tananarive (now Antananarivo) was established on June 26, 1960. Currently, the Ambassador also serves US diplomatic interests or relations to Comoros.
Note: Embassy Tananarive (now Antananarivo) was established June 26, 1960.
Note: Between 1975 and 1980, the following officers served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim: Gilbert H. Sheinbaum (Nov. 1975-Mar. 1977) and Robert S. Barrett (Mar. 1977-Jun 1980).
Note: Howard T. Perlow served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, Jul 1996-Aug 1998.
The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Mexico since 1823, when Andrew Jackson was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to that country. Jackson declined the appointment, however, and Joel R. Poinsett became the first U.S. envoy to Mexico in 1825. The rank of the U.S. chief of mission to Mexico was raised from Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary in 1898.
Normal diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico have been interrupted on four occasions:
In addition, the U.S. legation in Mexico was headed by an interim Chargé d'Affaires from April 1864 to August 1867, during the final years of the French Intervention.
The following is a list of Ambassadors the United States has sent to Mexico, and other representatives that have served a similar function. The exact title given by the United States State Department to this position currently is "Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary".
On June 9, 2011, President Obama nominated Earl Anthony Wayne to be the next Ambassador to Mexico, succeeding Carlos Pascual, who had resigned in March.
The chief financial officer (CFO) or chief financial and operating officer (CFOO) is a corporate officer primarily responsible for managing the financial risks of the corporation. This officer is also responsible for financial planning and record-keeping, as well as financial reporting to higher management. In some sectors the CFO is also responsible for analysis of data. The title is equivalent to finance director, a common title in the United Kingdom. The CFO typically reports to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors, and may additionally sit on the board.
Most CFOs of large companies have finance qualifications such as an MBA or come from an accounting background. A finance department would usually contain some accountants with Certified Public Accountant or equivalent status. The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, enacted in the aftermath of several major U.S. accounting scandals, requires at least one member of a public company's audit committee to be a financial expert.
The federal government of the United States has incorporated more elements of business-sector practices in its management approaches, including the use of the CFO position (alongside, for example,
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Lithuania.
The United States first established diplomatic relations with the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) in 1922. One ambassador, resident in Riga, Latvia, was appointed to all three nations. Relations with the three nations were broken after the Soviet invasion of the republics in 1940 at the beginning of World War II. The United States never recognized the legitimacy of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states, nor the legitimacy of the governments of those states under Soviet occupation. Hence, diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The U.S. Embassy in Lithuania is located in Vilnius.
Note: During Coleman’s tenure as non-resident Minister, the legation in Kovno (later Kaunas) was established on May 31, 1930, with Hugh S. Fullerton as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
Note: Soviet forces occupied Kaunas on June 15, 1940, which effectively ended the U.S. diplomatic presence in Lithuania. Ambassador Norem departed Kaunas on July 30, 1940.
Note: Bernard Gufler was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when all U.S. diplomatic officials were withdrawn and the
The President of the United States of America (acronym: POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
Article II of the U.S. Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president and charges him with the execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory, and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. Since the founding of the United States, the power of the president and the federal government have grown substantially and each modern president, despite possessing no formal legislative powers beyond signing or vetoing congressionally passed bills, is largely responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of his party and the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. The president is frequently described
The Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development, or USA(RD), is a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Agriculture and the principal advisor to the United States Secretary of Agriculture responsible for oversight of the Department's rural development programs and policies.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The current Under Secretary is Dallas Tonsager, who was appointed by President Barack Obama on May 18, 2009.
The Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development, as head of the Office of Rural Development, provides assistance to the Nation's rural communities. In particular, this assistance comes in three areas: business, utilities, and housing. The Under Secretary oversees loans, grants, and technical assistance to rural residents, communities, and businesses.
With the rank of Under Secretary, the USA(RD) is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule. Since January 2010, the annual rate of pay for Level III is $165,300.
Officials reporting to the USA(NRE) include:
The previous Under Secretary was Thomas C. Dorr,
The United States Ambassador to Argentina is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Argentina.
Argentina had declared its independence from Spain in 1816 and there followed a series of revolutionary wars until 1861 when the nation was united. The United States recognized the government of Buenos Aires, the predecessor to Argentina, on January 27, 1823. Caesar Augustus Rodney was appointed as American Minister Plenipotentiary to Buenos Aires. Between 1854 and 1866, U.S. ambassadors were commissioned to the Argentine Confederation. Since 1867, ambassadors have been commissioned to the Argentine Republic.
Diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Argentina were interrupted but not severed in June 1944 when the U.S. government recalled its ambassador in a dispute with the newly appointed dictator Edelmiro Julián Farrell. The U.S. government believed that Farrell was not committed to the defense of the Western Hemisphere against the Axis powers. Normal relations were resumed with the appointment of a new ambassador in April 1945 when Argentina declared war against Germany.
The official residence of the U.S. Ambassador in Buenos Aires is
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other chiefs of mission, to Brazil. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The following is a list of ambassadors of the United States to Guyana. The current title given by the United States State Department to this position is Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fourteenth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Transportation Act. The Department's mission is "to develop and coordinate policies that will provide an efficient and economical national transportation system, with due regard for need, the environment, and the national defense." The Secretary of Transportation oversees eleven agencies, including the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. In April 2008, Mary Peters launched the official blog of the Secretary of Transportation called The Fast Lane.
The first Secretary of Transportation was Alan Stephenson Boyd, nominated to the post by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson. Ronald Reagan's second Secretary of Transportation, Elizabeth Dole, was the first female holder, and Mary Peters was the second. Gerald Ford's nominee William Thaddeus
The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal government's Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nation's Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. The Administrator is nominated by the President of the United States and must be confirmed by a vote of the Senate. The office of Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 in legislation that created the Environmental Protection Agency.
The EPA Administrator is customarily accorded Cabinet rank by the President and sits with the President, Vice President, and the 15 Cabinet Secretaries. Since the late 1980s, there has been a movement to make the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency a Cabinet Secretary, thus making the EPA a 16th Cabinet department, dealing with environmental affairs. The Administrator of the EPA is equivalent to the position of Minister of the Environment in other countries.
The current Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is Lisa P. Jackson, who was designated by President Barack Obama on December 15, 2008, and confirmed by
The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States. The Administrator serves as the senior space science adviser to the President of the United States. According to NASA, the role of the Administrator is to "lead the NASA team and manage its resources to advance the Vision for Space Exploration." The Deputy Administrator of NASA "serves as the agency’s second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. [He or she] represents NASA to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities. [He or she] also oversees the day to day work of NASA’s functional offices, such as the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Office of General Counsel and Strategic Communications", according to NASA (referring to Shana Dale).
The first Administrator of NASA was Dr. T. Keith Glennan; during his term he brought together the disparate projects in space development research in the US. Daniel Goldin held the
The United States has had diplomatic relations with the nation of Germany and its predecessor nation, the Kingdom of Prussia, since 1835. These relations were broken twice (1917 to 1921, 1941 to 1955) while Germany and the United States were at war. Prior to 1835, the United States and Prussia recognized one another but did not exchange representatives except for a brief period when John Quincy Adams was accredited to the Prussian court from 1797 to 1801.
This is a list of the chief U.S. diplomatic agents to Prussia, Germany, and West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany), their diplomatic rank, and the effective start and end of their service in Germany.
Former Goldman Sachs banker and former national Democratic Party finance chairman Phil Murphy was reported in July 2009 to be in line as President Barack Obama's choice as next ambassador to Berlin and as acceptable to the German government. Murphy was confirmed by the Senate on August 7, arrived in Berlin with his family August 21, and presented his credentials to the President of the Federal Republic of Germany September 3, assuming his full duties as Ambassador.
The Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy, plans, and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands. The commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.
The Commandant is nominated by the President for a four-year term of office and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a
The office of the Protector of Aborigines was established pursuant to a recommendation contained in a report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Aborigines (British Settlements). On 31 January 1838, Lord Glenelg, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies sent Governor Gipps the report.
The report recommended that Protectors of Aborigines should be engaged. They would be required to learn the Aboriginal language and their duties would be to watch over the rights of Aborigines, guard against encroachment on their property and to protect them from acts of cruelty, oppression and injustice. The Port Phillip Protectorate was established with George Augustus Robinson as chief protector and four full-time protectors.
While the role was nominally to protect Aborigines, particularly in remote areas, it has been suggested that the role included social control up to the point of controlling whom individuals were able to marry and where they lived and managing their financial affairs.
As well as Robinson, A. O. Neville and Edward John Eyre were notable Protectors of Aborigines.
Matthew Moorhouse was the first Protector of Aborigines in South Australia.
Aborigines Welfare Board
The United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Agriculture, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary becomes Acting Secretary of Agriculture in the event of the Secretary's resignation, death, or otherwise inability to fulfill the duties of the position. The Deputy Secretary performs whatever duties are prescribed to him or her by the Secretary of Agriculture. The Deputy Secretary of Agriculture is paid at level II of the Executive Schedule, meaning he or she receives a basic salary of $177,000 annually.
The position of Deputy Secretary of Agriculture was originally called the Under Secretary of Agriculture, until the title was changed in 1976. Previous Deputy Secretaries by recency include Chuck Conner (September 2005 - January 2009), Jim Moseley (August 2001 – April 2005), Richard Rominger (May 1993 – January 2001), Ann Veneman (1991–1993), and Jack Parnell (1989–1991).
In February 2009, President Obama nominated Kathleen Merrigan to be the next Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, and she was confirmed as Deputy Secretary by the Senate on April 2, 2009. She
The Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Homeland Security, with responsibility for managing day-to-day operations. The department has over 208,000 employees and an annual budget of more than $48.5 billion.
If the Secretary of Homeland Security dies, resigns, or is otherwise unable to perform the functions and duties of the office, the Deputy Secretary is to serve as an Acting Secretary.
The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The position of Deputy Secretary was created along with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002. The Deputy Secretary is paid $168,000 annually.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs within the American Department of State. The Assistant Secretary guides operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishment in various countries of North Africa and the Middle East and advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. Former Assistant Secretary, C. David Welch, who was sworn in on March 18, 2005, resigned his appointment on December 18, 2008.
The Department of State established the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs on October 3, 1949. The Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of Government, popularly known as the Hoover Commission, had recommended that certain offices be upgraded to bureau level and after Congress increased the number of Assistant Secretaries of State from six to ten. The Department of State established a Division of Near Eastern Affairs in 1909, which dealt with Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe as well as with the Middle East. The final remnant of this practice ended on April 18, 1974, when the Department transferred responsibility for Greece,
Prior to 1905, Sweden and Norway were politically united. The United States Ambassador to Sweden thus was the US representative for Norway as well as Sweden. In 1905 Sweden and Norway peacefully separated and Norway became an independent constitutional monarchy. On November 14, 1905, the US State Department instructed Ambassador Charles H. Graves to handle affairs for Sweden and Norway separately and the Ambassador was thus commissioned to Norway equally with Sweden, though he remained in Stockholm.
On June 22, 1906, Herbert H. D. Peirce was appointed to be the first ambassador of the US appointed specifically solely for Norway. On August 6, 1906, the embassy in Stockholm ceased all functions related to Norway. Peirce presented his credentials to the foreign minister of Norway on August 13, 1906.
Note: During the German occupation of Norway in WWII, the government of Norway fled to England and set up a government-in-exile in London. The United States maintained diplomatic relations with Norway during the war, with the ambassador staying in London near the government offices.
Note: The title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary on May 12, 1942.
The Deputy Secretary of Education oversees and manages the development of policies in the United States Department of Education. The Deputy Secretary focuses primarily on K–12 education policy, such as No Child Left Behind, the High School Initiative, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The Deputy Secretary also has responsibility for carrying out the intergovernmental relations of the Department. The Deputy Secretary becomes Acting Secretary of Education in the event of the Secretary's absence, disability, or a vacancy in the Office of Secretary.
The Office of the Deputy Secretary coordinates the work of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, the Office of Innovation and Improvement, the Office of English Language Acquisition, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, and the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The Deputy Secretary also oversees the Department's LEP Partnership, the Office for Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, and the Department's partnership with The History Channel.
The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. The Deputy Secretary is paid at level II of
The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, a member of the President's Cabinet, and thirteenth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development on September 9, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (Pub.L. 89-174) into law. The Department's mission is "to increase homeownership, support community development and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination."
Robert C. Weaver became the first African American Cabinet member by being appointed to the position. The department was also the first Cabinet department to be headed by an African American woman, Patricia Roberts Harris, in 1977. Henry Cisneros became the first Hispanic HUD Secretary in 1993. The current Secretary is Shaun Donovan.
The United States Ambassador to Afghanistan is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Afghanistan.
The United States recognized Afghanistan, then under the rule of King Amānullāh, on July 26, 1921. Diplomatic relations were established in 1935. The first ambassador appointed to Afghanistan was William Harrison Hornibrook, who was concurrently commissioned to Persia, as Iran was known then, and resident in Tehran. Until 1942, the U.S. Ambassador to Persia/Iran was also the Ambassador to Afghanistan. The U.S. Legation at Kabul was established on June 6, 1942, with Charles W. Thayer as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. Cornelius Van Hemert Engert presented his credentials to the government of Afghanistan on July 2, 1942, as the first envoy solely accredited to Afghanistan.
Ambassador Adolph Dubs was assassinated in a botched kidnapping attempt in 1979. For the next ten years no ambassador was appointed; only a series of chargés d’affaires represented the U.S. in Kabul. The embassy at Kabul was closed on January 30, 1989, due to concerns that the new regime would not be able to maintain security and protect diplomats following the final
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United States recognized the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina on April 7, 1992, and announced the establishment of diplomatic relations August 6, 1992. A U.S. Embassy was established on November 10, 1993, on the premises of the Vienna embassy. The embassy in Sarajevo was established on July 4, 1994.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Ethiopia in 1903 and commissioned its first ambassador to Ethiopia, Hoffman Philip, in 1908. Relations continued uninterrupted until 1980. In July 1980, the U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia was recalled at the request of the Ethiopian Government, and the U.S. Embassy in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Embassy in the United States were headed by chargés d’affaires. After the defeat of the Derg regime in 1991 and installation of a new government, the current chargé was commissioned as the new ambassador. The U.S. has had good relations with the Ethiopian government since that time.
The following is a list of people who have served as United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States, or the full title, Representative of the United States of America to the Organization of American States, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration (abbreviated ASD(NII)) provides management and oversight of all DoD information technology, including national security systems. The ASD(NII) also serves as the Chief Information Officer (CIO) of the United States Department of Defense (DoD), a position distinct from the ASD and governed by the Clinger-Cohen Act.
The ASD(NII)/DoD CIO is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense on networks and network-centric policies and concepts; command, control and communications (C3); non-intelligence space matters; enterprise-wide integration of DoD information matters; Information Technology (IT), including National Security Systems (NSS); information resources management (IRM); spectrum management; network operations; information systems; information assurance (IA); positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) policy, including airspace and military-air-traffic control activities; sensitive information integration; contingency support and migration planning; and related matters.
The ASD(NII)/DoD CIO had responsibilities for integrating information and related
The United States has sent ambassadors to Luxembourg since the beginning of the 20th century.
This is a complete list of United States envoys and ambassadors appointed to Luxembourg since 1903:
On June 28, 2011, President Obama nominated Robert A. Mandell, a Florida real estate developer, to be the next ambassador to Luxembourg.
The Associate Attorney General is the third-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. The Associate Attorney General advises and assists the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General in policies relating to civil justice, federal and local law enforcement, and public safety matters. The Associate Attorney General is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The incumbent Associate Attorney General is Thomas J. Perrelli.
The Office of the Associate Attorney General oversees the Antitrust Division, the Civil Division, the Environment and Natural Resources Division, the Tax Division, the Office of Justice Programs, the Community Oriented Policing Services, the Community Relations Service, the Office of Dispute Resolution, the Office of Violence Against Women, the Office of Information and Privacy, the Executive Office for United States Trustees, and the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission.
The Office of the Associate Attorney General was created on March 10, 1977 by Attorney General Order No. 699-77. Several recent former Associate Attorneys General include Jay B. Stephens, Acting Associate Attorney General Peter D. Keisler, Raymond C. Fisher,
The Under Secretary for Science is a high-ranking position within the United States Department of Energy. The position was created by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and the first Under Secretary for Science, Raymond L. Orbach, was sworn in on June 1, 2006. The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate. In March 2009, Steve Koonin was nominated to replace Orbach.
The Under Secretary serves as the Secretary of Energy's Science and Technology advisor, monitors the Department of Energy's research and development programs, and advises the Secretary on any gaps or duplications in them. The Under Secretary advises the Secretary on the management and the state of the national laboratories overseen by the Department.
The Under Secretary also advises the Secretary on the Department's educational and training activities. Other aspects include advising the Secretary on the coordinating and planning of research activities, advising the Secretary on financial assistance for research activities, and carrying out additional duties assigned by the Secretary, including supervising and supporting the lower-ranking Assistant
Upon the breakup of the Soviet Union, Armenia declared its independence on August 23, 1991, having previously been the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the USSR since 1936, and part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic since 1920.
The United States recognized Armenia on December 26, 1991. The embassy at Yerevan was opened February 3, 1992, with Steven Mann as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
The U.S. ambassadorial post to Armenia became vacant on May 24, 2006, when the then-current ambassador, John Marshall Evans was recalled by the Bush administration, purportedly over remarks by Evans concerning the Armenian genocide. On May 23, 2006, and again on January 9, 2007, President Bush nominated Richard E. Hoagland to be the new ambassador to Armenia, but the nomination was stalled in Senate in a dispute between the Bush administration and Congress over the Armenian genocide issue. Rudolf V. Perina, the chargé d'affaires ad interim, served as the chief of the mission until August 1, 2008 when Marie L. Yovanovitch began her term as the ambassador.
John A. Heffern, a career foreign service officer, was nominated by President Obama
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Ghana. The Embassy in Accra was established March 6, 1957, with Donald W. Lamm in charge as chargé d'affaires.
Important Notice : Ambassador Donald G. Teitelbaum ( Incumbent ) 2008 June Senior Staff Of Travel Relations Peter Asante Smith
Senior Staff Of Travel Relations Peter Asante Smith
The United States first established diplomatic relations with the Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) in 1922. One ambassador, resident in Riga, Latvia, was appointed to all three nations. Relations with the three nations were broken after the Soviet invasion of the republics in 1940 at the beginning of World War II. The United States never recognized the legitimacy of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states, nor the legitimacy of the governments of those states under Soviet occupation. Hence, diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The U.S. Embassy in Latvia is located in Riga.
Note: Soviet forces occupied Riga on June 17, 1940, which effectively ended the U.S. diplomatic presence in those nations. Ambassador Wiley departed Riga on July 25, 1940.
Note: Earl L. Packer was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when all U.S. diplomatic officials were withdrawn and the legation in Riga was officially closed on September 5, 1940.
Note: The United States announced its readiness to reestablish relations with Latvia on September 2, 1991. Embassy Riga was established October 2, 1991 with Ints M. Silins as Chargé d'Affaires ad
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
From 1877 until 1960, the republic had been a colony of Belgium, first under the name Congo Free State and then Belgian Congo.
The Congo was granted its independence on June 30, 1960, adopting the name “Republic of the Congo” (République du Congo). As the French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen-Congo) also chose the name Republic of Congo upon receiving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as Congo-Léopoldville and Congo-Brazzaville, after their capital cities.
The United States immediately recognized the new Republic of the Congo and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The embassy in Léopoldville (now Kinshasa) was established on June 30, 1960, with John D. Tomlinson as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The first ambassador, Clare H. Timberlake was appointed on July 5, 1960.
In 1971, President Joseph-Désiré Mobutu changed the country’s official name to Zaire.
In 1997, President Laurent Kabila restored the name "Democratic Republic of the Congo", previously used from 1964 to 1971.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations"; it is also known as the U.S. Permanent Representative, or "Perm Rep", to the United Nations.
The U.S. Permanent Representative, currently Susan Rice, is charged with representing the United States on the U.N. Security Council and during almost all plenary meetings of the General Assembly, except in the rare situation in which a more senior officer of the United States (such as the U.S. Secretary of State or the President of the United States) is present. Like all United States ambassadors, he or she must be nominated by the U.S. President and confirmed by the Senate.
Many prominent U.S. politicians and diplomats have held the post, including Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., Adlai Stevenson, George H. W. Bush, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Andrew Young, Dr. Jeane Kirkpatrick,
The United States Ambassador to China (traditional Chinese: 美國駐華大使; simplified Chinese: 美国驻华大使; pinyin: Měiguó Zhùhuá dàshǐ) is the chief American diplomat to People's Republic of China (PRC). The United States has sent diplomatic representatives to China since 1844, when Caleb Cushing, as Commissioner, negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia. Commissioners represented the United States in China from 1844 to 1857. Until 1898, the Qing Empire did not have a system in place for the Emperor to accept the Letters of Credence of foreign representatives. From 1858 to 1935, the U.S. representative in China was formally Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China. The American legation in Nanjing was upgraded to an Embassy in 1935 and the Envoy was promoted to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
During the republican era, the U.S. recognized the Beiyang Government in Beijing from 1912 to 1928 and the Nationalist Government in Nanjing (and Chongqing from 1937 to 1945) from 1928 onwards. After the Communist People's Republic of China was established in mainland China in 1949 and the Kuomintang moved the Republic of China government from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan, the U.S.
The first representative from the United States to Denmark was appointed in 1827 as a Chargé d'Affaires. There followed a series of chargés and ministers until 1890 when the first full ambassador (Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary) was appointed. The title was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary in 1946.
The United States Ambassador to Sweden serves as the chief representative of the United States Foreign Service to the Kingdom of Sweden, and 1814 to 1905, also to Norway, which was politically aligned with Sweden. Since the 1930s, the ambassador is resident in the ambassadorial residence, Villa Åkerlund, of the United States Embassy in Diplomatstaden, Stockholm.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 132) and the second-highest ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Deputy Secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary, by statute, must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is currently held by Ashton B. Carter.
Public Law 81-36, 2 April 1949, originally established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense. Former Assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt Stephen Early became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949.
Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. The second deputy
The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is a position within the American Department of State that manages the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, charged with linking the Department of Defense and the Department of State by providing policy in the areas of international security, security assistance, military operations, defense strategy and policy, military use of space, and defense trade. The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs reports to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs.
The current Assistant Secretary is Andrew J. Shapiro, who was sworn into office on June 22, 2009, after being appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Shapiro is a 1994 graduate of Columbia Law School.
When the Department of State originally established the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs on September 18, 1969, the bureau had replaced a special component for politico-military affairs that had served under the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs since 1960. The head of the Bureau had the title of Director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, and was designated by the
The Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence is a position within the United States Department of the Treasury responsible for directing the Treasury's efforts to cut the lines of financial support for terrorists, fight financial crime, enforce economic sanctions against rogue nations, and combat the financial support of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
The current Under Secretary is David S. Cohen, who has served since June 30, 2011, when he was appointed by President Barack Obama, and confirmed by the US Senate. The Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence is one of sixteen agencies in the United States Intelligence Community.
The Under Secretary heads the Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI). Both were created when the administration of President Bush announced on May 8, 2004, that the Executive Office of Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes (TFFC), the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), and allocated resources from the Treasury Department would be brought under the new office's control.
The United States has maintained a consular presence in New Zealand since 1838. The first consul was James Reddy Clendon. Born in England, Clendon was a ship owner and merchant who bought land and settled in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. In 1838 he was appointed by the federal government of the United States as consul for New Zealand. He was based at his property at Okiato, which in 1840 became the capital and was renamed Russell (not to be confused with present-day Russell). He held this position until 1841.
The Ambassador to New Zealand is also accredited to Samoa though resident in Wellington.
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a four-year term of office. The Vice President is the first person in the presidential line of succession, and would ascend to the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President.
Under the Constitution, the Vice President is President of the United States Senate. In that capacity, he or she is allowed to vote in the Senate when necessary to break a tie. While Senate customs have created supermajority rules that have diminished this Constitutional power, the Vice President still retains the ability to influence legislation (e.g. the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005). Pursuant to the Twelfth Amendment, the Vice President presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the Electoral College.
While the Vice President's only constitutionally prescribed functions aside from Presidential succession relate to his role as President of the Senate, the office is commonly viewed as a
The Under Secretary for Benefits, in the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, directs the Veterans Benefits Administration through regional offices in 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The Under Secretary is responsible for the administration of benefits provided by the Department to veterans and dependents, including compensation, pension, education, home loan guaranty, vocational rehabilitation, and life insurance. The incumbent Under Secretary is Allison A. Hickey, who was sworn in on June 6, 2011.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The occupant of the position is required to be appointed without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of his or her demonstrated ability in fiscal management and the administration of programs within the Veterans Benefits Administration or programs of similar content and scope. The Under Secretary is appointed for terms of four years, and reappointment is possible for successive periods. The President is required to communicate his reasons to Congress if the Under Secretary for Benefits is removed from office. Whenever there is a vacancy in
The Ambassador of the United States to Algeria is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Algeria.
Until 1962, Algeria had been under the dominion of France. Independence from France was formally declared on July 3, 1962. The United States and France both formally recognized Algeria on that same day. The Algerian government had recognized the United States in 1795, but formal diplomatic relations had not been established.
The U.S. has had consular representation in Algeria intermittently since 1796. On September 29, 1962, diplomatic relations between Algeria and the United States were formally established when the U.S. Consulate General in Algiers was raised to embassy status. William J. Porter was appointed as the first chargé d'affaires ad interim pending appointment of an ambassador to Algiers. He was promoted to ambassador on November 29, 1962.
Algeria severed diplomatic relations with the United States on June 6, 1967, in the wake of the June 1967 Arab-Israeli War. A U.S. Interests Section was established in the Swiss Embassy. The United States and Algeria reestablished diplomatic relations, and their respective embassies in
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Morocco. Morocco was the first country to recognize the United States of America in 1797, but diplomatic relations were not established until 1905. In 1912 Morocco came under the control of France and Spain as protectorates. The United States did not initially recognize the French and Spanish protectorates over Morocco. However, in 1917 upon U.S. entry into the First World War, the U.S. government recognized the protectorates. The U.S. Minister at Tangier was downgraded to the status of Diplomatic Agent. In 1956 the U. S. recognized Morocco’s independence, established an embassy in Rabat, and appointed a ranking ambassador, Cavendish W. Cannon.
This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Switzerland.
Since 1997, the US ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein. The position is generally held by a political appointee, not a career diplomat.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries. The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established.
The Department is headquartered in the Harry S. Truman Building located at 2201 C Street, NW, a few blocks from the White House in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U.S. diplomacy efforts.
The Department is led by the Secretary of State, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Secretary of State is Hillary Clinton. The Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession.
The U.S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in 1787 and ratified by the states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's
The Secretary of the Navy (acronym: SECNAV) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5013) and the head (chief executive officer) of the Department of the Navy, a military department (component organization) within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The Secretary of the Navy must by law be a civilian, at least 5 years removed from active military service, and is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate.
The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy (and the Secretaries of the Army and Air Force) was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense.
The Department of the Navy (DoN) consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, and has statutory authority (10 U.S.C. § 5013) to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, and the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense. In effect, all authority
The Governor of New South Wales is the state viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who is equally shared with 15 other sovereign nations in a form of personal union, as well as with the six other jurisdictions of Australia, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. On the advice of her New South Wales Premier only, the Queen appoints the Governor to carry out most of her constitutional and ceremonial duties for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the normal convention. Once in office, these individuals maintain direct contact with the Queen, wherever she may be at the time.
The office has its origin in the 18th-century colonial governors of New South Wales upon its settlement in 1788, and thus is the oldest continuous institution in Australia. The present incarnation of the position emerged with the Federation of Australia and the New South Wales Constitution Act 1902, which defined the viceregal office as the Governor acting by and with the Advice of the Executive Council of New South Wales. However, the post still ultimately represented the government of the United
This is a list of the ambassadors of the United States to the Marshall Islands. The Office of the U.S. Representative was opened at Majuro on October 21, 1986. It was upgraded to an Embassy on September 6, 1989. On Tuesday, May 15, 2012, the White House Press Office, in a list of nominations, announced that President Barack Obama had nominated Thomas Hart Armbruster, of New York, a Career Member of the Senior Foreign Service, Class of Counselor, to be Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Armbruster was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 2, 2012. He will succeed Ambassador Campbell.
The United States Ambassador to Rwanda is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Rwanda.
Until 1962 Rwanda had been a part of the United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi under the trusteeship of Belgium. In June 1962 the UN General Assembly terminated the Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda and Burundi. The United States immediately recognized the Rwandan government on its independence day, July 1, 1962, and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The U.S. Embassy in the capital Kigali was established on July 1, 1962, with David J.S. Manbey as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Charles D. Withers was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Rwanda on March 9, 1963.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Togo.
Until 1955 French Togoland was a United Nations Trust Territory mandated by the U.N. to France. In 1955, French Togoland became the autonomous Republic of Togo within the French Community (Communauté française), although it retained its UN trusteeship status. In 1960 Togo severed its constitutional ties with France, shed its UN trusteeship status, and became fully independent as the Togolese Republic.
The United States immediately recognized Togo and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The State Department established an embassy in Yaoundé in nearby Cameroon on January 1, 1960, with Bolard More as Chargé d'affaires ad interim. The Yaoundé embassy was simultaneously accredited to Togo. The embassy in Lomé was established on April 27, 1960, with Jesse M. MacKnight as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. On June 23, 1960, Leland Barrows was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Cameroon with separate accreditation to Togo while remaining resident in Yaoundé. In 1961 a separate ambassador was appointed solely for Togo and resident at Lomé. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Togo
The United States of America has maintained many high level contacts with Turkey since the nineteenth century.
Turkey severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 20, 1917, after the United States declared war against Germany on April 4, 1917. Normal diplomatic relations were reestablished in 1927.
The U.S. embassy in Karachi was established August 15, 1947 with Edward W. Holmes as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Paul H. Alling, was appointed on September 20, 1947. Anne W. Patterson was nominated as United States Ambassador to Pakistan in May 2007, replacing Ryan C. Crocker who was appointed United States Ambassador to Iraq after completing three years of service in Pakistan. In 2010, her post was succeeded by Cameron Munter. The American ambassador is based in the U.S. Embassy, Islamabad.
This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Spain from 1779 to the present day.
Note: In 1825 the ministry was upgraded to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Note: In August 1913, the title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. This required a new commission.
Note: Beginning in 1998, The ambassador to Spain was also accredited to Andorra.
The United States diplomatic mission to the Netherlands consists of the embassy located in The Hague and a consular office located in Amsterdam.
In 1782, John Adams was appointed America's first Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland. According to the United States Department of State, the same year came formal recognition by the Netherlands of the United States as a separate and independent nation, along with badly needed financial help that indicated faith in its future. These loans from Friesland and the United Provinces, which have been called "the Marshall Plan in reverse," were the first the new government received.
The American Embassy building in The Hague opened on July 4, 1959. It was designed by architect Marcel Breuer. Notable Americans such as former Presidents Adams and John Quincy Adams, General Hugh Ewing and Iraq Envoy L. Paul Bremer have held the title of Ambassador.
Besides the embassy, a U.S. consulate-general is located on Curaçao which is responsible for the territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Caribbean, but which is not part of the U.S. diplomatic mission to the Netherlands.
The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is a sub-agency of the U.S. Department of Education that is primarily focused on protecting civil rights in Federally assisted education programs and prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap, age, or membership in patriotic youth organizations.
OCR is one of the largest federal civil rights agencies in the United States, with a staff of approximately 650 attorneys, investigators, and staff. The agency is located in twelve regional offices and in Washington, D.C., headquarters. The Office for Civil Rights is responsible for ensuring compliance by recipients of federal education funds with several federal civil rights laws, including:
In the case of school bullying school districts may violate these civil rights statutes and the Department of Educations’s implementing regulations when peer harassment based on race, color, national origin, sex, or disability is sufficiently serious that it creates a hostile environment and such harassment is encouraged, tolerated, not adequately addressed, or ignored by school employees. Under these federal civil rights laws and regulations, students are protected from
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, or USD(AT&L), is a senior civilian official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense. USD(AT&L) is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning the Departmental acquisitions and the general management of the Department as a whole.
The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The currently Under Secretary is Frank Kendall III, who was appointed by President Barack Obama on October 6, 2011.
The subdivision within the Office of the Secretary of Defense supervised by the Under Secretary is known as Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. The Office is the principal staff element for the Department of Defense for acquisitions, research and development, advanced technology, and logistics. As the Department's chief administrative officer, the Under Secretary oversees installation management, military construction, occupational health management, utilities
The Ambassador of the United States of America to the State of Japan (Japanese: 日本駐在アメリカ合衆国大使 (Nihon chūzai amerika gassyūkoku taishi)) is the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary from the United States of America to Japan.
Since the opening of Japan by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, in 1854, the U.S. maintained diplomatic relations with Japan, except for the ten-year period following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war on Japan by the United States. The United States maintains an embassy in Tokyo, with consulates-general in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, and Naha.
In recent years, the post has been held by many significant American politicians, including Mike Mansfield, Walter Mondale, Tom Foley and Howard Baker.
The current ambassador to Japan is John Roos who was nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the Senate on August 7, 2009. Roos presented his credentials to His Imperial Majesty Akihito, Emperor of Japan, on August 20, 2009.
The following is a list of chiefs of mission.
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
The Commissioner of Food and Drugs is the head of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The commissioner is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate. The commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
Due to frequent controversies involving the FDA, appointments are not always prompt and the agency is often headed by an acting commissioner. For example, Andrew von Eschenbach's appointment was held up by senators who objected to the FDA's refusal to allow emergency contraception to be sold over the counter.
The commissioner has frequently been a physician, but this is not a requirement for the post.
The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer, abbreviated USD(C)/CFO, is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all budgetary and fiscal matters, including the development and execution of the Defense Department's annual $600 billion budget.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President.
The position of Defense Department Comptroller was originally at the rank of Assistant Secretary until the National Defense Authorization Act of 1995 upgraded the position to its current rank of Under Secretary.
The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is the principal staff office for the Defense Department on all budgetary and fiscal matters, including the development and execution of the Defense Department's annual budget of more than $600 billion. As Chief Financial Officer, the Under Secretary's Office also oversees the Department's financial policy, financial management
The United States Ambassador to Bahrain is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Bahrain.
Until 1971, Bahrain had been part of a British protectorate along with the other sheikhdoms in the Persian Gulf. In 1971 the protectorate ended and seven of the other sheikhdoms joined in a federation to become the United Arab Emirates. Bahrain, however, did not join the federation, but declared its independence on August 15, 1971. The United States recognized the State of Bahrain on on the same day and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The U.S. embassy in Manama was opened on September 21, 1971, with John N. Gatch, Jr. as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Ambassador William A. Stoltzfus, Jr. presented his credentials to the government of Bahrain on February 17, 1972. Stoltzfus was concurrently the ambassador to Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates, while resident in Kuwait. The first ambassador commissioned solely to Bahrain was Joseph W. Twinam in 1974.
Thomas C. Krajeski, a career foreign service officer of the State Department, was nominated by President Obama on June 30, 2011, to be the next U.S. Ambassador to Bahrain.
This is a record of Ambassadors of the United States to Liberia.
Liberia, as a nation, had its beginnings in 1821 when groups of free blacks from the United States emigrated from the U.S. and began establishing colonies on the coast under the direction of the American Colonization Society. Between 1821 and 1847, by a combination of purchase and conquest, American Societies developed the colonies under the name “Liberia”, dominating the native inhabitants of the area. In 1847 the colony declared itself an independent nation. Because it was already established as a nation, Liberia avoided becoming a European colony during the great age of European colonies in Africa during the latter half of the 19th century.
The United States recognized Liberia as an independent state in 1862 and commissioned its first representative to Libera in 1863. The representative, Abraham Hanson, was appointed as Commissioner/Consul General. The status of the commissioner was later upgraded to Minister, and finally to full Ambassador in 1949. Relations between the United States and Liberia have been continuous since that time.
Eight U.S. ambassadors have died at their post serving in Liberia.
The Ambassador of the United States of America to the Russian Federation is the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary from the United States of America to the Russian Federation.
Since 1780, the United States of America has maintained diplomatic relations with Russia. When the Russian Empire joined the Soviet Union, the former Ambassador to Russia took over as Ambassador to the Soviet Union. Despite the Cold War, the position of ambassador was constantly filled. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Ambassador's title was changed back to the Ambassador to Russia.
The Administrator of the Small Business Administration is the head of the Small Business Administration of the United States Government. Karen Mills is the current SBA Administrator, having been confirmed to that post in April, 2009.
The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom. He is the second highest ranking of the Great Officers of State, ranking after only the Lord High Steward. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors of England and Scotland.
The Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. Formerly he was also the presiding officer of the House of Lords, and the head of the judiciary in England and Wales, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker and the Lord Chief Justice respectively. The current Lord Chancellor is Chris Grayling, who is also Secretary of State for Justice.
One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor. The two offices entail exactly the same duties; the only distinction is in the mode of appointment. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor
The office of the United States Ambassador to the Republic of the Philippines was established on July 4, 1946 after the Philippines gained its independence from the United States.
The Ambassador to the Philippines has also been accredited to the Republic of Palau since 1996. The Ambassador works at the Embassy of the United States in Manila along Roxas Boulevard and holds residence in Forbes Park in Makati City. The Ambassador also has a summer residence in Baguio, The American Residence.
The current Ambassador to the Philippines is Harry K. Thomas, Jr. since 2010.
The Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs is the head of the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs within the United States Department of State. The Assistant Secretary guides operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishment in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region and advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters relating to the area. The current Assistant Secretary is Kurt M. Campbell, who was sworn in on June 2, 2009.
The Department of State established the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs in 1949, after the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of Government recommended that certain offices be upgraded to bureau level and after Congress increased the number of Assistant Secretaries of State from six to ten. On November 1, 1966, the Department by administrative action changed the incumbent's designation to Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. The Division of Far Eastern Affairs, established in 1908, was the first geographical division to be established in the Department of State.
The United States Ambassador to Macedonia is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Ambassador, based out of Skopje, works with the rest of the embassy - 70 other Americans and 240 locals - to advance bilateral relations.
The United States established a liaison office in Macedonia in Skopje on 3 December, 1993 with Robert L. Norman as Principal Officer, after Macedonia declared independence in 1991. The US recognized Macedonia 9 February, 1994.
The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. The Director reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The Director is assisted by the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Director is a civilian or a general or flag officer of the armed forces nominated by the President, with the concurring or nonconcurring recommendation from the DNI, and must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate.
Before April 21, 2005, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) headed both the Intelligence Community and the Central Intelligence Agency. In addition, DCI served as an advisor to the President of the United States on intelligence matters and was the statutory intelligence advisor to the National Security Council (NSC). On April 21, 2005, the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) took on the roles as head of the Intelligence Community and principal intelligence advisor to the President and the NSC.
The post of DCI was established in 1946 by President Harry Truman; it thus predates the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency
The Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics is a high-ranking official within the United States Department of Agriculture that provides leadership and oversight for the Agricultural Research Service, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Economic Research Service, National Agricultural Library, National Agricultural Statistics Service.
The Research, Education, and Economics (REE) mission area of the U. S. Department of Agriculture has Federal leadership responsibility for Advancing scientific knowledge related to agriculture through research, extension, and education.
REE delivers the scientific discovery mission of USDA through:
Dr. Catherine Woteki is the incumbent Under Secretary, as well as the Department's Chief Scientist. She was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on September 16, 2010.
There have been a total of 30 Ambassadors of the United States to Ireland. All except one, Frederick A. Sterling, have been non-career appointees, while there were three under President George W. Bush.
The current United States Ambassador to Korea is Sung Kim. His official title is "United States Ambassador to the Republic of Korea."
After the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882 was negotiated, diplomatic representatives were sent from Washington to Seoul. From then until 1905 there were several Envoys and Consuls General, each heading what was called a legation. After the Japanese had defeated the Chinese in 1895, and the Russians in 1905, Korea began to see its independence disappear. By 1910 Japan had annexed Korea and the U.S. no longer had a diplomatic presence in Korea.
At the end of World War II American forces accepted Japanese surrender in southern Korea, and Soviet forces accepted the surrender of the Japanese in northern Korea. Talks to agree upon a unity government for Korea failed and in 1948 two separate Korean states were created: the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The United States established diplomatic relations with the new South Korean government, but did not recognize North Korea. Other nations like the Soviet Union recognized the Pyongyang regime in North Korea, but did not initially establish
The Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs is a position within the American Department of State that leads the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs charged with implementing American foreign policy in Europe and Eurasia, and with advising the Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters relating to diplomatic missions within that area. The current Assistant Secretary is Philip Gordon.
Originally, the Department of State first established a Division of Western European Affairs in 1909, which handled European nations primarily bordering on the Atlantic Ocean and their colonies. The Division of Near Eastern Affairs handled relations with most Central, Eastern, and Southern European countries until after World War I. During the interwar period, responsibility for much of Central and Eastern Europe shifted to the Division of European Affairs, although Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus were handled as part of the Near East until April 18, 1974. Following World War II, the Department completed the transfer of responsibility for the former colonies of European nations, except Canada, to the Bureaus of Near Eastern, South Asian, African Affairs, and Far Eastern
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an overseas possession of France—part of French West Africa—until 1958. In that year Dahomey became an autonomous republic, and gained full independence in 1960. The United States immediately recognized Dahomey and began the process of initiating diplomatic relations. A U.S. Embassy at Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire (then named Ivory Coast) was established with Donald L. Norland as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The embassy was also accredited also to Dahomey, Niger, and Upper Volta (now named Burkina Faso) while resident at Abidjan. On July 31, 1960, Chargé Norland presented his credentials to the government of Dahomey, to take effect on August 1, 1960. On October 14, 1960, R. Borden Reams was appointed as the ambassador and presented his credentials on November 26, 1960.
On February 15, 1961, the Embassy in Cotonou, Dahomey was established with Converse Hettinger as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Ambassador Reams remained resident in Abidjan.
In 1961 Robinson McIlvaine was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary with a separate commission solely to Dahomey. He presented his credentials to the government of Dahomey on June 22, 1961.
Cape Verde had been a Portuguese colony for more than 500 years since 1456. in 1974 Portugal and the Cape Verdeans signed an agreement to form a transitional government, and Cape Verde gained full independence from Portugal on July 5, 1975.
The United States recognized Cape Verde and commissioned its first ambassador Melissa F. Wells in 1976. Ambassador Wells was concurrently accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde while resident at Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. In 1980, an embassy was established in the capital Praia with a chargé d’affaires managing the business of the embassy.
The United States Ambassador to Libya is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Libya.
Until its independence in 1951, Libya had been a colony of Italy (1912–1947) and then under British and French occupation until 1951. In 1949 The UN General Assembly had passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952 (Resolution 289). On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence under King Idris.
The United States recognized the Kingdom of Libya on December 24, 1951, in a congratulatory message sent by President Harry Truman to King Idris I. Diplomatic relations were established on the same day and the U.S. Consulate-General was elevated to a legation with Andrew Lynch designated as Charge d'Affaires ad interim. The first official envoy to Libya was Henry Serrano Villard, who presented his credentials on March 6, 1952.
On December 2, 1979, a mob attacked and burned the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli. On December 29, the U.S. Department of State designated Libya as a state sponsor of terrorism. The Chargé d’Affaires was recalled on February 8, 1980 and the embassy was closed May 2, 1980. However,
The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fifteenth in the presidential line of succession. The position was formed on October 1, 1977 with the creation of the Department of Energy when President Jimmy Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act. Originally the post focused on energy production and regulation. The emphasis soon shifted to developing technology for better, more efficient energy sources as well as energy education. After the end of the Cold War, the department's attention also turned toward radioactive waste disposal and maintenance of environmental quality.
Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger was the first Secretary of Energy, who was a Republican nominated to the post by Democratic President Jimmy Carter, the only time a president has appointed someone of another party to the post. Schlesinger is also the only secretary to be dismissed from the post. Hazel O'Leary, Bill Clinton's first Secretary of Energy, was first female and African-American holder, as well as the longest to hold the position. The first Hispanic to serve as Energy Secretary was
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Swaziland.
After the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, Swaziland became a British protectorate and thus came under the hegemony of the British Empire. In the early years of colonial rule, the British had expected that Swaziland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa. After World War II, however, South Africa’s racial policies induced the United Kingdom to prepare Swaziland for independence. In 1966, the UK Government agreed to discuss a new constitution, and Swaziland became independent on September 6, 1968.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and established an embassy in the capital Mbabane on September 6, 1968, independence day for Swaziland. Chris C. Pappas, Jr., was appointed as chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Charles J. Nelson was appointed on June 9, 1971. He was accredited to Swaziland, Lesotho, and Botswana while resident in Gaborone, Botswana.
United States Deputy Attorney General is the second-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. In the United States federal government, the Deputy Attorney General oversees the day-to-day operation of the Department of Justice, and may act as Attorney General during the absence of the Attorney General. The Deputy Attorney General is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. The position was created in 1950.
Since December 2010 the office is held by James M. Cole, who received a recess appointment by President Obama and subsequently was confirmed by the Senate in June 2011.
On May 14, 2007 Paul McNulty, then Deputy Attorney General, announced his resignation in a letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales. At the time, McNulty was considered "the highest-ranking Bush administration casualty in the furor over the firing of U.S. attorneys." Later, Gonzales himself would resign.
On July 18, 2007 President Bush announced his appointment of Craig S. Morford as acting Deputy Attorney General. Morford had been serving as the U.S. attorney in Nashville, Tennessee, and was known for his successful
The Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs, in the United States government, is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, responsible for a nationwide system of health care services, benefits programs, and national cemeteries for America's veterans and their dependents. The Deputy Secretary is the second-highest-ranking officer in the Department and succeeds the Secretary of Veterans Affairs in the event of his resignation, death, or otherwise inability to fulfill his duties.
The Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The position was created with the creation of the Department of Veterans Affairs in October 1988.
W. Scott Gould is currently Deputy Secretary.
Since the creation of the Department in 1989, the following people have served as Deputy Secretary:
^ Acted as Secretary during their tenure. See the list of Secretaries for dates.
The Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs is the head of the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs within the United States Department of State, which handles U.S. foreign policy and relations in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
The position of Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs was renamed when responsibility for policy for five countries, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, was transferred from the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs to the Bureau of South Asian Affairs, which became the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs. Richard A. Boucher was sworn in as the first to hold the current title on February 21, 2006 after the previous Assistant Secretary, Christina B. Rocca, left the Department.
The Under Secretary of Education is the third-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Education. The Under Secretary oversees policies, programs, and activities related to postsecondary education, vocational and adult education, and federal student aid.
The Office of the Under Secretary (OUS) is responsible for helping to implement the Secretary’s Action Plan for Higher Education, which calls for expanding the accessibility, affordability, and accountability of higher education for more Americans.
The Under Secretary of Education is appointed by the President of the United States, with the approval of the United States Senate, to serve at the President's pleasure. The current Under Secretary is Dr. Martha Kanter, who was appointed by President Barack Obama in 2009.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. The number of Associate Justices is determined by the United States Congress and is currently set at eight by the Judiciary Act of 1869.
Associate Justices, like the Chief Justice, are nominated by the President of the United States and are confirmed by the United States Senate by majority vote. This is provided for in Article II of the Constitution, which states that the President "shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint...Judges of the supreme Court."
Article III of the Constitution specifies that Associate Justices, and all other United States federal judges "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior." This language means that the appointments are effectively for life, ending only when a Justice dies in office, retires, or is removed from office following impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction by the Senate.
Each of the Justices of the Supreme Court has a single vote in deciding the cases argued before it; the Chief Justice's vote counts no more
A general counsel is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a corporation or government department. The term is most used in the United States. The status and prominence of the general counsel has grown much over the past 10 years as is evidenced by the large number of lawyers who come into the role from private practice.
In the United Kingdom a group of general counsel, called the GC100, was officially launched on 9 March 2005 and brings together the senior legal officers of more than eighty five FTSE 100 companies. The GC100 group was created in response to the increasing volume and complexity of domestic and international law and regulation which impacts on UK listed companies. The group was formed with the support of Practical Law Company which acts as its secretariat.
The main objectives of the GC100 are to:
Membership of the GC100 is by invitation only. At the AGM on the 16 January 2007 members voted in favour of extending membership to company secretaries as well as general counsel in the FTSE 100. The formal name of the GC100 is now "The Association of General Counsel and Company Secretaries of the FTSE100", although it will continue to be known as the
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is "inspectors general".
The Chief of Police of Bangladesh is known as the Inspector General of Police. He is from Bangladesh Civil Service police cadre. The current Inspector General of Police is Hassan Mahmud Khondokar, and his predecessor was Noor Mohammad. There is another temporary post of Inspector General of Police, known as Poolish Shomonnoyok (Bengali: পুলিশ সমন্বয়ক) or "police coordinator", currently held by Bivuti Vooshon Choudhury.
In the French Civil Service, an inspector general (inspecteur général) is a member of a body of civil servants known as inspection générale, generally of a high level, charged with a nationwide mission to inspect some specific services and provide government officials with advice regarding that service. For example:
The inspection générale des Finances is particularly prestigious as a job appointment after studies at the École Nationale d'Administration. In recent decades, many of its members have occupied various high positions in lieu of their traditional mission of inspection. The corps has come under increased criticism for
Angola became independent of Portugal in 1975, but the U.S. did not recognize the Government of Angola declared by the MPLA. The U.S. recognized Angola after multiparty elections were held in 1992.
The United States established relations with the Republic of Angola through the opening of a Liaison Office in Luanda on January 10, 1992, with Jeffrey Millington as Director. The United States recognized the government of on Angola May 19, 1993. The first ambassador was appointed on May 9, 1994.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Cambodia.
Until 1953 Cambodia had been French protectorate as a part of French Indochina, but became independent on November 9, 1953. The United States had appointed its first envoy to Cambodia, Donald R. Heath, in 1950. Heath was a non-resident minister who was commissioned to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, while resident in Saigon.
Diplomatic relations between Cambodia and the United States were broken twice: The first time between 1965 and 1969, and the second time in 1975 just before the Pol Pot regime gained control of the country. Relations were finally restored in 1991.
The U.S. Embassy in Cambodia is located in Phnom Penh.
Note: Legation Phnom Penh was raised to embassy status, June 25, 1952. Concurrently the Minister was promoted to Ambassador.
Note: Cambodia severed diplomatic relations with the United States on May 3, 1965. Alf E. Bergesen was serving as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim in the embassy at that time.
Note: After Lon Nol deposed Prince Norodom Sihanouk, diplomatic relations were resumed, and the embassy in Phnom Penh was reestablished on August 16, 1969, with Lloyd M. Rives as Chargé d’Affaires ad
The United States Ambassador to Bangladesh is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Bangladesh.
Since the Mughal Dynasty ceased after the take over by the Crown, the emergence and dissolvement of the Bengal Presidency and the Bengal Province under the British Empire took place. With the termination of British rule in 1947, Bengal was divided into two provinces, West and East Bengal. East Bengal had become a part of Pakistan, named East Pakistan and remained so until 1971. On 26th March 1971, East Pakistan officially seceded, and was to be called Bangladesh and declared itself independent through a radio transmission from Kalurghat, Chittagong. An official interim government was establish on April 10th 1971, that was called Probashi Sharkar led by Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed and the Commander in Chief of BDF General M.A.G. Osmani. The administration took refuge in India. After the war ended with West Pakistan, Bangladesh Forces(BDF) and the interim government remained under Indian control in Bangladesh through until March 17th 1971. After the deparure of the Indian forces and administration officially in March 19th, many nations
The Treasurer of the United States is an official in the United States Department of the Treasury that was originally charged with the receipt and custody of government funds, though many of these functions have been taken over by different bureaus of the Department of the Treasury. Responsibility for oversight of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the United States Mint, and the United States Savings Bonds Division (now the Savings Bond Marketing Office within the Bureau of the Public Debt) was assigned to the Treasurer in 1981. As of 2002 the Office of the Treasurer underwent a major reorganization. The Treasurer now advises the Director of the Mint, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Deputy Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury on matters relating to coinage, currency and the production of other instruments by the United States. The Treasurer's signature, as well as the Treasury Secretary's, appear on Federal Reserve notes.
Eager to appoint a woman to a prominent political position, President Harry S. Truman appointed Georgia Neese Clark Treasurer in 1949. Since then, every subsequent Treasurer has been a woman, and six of the past ten Treasurers
From 1885 until 1966 the area of southern Africa that is now Botswana was part of the Bechuanaland Protectorate of Great Britain.
In June 1964, Britain accepted proposals for democratic self-government in Botswana. The seat of government was moved from Mafikeng in South Africa, to newly established in Gaberones (now Gaborone) in 1965. The 1965 constitution led to the first general elections and to independence on September 30, 1966.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. An embassy in Gaberones was established on September 30, 1966—independence day for Botswana. Charles H. Pletcher was appointed as Chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Malta.
Until 1964 Malta had been a part of the British Empire. Malta was granted full independence on September 21, 1964. The United States recognized the new nation and established full diplomatic relations. Embassy Valletta was established September 21, 1964, with Harrison Lewis as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim until an ambassador could be commissioned.
The United States Attorney General (AG) is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. § 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. The attorney general is considered to be the chief lawyer of the U.S. government. The attorney general serves as a member of the president's cabinet, and is one of only two cabinet department heads who are not given the title secretary, besides the now independent postmaster general.
The attorney general is nominated by the President of the United States and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate. He or she serves at the pleasure of the president and can be removed by the president at any time; the attorney general is also subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors."
The office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of
The United States Permanent Representative to NATO (commonly called the U.S. Ambassador to NATO) is the official representative of the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Representative has the rank of full ambassador and is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The full official title of the Representative is United States Permanent Representative on the Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. The current U.S. Ambassador to NATO is Ivo Daalder.
The first Representative was appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953.
Chief information officer (CIO), or information technology (IT) director, is a job title commonly given to the most senior executive in an enterprise responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support enterprise goals. The title of Chief Information Officer in Higher Education may be the highest ranking technology executive although depending on the institution, alternative titles are used to represent this position. Generally, the CIO reports to the chief executive officer, chief operations officer or chief financial officer. In military organizations, they report to the commanding officer.
Information technology and its systems have become so important that the CIO has come to be viewed in many organizations as the key contributor in formulating strategic goals for an organization. The CIO manages the implementation of the useful technology to increase information accessibility and integrated systems management. As a comparison, where the CIO adapts systems through the use of existing technologies, chief technology officer develops new technologies to expand corporate technological capabilities. When both positions are present in an organization, the CIO
A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a United Kingdom or New Zealand Member of Parliament (MP) designated by a senior minister in government or shadow minister to act as the minister's contact for the House of Commons. This role is junior to that of Parliamentary Under-Secretary, which is a ministerial post, salaried by one or more departments.
Although not paid other than their salary as an MP, PPSs help the government to track backbench opinion in Parliament. They are subject to some restrictions as outlined in the Ministerial Code of the British government:
A PPS can sit on Select Committees but must avoid "associating themselves with recommendations critical of, or embarrassing to the Government", and must not make statements or ask questions on matters affecting the minister's department. In particular, the PPS in the Department for Communities and Local Government may not participate in planning decisions or in the consideration of planning cases.
PPSs are not members of the government, and all efforts are made to avoid these positions being referred to as such. They are instead considered more simply as normal Members. However, their close confidence with ministers
The Under Secretary for Economic Affairs is a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Commerce. The Under Secretary serves as the principal economic adviser to the United States Secretary of Commerce. The Under Secretary is also the Administrator of the Economics and Statistics Administration and oversees two statistical agencies - the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the United States Census Bureau - that gather, calculate, and disseminate much of the U.S. demographic, social and economic data including reports on the nation's gross domestic product, retail sales, personal income, housing starts, inventory levels and international trade.
The Under Secretary's priorities include advising the Secretary on economic trends and policy, retaining and improving the high quality of the nation's economic and demographic indicators, and ensuring the successful preparation and implementation of the re-engineered 2010 decennial census.
Dr. Cynthia A. Glassman was sworn in as Under Secretary for Economic Affairs on October 5, 2006. Prior to her nomination by President Bush, Dr. Glassman served as Commissioner on the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission from January 28, 2002,
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Belize. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Verification and Compliance is the head of the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. Formerly known as the Bureau of Verification, Compliance and Implementation.(http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/10/148521.htm) The position was created on December 12, 1999 by Secretary Albright as the Assistant Secretary of State for Verification and Compliance. The Bureau became fully operational on February 1, 2000. Within the Department, the Assistant Secretary is responsible for all matters relating to the supervision of verification and compliance with international arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament agreements. On March 17, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated former United States Department of Energy official Rose Gottemoeller to fill the position. She was confirmed by the Senate on April 3, 2009. Gottemoeller is an expert in Russian defense and nuclear issues.
The Assistant Secretary advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security/Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation and Disarmament on the
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Albania.
Albania had been under the domination of the Ottoman Empire since the 14th century but gained a shaky independence in 1912 after an uprising against the Turks. After suffering invasions and occupations during the First and Second Balkan Wars and the Great War, Albania achieved a relatively stable degree of statehood.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Albania in 1922. President Harding appointed the first U.S. Minister to Albania, Ulysses Grant-Smith, who arrived in Tirana in December 1922. The first envoys to Albania had the rank of Minister.
Albania–United States relations were broken in 1939 upon the Italian invasion of Albania just prior to the start of World War II. Relations were not restored until the downfall of Communism in Europe in 1991.
The United States Embassy in Albania is located in Tirana.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Burma. In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—do not accept the name and still refer to the country as Burma in official usage.
Burma became a province of India in 1886 under the British Raj. The country was occupied by Japan during World War II but after the war, again came under control of Britain. In 1946 Britain began negotiations with the Burmese to establish independence for the nation, and reached a final agreement on January 27, 1947. A transitional government was established and Burma became fully independent on January 4, 1948.
The United States recognized Burma and established the Embassy of the United States, Rangoon on September 19, 1947, with Earl L. Packer as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
After 1990 the United States appointed no ambassador to Burma in protest against the policies of the military regime. A chargé d'affaires became the head of mission until 2012.
On January 13, 2012, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that "at the direction of President Obama, we will start the process of exchanging
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Cyprus.
Until 1960 Cyprus had been a colony of the British Empire. On August 16, 1960 Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom. The United States recognized the new nation and established an embassy in Nicosia on August 16, 1960, with L. Douglas Heck as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Cyprus have been continuous since that time.
One ambassador, Rodger P. Davies, was assassinated by a sniper while at his post in 1974.
The United States does not recognize the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, proclaimed November 15, 1983 by Turkey.
The U.S. Embassy in Cyprus is located in Nicosia.
Note: The following officers served as chargés d’affaires ad interim: John U. Nix (July 1989–July 1990) and Carolyn Huggins (July 1990–November 1990).
The Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services (formerly the Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1953–1979, and the Under Secretary of Health and Human Services, 1979–1990) is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The Deputy Secretary oversees all operations within the Department, including oversees Medicare, Medicaid, public health, medical research, food and drug safety, welfare, child and family services, disease prevention, Indian health, and mental health services. The incumbent Deputy Secretary, Bill Corr, was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on May 6, 2009.
The Deputy Secretary is also the Regulatory Policy Officer for the Department, overseeing the development and approval of all HHS regulations and significant guidance. In addition, the Deputy Secretary leads a number of initiatives at the Department, including implementing the President's Management Agenda, combating bio-terrorism, and public health emergency preparedness. He also represents Secretary Kathleen Sebelius on the board of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed
The Secretary of the Treasury of the United States is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also with some issues of national security and defense. This position in the Federal Government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries. Most of the Department's law enforcement agencies such as the U.S. Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the U.S. Secret Service were reassigned to other Departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. The Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet, and since the Clinton Administration, has been a member of the U.S. National Security Council. By law and by tradition, the Secretary of the Treasury is fifth in the United States presidential line of succession, in case of some extreme calamity in the United States.
From the U.S. Department of the Treasury website:
The Secretary along with the Treasurer must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. The Secretary also manages the United States
Former mayor of Kandahar, assassinated by a suicide bomber on July 27, 2011. He grew up in Kandahar province before leaving during the Soviet occupation, moving first to Pakistan and then to the U.S. where he lived for 20 years. He returned to Afghanistan in 2007 to become Kandahar mayor.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta).
Until 1960 Upper Volta was a French possession as a part of French West Africa. In 1958 Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community (Communauté française), and achieved independence as the Republic of Upper Volta on August 5, 1960.
The United States recognized Upper Volta immediately and assigned its first envoy on the nation's independence day, August 5. The envoy, Donald R. Norland, had presented his credentials as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim on the previous day, August 4, to take effect on the day of independence. Norland was also the Chargé d'Affaires a.i. to the newly independent nations: Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire), Dahomey (Benin) and Niger while resident in Abidjan.
The first ranking ambassador, R. Borden Reams, was appointed October 17, 1960. He was also the ambassador to the aforementioned countries while resident in Abidjan. On December 31, 1960, an embassy was established in Ouagadougou with a resident Chargé d'affaires. On May 29, 1961 the first ambassador solely accredited to Upper Volta was appointed.
On August 4, 1984, the nation changed its name to
The United States Ambassador to Namibia is the representative of the government of the United States in Namibia.
The position was created the day Namibia became independent, which was also the day that Namibia-United States relations were established. On that same day, the U.S. Embassy in Windhoek was opened in recognition of the establishment of diplomatic relations.
The U.S. Liaison Office in Windhoek opened February 24, 1984, with William H. Twaddell as Director and closed February 15, 1985. During this time the following officers served as Director: Dennis Whyte Keogh (March–April 1984), Howard Jeter (April–May 1984), and William L. Jacobsen, Jr. (May 1984–February 1985). It reopened on June 1, 1989, with Roger A. McGuire as Director. McGuire became chargé d'affaires ad interim when the Liaison Office was elevated to embassy status on March 21, 1990. The first ambassador, Genta H. Holmes was appointed on August 6, 1990. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Namibia since that time.
The Deputy Secretary of Transportation, in the United States government, advises and assists the Secretary of Transportation in the supervision and direction of the Department of Transporatation (DOT). The Deputy Secretary would succeed the Secretary in his absence, sickness, or unavailability.
The current Deputy Secretary is John Porcari.
The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. The current secretary is Tom Vilsack, who was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 20 January 2009. The position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other governments.
The department includes several organizations. The 297,000 mi (770,000 km²) of national forests and grasslands are managed by the United States Forest Service. The safety of food produced that are produced in the United States and sold here is ensured by the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service. The Food Stamp Program works with the states to provide food to low-income people. Advice for farmers and gardeners is provided by the United States Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.
The line of succession for the Secretary of Agriculture is as follows:
The following is a list of Secretaries of Agriculture, since the creation of the office in 1889.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the United States federal court system (the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Chief Justice is one of nine Supreme Court justices; the other eight are the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. From 1789 until 1866, the office was known as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
The Chief Justice is the highest judicial officer in the country, and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts and appoints the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The Chief Justice also serves as a spokesperson for the judicial branch.
The Chief Justice leads the business of the Supreme Court. He or she presides over oral arguments before the Court. When the Court renders an opinion, the Chief Justice—when in the majority—decides who writes the Court's opinion. The Chief Justice also has significant agenda-setting power over the Court's meetings. In the case of an impeachment of a President of the United States, which has occurred twice, the Chief Justice presides over the trial in
The Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs (T) is a position within the U.S. Department of State that serves as Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament.
In this capacity, the Under Secretary (U/S) attends and participates, at the direction of the President, in National Security Council (NSC) and subordinate meetings pertaining to arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament and has the right to communicate, through the Secretary of State, with the President and members of the NSC on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament concerns.
The U/S also leads the interagency policy process on nonproliferation and manages global U.S. security policy, principally in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control, regional security and defense relations, and arms transfers and security assistance. The U/S provides policy direction in the following areas: nonproliferation, including the missile and nuclear areas, as well as chemical, biological, and conventional weapons proliferation; arms control, including negotiation, ratification, verification and compliance, and implementation of
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Estonia.
The United States has maintained continuous official diplomatic relations with Estonia (as well as Latvia and Lithuania) since 1922, when one ambassador, resident in Riga, Latvia, was appointed to all three nations. Relations with the three nations were broken after the Soviet invasion of the republics in 1940 at the beginning of World War II. The United States never recognized the legitimacy of the Soviet occupation of the three Baltic nations, nor the legitimacy of the governments of those states under Soviet occupation. Hence, diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The U.S. Embassy in Estonia is located in Tallinn.
Note: During Coleman’s tenure as nonresident Minister, the Legation in Tallinn was established on June 30, 1930 with Harry E. Carlson as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
Note: Soviet forces occupied Tallinn and Riga on June 17, 1940, which effectively ended the U.S. diplomatice presence in those nations. Ambassador Wiley departed Riga on July 25, 1940.
Note: Walter Leonard was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when all U.S. diplomatic officials
This is a list of United States ambassadors, or lower-ranking heads of a diplomatic mission to Iraq.
The United States broke off full ties with Iraq over the Six Day War and did not resume them until 1984. The US maintained an Interests Section starting in 1972, hosted by the Belgian embassy.
The American embassy in Baghdad remained closed until 2000 when it was staffed by Japanese diplomats working in proxy with the US. No new Ambassador or Chargé d'Affaires was appointed until after the Second Gulf War. However the U.S. Interests Section was opened at the Polish embassy in January, 1991. The Polish embassy represented interests of the U.S.A. until June 30, 2004.
A U.S. Ambassador serves as that country's official representative to the Holy See since formal diplomatic relations began in 1984. Before the establishment of official relations, Myron Taylor served during World War II as an emissary for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1951, President Harry S. Truman's pick of World War II hero Mark W. Clark was defeated.
Between 1951 and 1968, the United States had no official representative accredited to the Holy See. President Richard Nixon changed this when he appointed Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as his personal representative. President Jimmy Carter followed with the appointment of former New York City mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. Every ambassador to date has been a Roman Catholic.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors to the Holy See, past and present:
Before the establishment of official diplomatic relations, Myron Charles Taylor, an industrialist, philanthropist and diplomat (starting with World War II), served from December 1939 until 1950 as an emissary to Pope Pius XII for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman.
On October 20, 1951, Truman nominated Mark W. Clark, a U.S. Army general and World War II hero, to
The United States Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) serves as the Secretary of Health and Human Services's primary advisor on matters involving the nation's public health and, if serving as an active member in the regular corps, is the highest ranking uniformed officer in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC). The ASH oversees all matters pertaining to the Public Health Service (PHS), the main division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), for the Secretary as well as provide strategic and policy direction for the PHSCC. The PHS comprises almost all the agency divisions of the HHS as well as the PHSCC, a uniformed service of more than 6,000 health professionals who serve at the HHS, other federal agencies, and/or are assigned details to the armed forces. The ASH is a civilian or a uniformed member of the regular corps and is nominated for appointment by the President. The nominee must also be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. The ASH serves a four year term of office at the pleasure of the President. If the appointee is a serving member of the regular corps, he or she is also appointed as a four-star admiral in the regular corps . The
Chief Performance Officer of the United States (CPO) is a position in the Office of Management and Budget (within the Executive Office of the President of the United States), first announced on January 7, 2009 by then President-elect Barack Obama. The new post concentrates on the federal budget and government reform.
Obama selected Nancy Killefer to be the first CPO/Deputy OMB Director for Management, but before the Senate could vote on her confirmation, she withdrew her nomination, citing a "personal tax issue" as a likely distraction for the Obama administration. Jeffrey Zients was nominated as CPO on April 18, 2009 and confirmed by the Senate on June 19, 2009.
The title of and role definition for the "chief performance officer" originated with the publication of the META Group (now Gartner) research note #AD755 entitled DW Staffing: Part 2--Fresh Hot Roles (21 July 1999) by Douglas B. Laney.
In this research note Mr. Laney, then heading research and advisory services for the firm's data warehousing and business intelligence practice, defined the role as thus:
"Analogous to the Chief Operations Officer (COO), who is responsible for running the business, the Chief Performance
United States Deputy Secretary of Labor is the second-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Labor. In the United States federal government, the Deputy Secretary oversees the day-to-day operation of the Department of Labor, and may act as Secretary of Labor during the absence of the Secretary. The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the United States Senate and the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
Seth Harris was appointed by President Barack Obama to fill the position on February 23, 2009. Harris's nomination was confirmed unanimously by the United States Senate in May 2009.
The following is a list of Deputy Secretaries of Labor or earlier equivalent positions.
The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry; the Department states its mission to be "to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce". Until 1913 there was one Secretary of Commerce and Labor, uniting this department with the Department of Labor, which is now headed by a separate Secretary of Labor.
The Office of the Secretary contains a Deputy Secretary of Commerce, a Chief of Staff, a Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy, an Assistant Secretary for Commerce and Intergovernmental Affairs, a Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration, a Chief Information Officer, a General Counsel, an Inspector General, an Office of Business Liaison, an Office of Policy and Strategic Planning, an Office of Public Affairs, an Office of White House Liaison, and an International IPR Enforcement Coordinator.
Gary Locke, former Commerce Secretary resigned on August 11, 2011, to become the United States Ambassador to China.
On May 31, 2011, President Obama nominated John E. Bryson to be U.S. Secretary of Commerce. He was sworn in as the 37th United States Secretary of Commerce
The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with health matters. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The office was formerly Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.
In 1979, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services, and its education functions transferred to the new Department of Education. Patricia Roberts Harris headed the department before and after it was renamed.
Nominations to the office of Secretary of HHS are referred to the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee and the Finance Committee, which has jurisdiction over Medicare and Medicaid, before confirmation is considered by the full United States Senate.
Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act the role of the Secretary has been greatly expanded.
Kansas Governor Kathleen Sebelius was sworn in as Secretary of Health and Human Services by the United States Senate on April 29, 2009.
The duties of the secretary revolve around human conditions and concerns in the United States. This includes advising the President on matters
The United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs is the head of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the department concerned with veterans' benefits and related matters. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and second to last at 17th in the line of succession to the presidency (the position was last until the addition of the United States Department of Homeland Security in 2006). To date, all appointees and acting appointees to the post have been United States military veterans, but that is not a requirement to fill the position.
When the post of Secretary is vacant, the United States Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs or any other person designated by the President serves as Acting Secretary until the President nominates and the United States Senate confirms a new Secretary.
On December 8, 2008, President Barack Obama announced he would nominate retired army General Eric Shinseki to be the 7th Secretary of Veterans Affairs. He was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate on January 20, 2009.
No party Democratic Republican
Anthony Principi served as acting secretary in his capacity as Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs September 26,
The White House Director of Communications, also known as Assistant to the President for Communications, is part of the senior staff of the President of the United States, and is responsible for developing and promoting the agenda of the President and leading its media campaign. The director, along with his or her staff, works on speeches such as the inaugural address and the State of the Union Address. The Communications Director is usually given an office in the West Wing of the White House.
The current Director of Communications is Dan Pfeiffer , who replaced Anita Dunn in November 2009.
The White House Office of Communications was established by Herbert G. Klein in 1969 during the Nixon administration. It was separate from the Office of the Press Secretary from 1969 to 1974.
Historically, the position of White House Communications Director is given to a senior public relations staff member of the candidate's campaign staff. Often this is either the Deputy Campaign Manager or the Campaign Communications Director. The Communications Director works closely with the White House Press Secretary, who was typically a co-worker in the president's campaign. For instance, during the 1992