A small wine producing area. It is bigger than a winery, but smaller than a sub-region or region. Appelation will generally come from an offically recognized source of appelations like US TTB defines American Viticultural Areas, or DOC defines appelations for Piemonte, or AOC for France.
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Wines:2005 Martha Clara Vineyards North Fork Pinot Grigio
North Fork (formerly, Brown's and Northfork) (Mono: wa?ahhpY' , "cedar grove") is an unincorporated community in Madera County, California. It is located 22 miles (35 km) east of Raymond, at an elevation of 2638 feet (804 m).It is 9.89 miles (15.92 km) miles south east of Bass Lake and 14 miles (23 km) from Oakhurst.
North Fork is also home of the Sierra Mono Museum and the starting point of the Sierra Scenic Byway. The town boasts one grocery store, three restaurants (one of which is part of the town's bar) and two gas stations. The best seasons to visit weatherwise are late summer, early fall and spring.
North Fork is at the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Yosemite National Park. According to the 2000 U.S. Census the population of the 93643 zip code area was 3,360 with a median age of 44.8 years. The community is inside area code 559. It is part of the Madera–Chowchilla Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The town's original inhabitants were members of the Mono tribe, who still comprise a significant portion of the population (9.4% according to the 2000 Census). Milton Brown was the first white settler at the place and its original name was Brown's. The name North Fork came from
The Monticello AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the central Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is named for Monticello, the historic home of Thomas Jefferson, located near the center of the area. The Monticello AVA includes most of the counties of Albemarle, Greene, Orange, and Nelson. The area is nestled along the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge Mountains and encompasses the small ridge known as the Southwest Mountains. There are approximately 30 varieties of grapes grown in the Monticello AVA. However, the most notable grapes grown in the area include Cabernet Franc, Chardonnay and Viognier. As the area matures, other varieties may be found that perform better for the terroir.
The earliest recorded attempts at winemaking in the area occurred in the 1770s, when Thomas Jefferson provided financial support to Italian winemaker, Phillip Mazzei, who made a small quantity of wine from the native grapes, but without much success. Jefferson gave Mazzei significant acreage less than 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Monticello for the purpose of growing grapes. The area was planted in 1774. In 1776, with the advent of the Revolutionary war, Jefferson and George
Saussignac is a wine appellation (Appellation d'origine contrôlée, AOC) in South West France. The Saussignac AOC is used exclusively for a sweet white dessert wine, similar to Monbazillac but a little drier. The grapes used are generally Sémillon grapes which have been affected by Botrytis cinerea. To qualify for the appellation, the grapes must be grown, and the wine produced, in the four communes of Saussignac, Razac-de-Saussignac, Monestier and Gageac-Rouillac. A fundamental difference between Saussignac and all other sweet or late-harvest wines is that Chaptalization, or the addition of sugar, is forbidden under the rules of the AOC.
Monbazillac is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for sweet white wine produced in the village of Monbazillac on the left bank of the Dordogne River just across from the town of Bergerac in South West France. The appellation covers almost 2,000 hectares (4,900 acres) of vineyards.
The AOC of Monbazillac was first established in 1936, but the area has a long history of sweet wine production. Only wine made from grapes grown in Monbazillac that are affected by the "noble rot" (Botrytis cinerea) can be sold under the Monbazillac designation. (Dry white wines from the same area are sold as Bergerac sec.) The grape varieties Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle are used for Monbazillac, and the permitted base yield is 40 hectoliter per hectare, although actual yields are lower for many producers.
Monbazillac wines are broadly similar to Sauternes, but a difference is that Monbazillac often has a significantly higher proportion of Muscadelle in the blend, which can lead to slightly different aromas. While Monbazillac in former times could be a simpler semi-sweet wine, the style in more recent years has been that of a fully botrytized wine, since from 1993 no mechanical
Hermitage is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the northern Rhône wine region of France south of Lyon. It produces mostly red wine from the Syrah grape; however, small quantities of white wine are also produced from Roussane and Marsanne grapes. The hill is by some seen as the spiritual home of the Syrah grape variety.
According to legend, the Knight Gaspard de Stérimberg returned home wounded in 1224 from the Albigensian Crusade and was given permission by the Queen of France to build a small refuge to recover in, where he remained living as a hermit (ermite in French). The chapel on top was built in honor of Saint Christopher and today is owned by the negociant Paul Jaboulet Âiné. Louis XIII made the wine a wine of the court after being offered a glass during a visit to the region in 1642. Louis XIV presented King Charles II of England with 200 casks of fine wine including examples from Hermitage, Champagne and Burgundy. The Romanovs also imported the wine. In the 19th century wines from Bordeaux were often "hermitaged" (hermitagé, that is, blended with Hermitage) and could fetch higher prices as a result. The appellation was established in its modern form in
The Niagara Escarpment AVA is an American Viticultural Area in the New York state portion of the Niagara Escarpment. The area was officially recognized as an AVA on October 11, 2005, by ruling of the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. The oldest winery in the region dates to the 19th century (no longer in business), but the region's growth began in the late 1990s with the opening of the first new winery. There are now 16 wineries making up the Niagara Wine Trail. This wine region is less developed with more open spaces than the 70 or so Niagara Peninsula wineries on the Canadian side of the Niagara River, but shares the same terroir. Wines range from traditional varietals such as Merlot, Cabernets, Chardonnays and Rieslings to fruit wines.
Wines:2005 Guglielmo "Private Reserve" Santa Clara Valley Estate Zinfandel
The Santa Clara Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Santa Clara County, California. The area served an important role in the early history of California wine and was home to the pioneer winemakers Paul Masson and Charles Lefranc. The AVA boundary was defined in 1989. It includes the historic winegrowing areas of Santa Clara County which were not already part of the Santa Cruz Mountains AVA as well as the area near Mission San Jose in Alameda County and a small part of San Benito County.
The AVA is home to two smaller AVAs, Pacheco Pass AVA and San Ysidro District AVA.
By the 1850s Santa Clara had more acres of vineyards than any other county in California. By 1883 the county had almost 15,000 acres (6,070 ha) of vines and over 100 wineries, but over-expansion and phylloxera took a heavy toll and by 1902 over 10,000 acres (4,047 ha) disappeared, mostly replanted to fruit trees such as prunes and apricots. By 1910 over half the wineries had disappeared.
Prohibition caused another boom in viticulture, with fruit being much in demand for home winemakers. By 1926 around 11,000 acres (4,452 ha) were planted, but since then there has been a gradual decline. By 1997 a
Château-Chalon is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Jura wine region of France, around the village of Château-Chalon. Only white wines from the Savagnin grape made in the vin jaune ("yellow wine") style can be made using this appellation. However, the Château-Chalon wines are not explicitly labeled as vin jaune. It is bottled in the traditional bottle called clavelin that is of a peculiar shape and with a capacity of 62 cl, which is, according to local legend, the amount left of a litre of wine after aging in cask for six years and three months - the legal minimum for Chateau Chalon. Once bottled, the wine is of great longevity, and can age for several decades.
Château-Chalon is located in hilly terrain in the eastern French wine region of Jura. The area has a continental climate, which includes very cold winters. The climate during harvest time is normally dry enough to be able to pick the grapes at a late harvest stage, normally in late October. The vineyard soils are composed of limestone marl.
The Château-Chalon AOC is dedicated exclusively to the production of vin jaune wine. There are other appellations within Jura that are permitted to produce AOC vin
California's Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of California. It is home to California's most productive agricultural areas. The valley stretches approximately 450 miles (720 km) from northwest to southeast inland and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast. Its northern half is referred to as the Sacramento Valley, and its southern half as the San Joaquin Valley. The Sacramento valley receives about 20 inches of rain annually, but the San Joaquin is very dry, often semi-arid desert in many places.
The two halves meet at the huge Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, which along with their tributaries drain the majority of the valley. The Delta is a large expanse of interconnected canals, streambeds, sloughs, marshes and peat islands. The Central Valley covers an area of approximately 22,500 square miles (58,000 km), making it slightly smaller than the state of West Virginia and about 13.7% of California's total area.
The Central Valley is 40 to 60 miles (60 to 100 km) wide, the Sierra Nevada to the east and the Coast Ranges and San Francisco Bay to the west, as far south as the Tehachapi Mountains. The
Médoc is an AOC for wine in the Bordeaux wine region of southwestern France, on the Left Bank of the Gironde estuary that covers the northern section of the viticultural strip along the Médoc peninsula. The zone is sometimes called Bas-Médoc (English: Low-Médoc), though this term is not permitted on any label. With few exceptions there is produced only red wine, and no white wine has the right to be called Médoc.
The term Médoc is often used in a geographical sense to refer to the whole Left Bank region, and as defined by the original Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO) decree of November 14, 1936, the appellation may be applied to all wine produced in the prescribed zone in the peninsula, but this is rare practice by estates within Médoc's sub-appellations as it carries lesser perceived prestige. Effectively it covers the northern third of the Médoc peninsula, defined by a border that runs from Saint-Yzans and Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil (at the northern edges of Haut-Médoc AOC and Saint-Estèphe AOC) in the south, to Soulac-sur-Mer in the north, although viticultural activity ends near Vensac. In all sixteen wine-producing communes are exclusive to Médoc, and Bégadan,
Banyuls Grand Cru is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Roussillon (Northern Catalonia) wine region of France, for superior wines that would otherwise be classified as Banyuls AOC.
Wines must be matured for 30 months.
Most wines are red, although some white wines are produced. Permitted grape varieties are Grenache Noir (at least 75%), Grenache Gris, Grenache Blanc and Carignan, also (but rarely used) Macabeu, Muscat and Malvoisie.
L'Étoile is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Jura wine region of France.
White wines can be produced from Chardonnay, Savagnin and Poulsard grapes.
The wine is produced on 4 communes: L'Étoile, Plainoiseau, Quintigny, Saint-Didier.
The Carmel Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Monterey County, California, east of Carmel-by-the-Sea. The AVA is home to a number of wineries and vineyards, as well as the town of Carmel Valley Village. Wineries with tasting rooms in Carmel Valley include Bernardus, Boëté, Boekenoogen, Chateau Julien, Chateau Sinnet, Galante, Georis, Joyce Vineyards, Heller Estate, Holman Ranch, Joullian Village, Parsonage, San Saba and Talbott. A public bus, called the Grapevine Express Route 24 and run by Monterey-Salinas Transit, stops at most of these tasting rooms.
County Route G16 runs through the valley, and the Carmel River flows down the valley. The vineyards in the region are mostly located at 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level or higher, where coastal fog and wind play are less common.
Vacqueyras is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the southern Rhône wine region of France, along the banks of the River Ouvèze.It is primarily a red wine region with some white and rosé wines being produced. Being a little brother of Châteauneuf-du-Pape and, arguably, Gigondas, the wine is moderately prestigious and can yield pleasing results when treated correctly.
Wine has been produced in the region since the 15th century. However records are sparse, reduced to mentioning large vineyards and a decree on how to keep hungry goats away from the grapes. Vacqueyras received the A.O.C. Côtes du Rhône Decree appellation in 1937 and as late as 1990, Vacqueyras was granted its own AOC, the first in the region since Gigondas in 1971 and the first of a number of candidates for that particular honor, recently bestowed to Beaumes-de-Venise and Vinsobres.
Located only a few kilometers south of Gigondas, Vacqueyras shares much of the same terroir with vineyards located in 100–400 metres (330–1,300 ft) altitude. The best vineyards are found on Plateau de Garrigues. In the lowland, warmer temperatures result in more powerful and often inelegant wines.
The bulk (97%) of the
The Yountville AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA and centered around the town Yountville, California. The town's founder George Calvert Yount planted the first vineyard in this area around 1836. Yountville AVA is one of the coolest wine regions in Napa Valley, which helps contribute to a long growing season. The area is particularly known for its very tannic Cabernet Sauvignon varietal wines that have the capability of aging well in the bottle.
Champagne (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃paɲ]) is a historic province in the northeast of France, now best known for the sparkling white wine that bears its name.
Formerly ruled by the counts of Champagne, its western edge is about 100 miles (160 km) east of Paris. The cities of Troyes, Reims, and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Most of Champagne is now part of the French administrative region of Champagne-Ardenne, which comprises four departments: Ardennes, Aube, Haute-Marne, and Marne.
The name Champagne comes from the Latin campania and referred to the similarities between the rolling hills of the province and the Italian countryside of Campania located south of Rome.
In the High Middle Ages, the province was famous for the Champagne Fairs.
Corbières is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine in the Languedoc-Roussillon, and it is this region's largest AOC, responsible for 46 per cent of the region's AOC wine production in 2005. Red wine dominates the production in Corbières with almost 95 per cent, with 3.5 per cent rosé wine and 2 per cent white wine making up the balance. Carignan is the most common grape variety. The AOC was created in 1985, covers 13,500 hectares (33,000 acres) of vineyards and produces an average of 554 000 hectoliter of wine per year, corresponding to 74 million bottles.
Due to its size and geography, Corbières encompasses an enormous variety of soil types and microclimates. The wines from the region tend to be just as varied as the terroir. The region also experiences widely varied winds. The dry, Atlantic vent Cers frequently brings cold weather from the northwest while the area is normally under the influence of the warm, Mediterranean vent Marin.
The Corbières AOC consists of 11 terroirs:
Boutenac was elevated to its own AOC under the designation Corbières-Boutenac in 2005.
List of the communes within the AOC area:
A large number of varieties are allowed in Corbières wine, but
The Catoctin AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Frederick and Washington counties of western Maryland. The region is bordered by Catoctin Mountain to the east, the Pennsylvania border to the north, South Mountain to the west, and the Potomac River to the south. "Catoctin" is Algonquian for "speckled rock" (c.f. Ojibwa gidagasin: "speckled rock", "flecked rock" or "spotted rock"), a geological feature of the area. Two commercial wineries operate in the AVA, Frederick Cellars, and Orchid Cellars.
Saint-Joseph or St.-Joseph is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the northern Rhône wine region of France. Though the appellation covers the largest amount of land, it is second in actual size under vine to Crozes-Hermitage, an appellation with which it shares much regarding style and prestige. While St.-Joseph is primarily a red wine region based on the Syrah grape, there may be up to 10% of white (Roussanne or Marsanne) grapes in the blend.
Originally known as Vin de Mauves, mentioned in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, the wine from St.-Joseph was a favourite in the French court of Louis XII (1498–1515) who owned a vineyard in St.-Joseph known as Clos de Tournon. In 1668 the first official record of vineyards in St. Joseph occur. St. Joseph is a saint, allegedly the protector of scorned husbands, and the appellation is named from a vineyard that is in turn named from the saint. This particular vineyard (called simply Saint Joseph) was originally owned by Jesuits and is now owned by the famous winemaker Guigal. The modern-day St.-Joseph begins its history around 1916, but it didn't gain its own AOC until 1956. Before 1969 it was a small appellation covering less
The Touraine (French pronunciation: [tuʁɛn]) is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its capital was Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790, the Touraine was divided between the departments of Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher and Indre.
Traversed by the Loire and its tributaries the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne, the Touraine makes up a part of the Paris Basin. It is well known for its viticulture. The TGV, which connects Tours with Paris in less than an hour, has made the Touraine a place of residence for people who work in the capital but seek a different quality of life.
The Touraine takes its name from a Celtic tribe called the Turones, who inhabited the region about two thousand years ago. In 1044, the control of Touraine was given to the Angevins, who (as the House of Plantagenet) became kings of England in 1154, the castle of Chinon being their greatest stronghold. In 1205, Philip II Augustus of France regained Touraine. At this time, Touraine was made into a royal duchy. In 1429, Saint Joan of Arc had a historic meeting with the future King of France Charles VII at Chinon. Throughout the late 15th and 16th centuries, Touraine was a
Côtes du Roussillon is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Roussillon wine region of France. It is the least selective AOC in the Roussillon region. In 2002, 21,048,500 litres of Côtes du Roussillon were produced, 68% red, 28% rosé and 4% white. Grenache is the dominant variety in Red and Rosé. According to the AOC rules, red wines must, though, be made with at least three varieties of grapes. The total of the two main variety grapes should not make more than 90% of the blend, and there must not be more than 60% of Carignan in it.
Côtes du Roussillon are made with the traditional variety grapes of the Roussillon, that is Grenache Noir, Grenache Blanc, Carignan, Lladoner Pelut, Cinsault, Macabeu and Malvoisie and with some new to the region variety grapes: Syrah, Mourvèdre, Roussanne, Marsanne (all from Côte du Rhone) and Vermentino (from Italy).
Côtes du Roussillon-Villages is a sub-appellation in the northern half of the appellation in the valley of the river Agly, from the best slopes around the valley. The appellation is in the foothills of the Pyrenees and the better wines are normally produced from vines on the slopes, not in the valley floors. It is
The Leelanau Peninsula AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Leelanau County, Michigan. This Michigan wine region includes all of Leelanau County, which forms a peninsula between Lake Michigan on the west and Grand Traverse Bay on the east. Being surrounded by water helps to moderate the climate of the region, which is generally cold for viticulture. Frost can occur on all but about 145 days of the calendar year. The soil in Leelanau Peninsula is complex, with glacial deposits of clay, sand, and loam on top of bedrock of granite and limestone.
Minervois is an AOC in the Languedoc-Roussillon wine region. The red wines of the Minervois appellation are produced from Carignan (which can account for no more than 40% of the blend), Grenache, Lledoner Pelut, Mourvedre, and Syrah grapes. The white wines (which are less prevalent) include varietals such as Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne, Maccabeu, Bourboulenc, Rolle, Clairette Blanche and Muscat.
AOC regulations require the wine to be blended, so single varietals are necessarily Vin de Pays. Historically, the region's capital has been the village of Minerve.
Clairette de Die AOC is a natural sparkling white wine from the Rhône Valley region in France. It is made from the Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (75% minimum) and Clairette (25% maximum) grape varieties. It is characterized by its peach and apricot flavours and rose and honeysuckle aromas, and is usually drunk young at a maximum of two years, and served chilled at a temperature of 6°C to 8°C.
Crémant de Die from the same area and same producers is a prestige dry, natural sparkling wine of apple and green fruit flavours and fragrance and is vinified by the traditional Champagne method of a first fermentation in the vat followed by a second fermentation in the bottle. Originally produced from 100% Clairette, Aligote and Muscat are now included. It is usually drunk as an aperitif but it can equally accompany a meal.
East of the town of Valence, the vineyards of Die in the French department of the (Drôme) on the border area between the northern and southern sub-regions of the Côtes du Rhône AOC area, in the Rhône wine region, at altitudes of up to 700 metres are among the highest in France. The chalky agilliferous soil has the feature of being able to retain enough of its rainwater to
Meursault is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in Bourgogne (Burgundy) in eastern France.
Meursault is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) in the Côte de Beaune subregion of the Burgundy wine region. It lies along the foot of the Côte-d'Or escarpment, around Beaune and with the broad Saône valley plain to its east. Meursault produces mainly white wines from Chardonnay grapes, primarily in a style with a clear oak influence, which have led to descriptions such as "buttery" to be applied to powerful examples of Meursault wines. Within the Meursault AOC there are some Premier Cru vineyards, but no Grand Cru. This has however not stopped the wines from Meursault from competing with the white burgundies from the villages Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet, where several Grands Crus are situated. The town of Meursault is home to the international wine event La Paulée de Meursault.
Meursault is situated on a prehistoric settlement.
Mont Mélian is a Gallo-Roman camp. The old Roman Fort remains are still visible on the hill (known and signposted as "La Montagne") above the village.
The hôpital de Meursault is an old hospital that was originally used to treat leprosy dating
The Red Hills Lake County AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Lake County, California. The wine region lies along the southwestern shores of Clear Lake, separating Excelsior Valley to the east from Big Valley to the west. The hills lie at the foot of Mount Konocti, an extinct volcano. The terrain is rolling hills with elevations between 1,400 feet (430 m) and 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level. The Red Hills receive an average of 25 inches (64 cm) to 40 inches (102 cm) in rainfall each year.
Wines:2004 Vezer Family "Petersen Vineyard" Suisun Valley Zinfandel
The Suisun Valley AVA, is an American Viticultural Area in Solano County, California, at the southern end of the Coast Range bordering the Napa Valley region. It was established as a wine appellation of origin on December 27, 1982.
Suisun Valley lies within the southern end of the Coast Range, between the Vaca Mountains and the Mt. George Range to the west, and ends at Suisun Bay to the south while to the north it starts at the Napa County line. It is approximately 3 miles (5 km) by 8 miles (13 km). It contains about 15,000 acres (61 km) of which approximately 2,200 acres (9 km) are planted with grapes.
Suisun Valley lies within Coastal area climates characterized by cool moist winds blowing inland from the Pacific Ocean, San Francisco Bay, and San Pablo Bay almost continuously from May through early fall. Spring frosts often mitigated by proximity to Suisun Bay. Suisun Valley has a mid-region III climate as classified by the University of California, Davis system of heat summarization by degree days. The region averages roughly 3,350 degree days per year. The mid valley averages 3,250 to 3,450 degree days per year, while the upper valley averages 3,700 to 3,750 degree days per
The Oakville AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA and centered around the town of Oakville, California. The appellation extends over a flat expanse of well drained gravel soil between the Vaca and Mayacamas Mountains. Oakville AVA is known for its success with Bordeaux varietals, which have produced wines of rich texture, firm tannins, and notes of mint and herbs.
The soil of the Oakville AVA is the result of sedimentary deposits from the hills that form Napa Valley. The soil is gravelly and sandy, with exceptionally good drainage. The portion of the AVA between State Route 29 and the Silverado Trail is a mix of clay and well-drained sandy loam. Oakville AVA has a warm climate well-suited to wine grape production. Wind and fog arriving from San Pablo Bay can affect the morning and evening hours, but their effects are limited by the intervening Yountville Mounts.
H. W. Crabb planted the first vineyard here in 1868, on 240 acres (97 ha) of land close to the Napa River that he named To Kalon, Greek for "most beautiful". By 1877, Crabb had planted 130 acres (53 ha) and was producing 50,000 gallons (189,250 liters) of wine per year. By 1880, his vineyard
The Willamette Valley AVA ( /wɨˈlæmɨt/ wi-lam-it), is an American Viticultural Area which lies in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. The AVA is the wine growing region which encompasses the drainage basin of the Willamette River. It stretches from the Columbia River in the north to just south of Eugene in the south, where the Willamette Valley ends; and from the Oregon Coast Range in the west to the Cascade Mountains in the east. At 5,200 square miles (13,500 km), it is the largest AVA in the state, and contains most of the state's wineries; approximately 200 as of 2006. The boundaries of the Willamette Valley AVA were established in 1984, and since then six new, smaller AVAs have been created within the northern portion of Willamette Valley AVA. The Willamette Valley has a cool, moist climate, and is recognized worldwide for its Pinot Noir.
Although this distinction is not officially recognized, many wine connoisseurs further divide the Willamette Valley into northern and southern regions, the dividing line being the approximate latitude of Salem (approximately 45° north latitude).
The climate of Willamette Valley is mild year-round. Winters are typically cool and wet, summers are
Wines:2005 Ravenswood "Big River Vineyard" Alexander Valley Zinfandel
The Alexander Valley (Wappo: Unutsawaholmanoma, "Toyon Bush Berry Place") is a Californian American Viticultural Area (AVA) just north of Healdsburg in Sonoma County. It is home to many wineries and vineyards, as well as the city of Cloverdale. It is the largest and most fully planted wine region in Sonoma. Highway 101 runs through the valley, and the Russian River flows down the valley, surrounded by vineyards on both sides. From the higher elevations of the valley rim, there is view as far south as Taylor Mountain and Sonoma Mountain. The region was named for Cyrus Alexander, owner of a part of the Rancho Sotoyome Mexican land grant, in 1847. Granted AVA status in 1984, the boundaries of the appellation are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Section 9.53.
In its early history, the territory commonly referred to as the "Alexander Valley" denoted the benchlands east of the Russian River leading up to the Mayacamas Mountains. The area west of the Russian River was known as “the plaines” or “the ranchos.” Viticulture in the area dates back to 1843, when Cyrus Alexander used vines cuttings collected from Fort Ross on the Pacific coast, to establish vineyards in the
Tavel is a wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée in the southern Rhône wine region of France, across the Rhône River from Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC and just north of Avignon. Tavel wines are all rosé wines and must have a minimum alcohol content of 11%. The 933 hectares produce an average yield of 42 hectolitres per hectare The vineyards are located in the commune of Tavel only.
Tavel is reputed to have been a favourite wine of kings Philippe le Bel and Louis XIV, the Popes of Avignon, and the 19th century novelist, Honoré de Balzac, and is one of the few rosé wines that can benefit from aging.
The wine of Tavel is historically famous. Philip IV is supposed to have travelled through Tavel on one of his tours of the kingdom. He was reportedly offered a glass, which he emptied without getting off his horse and afterwards proclaimed Tavel the only good wine in the world. The Sun King, Louis XIV is also supposed to have been fond of the wine, which helped maintain its reputation until the vineyards were affected by the phylloxera epidemic. Tavel achieved AOC status in 1936 when the system was introduced. At that point the grapes were mostly grown on the sandy flat lands closer to
Chinon wine comes from the vineyards around the town of Chinon in Touraine. Unusually for the Loire Valley, it is mostly red wine, with 2-5% rosé and a little white wine.
The reds and rosés are made from Cabernet Franc (known locally as Cabernet Breton), with an allowance of 10% Cabernet Sauvignon. They are typically dry and light to medium bodied and go well with food. In good vintages the red wines can be cellared for 10 years or more. Cabernet Franc grown on the stony terraces of the area tends to be a young wine with dominant notes of blackcurrant and anise. The wines from the steeper rockier areas along the hills that separate the Loire from the Vienne tend to produce wines that are more tannic and express the more austere terroir in a range of alkaloid flavors that give the wines a mineral, gamey complexity and a strong tannic backbone. These wines also tend to develop a velvety depth of spice flavors as they age. Though typically thought of as lighter wines, reds from good producers and strong vintages can be full bodied and well structured for aging. Their whites are composed primarily of Chenin Blanc. They are typically described as dry, soft, light, and clean.
The town of
Corton-Charlemagne is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for white wine in Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is located in the communes of Aloxe-Corton, Pernand-Vergelesses and Ladoix-Serrigny; and Chardonnay is the only allowed grape variety. Around 300,000 bottles of white wine are produced each year in the appellation. The AOC was created in 1937.
The vines are located on the higher ground of a hilltop that stretches between the Burgundian villages of Ladoix-Serrigny and Pernand-Vergelesses. The slopes planted with the most valuable vineyards are south-east facing on the hilltop, and the land gradually slopes down towards the major French highway Route 74. The red wine appellation of Corton covers the lower part of the hill, and the areas for Corton and Corton-Charlemagne are partially overlapping. Furthermore there is a third Grand Cru appellation on the Corton hill, Charlemagne, for white wine. Charlemagne is only 0.28 hectares in size, so production is limited.
Bonneau du Martray is the largest single owner of vines within the Corton-Charlemagne vineyard with 9.5 hectares.
In 2008, 52.44 hectares (129.6 acres) of vineyard surface was in
The Howell Mountain AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA. Howell Mountain is located in the Vaca Mountains on the northeast side of Napa Valley around the town of Angwin, and overlooks the town of St. Helena, California.
Designated an AVA in 1983, Howell Mountain was the first sub-appellation within Napa Valley AVA. Most vineyards in the Howell Mountain AVA are planted between 1,400 feet (430 m) and 2,200 feet (670 m) above sea level, well above the elevations in Napa Valley that are most affected by the cool fog and winds from San Pablo Bay. The mountain does get cool breezes directly from the Pacific Ocean, and the relatively high elevations result in a cooler climate than on the valley floor. The soil in the appellation is volcanic with excellent drainage.
Mount Veeder AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA among the Mayacamas Mountains. The boundaries of this appellation include 25 square miles (64.7 km) with 1,000 acres (400 ha) planted on thin volcanic soil. Many vineyards are found on the steep mountain face some as steep as 30°. The steepness of the angle gives the vineyards benefits of more direct sunlight and better drainage.
The unique sense of place, or terroir of Mount Veeder AVA produces wines that are typically powerful in structure - depending on how they are made and how the vines are tended. For example, Cabernet Sauvignon grown on the mountain commonly shows "briary" flavors, moderate to bold tannins and herbal, floral aromatics. With the increasing interest in wine in America, wines grown in sub appellation AVA's such as Mount Veeder are gaining recognition for their unique sense of terroir.
The Bennett Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Sonoma County, California. The boundaries of this appellation lie completely within the North Coast AVA, almost completely within the Sonoma Valley AVA and overlaps into some areas of the Sonoma Coast AVA and Sonoma Mountain AVA. The region was granted AVA status on December 23, 2003 following the petition of Matanzas Creek Winery. The AVA is surrounded to the south, east and west by the Sonoma Mountains and to the north by the city of Santa Rosa, California. The region receives a moderating effect on its climate from Pacific Ocean through the cool coastal fogs and breeze that creep into the area from the southwest through Crane Canyon between Sonoma Mountain and Taylor Mountain. Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah are the leading grape varieties planted.
Côtes du Luberon is a French wine-growing AOC in the southeastern extreme of the Rhône wine region of France, where the wines are produced in 36 communes of the Vaucluse département. The neighbouring appellation of Côtes de Ventoux AOC stretches along its northern border and is separated by the Calavon river. The southern limit of the region is marked by the Durance river.
The Côtes du Luberon wines are produced by a total of 495 concerns which include 480 growers, 55 private wineries, 14 cooperative wineries, and one producer/merchant. The vineyards are in the communes of Ansouis, Apt, La Bastide-des-Jourdans, La Bastidonne, Beaumont-de-Pertuis, Bonnieux, Cabrières-d'Aigues, Cadenet, Castellet, Cheval-Blanc, Cucuron, Goult, Grambois, Lacoste, Lauris, Lourmarin, Maubec, Ménerbes, Mérindol, Mirabeau, La Motte-d'Aigues, Puget, Puyvert, Robion, Saignon, Saint-Martin-de-Castillon, Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque, Sannes, Taillades, La Tour-d'Aigues, Vaugines, Villelaure, Vitrolles-en-Luberon.
Red wines are made from Grenache Noir and Syrah, 60%, (of which Syrah minimum 10%), Cinsault maximum 20%, Mourvèdre Carignan, maximum 20% other accepted varieties are: Counoise, Gamay Noir, Pinot Noir
The Columbia Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area which lies in the Columbia River Plateau, through much of central and southern Washington state, with a small section crossing into the neighboring state of Oregon. The AVA includes the drainage basin of the Columbia River and its tributaries through much of Washington. The Columbia Valley AVA is the largest wine region in the state of Washington, including over 11,000,000 acres (45,000 km), of which over 40,000 acres (162 km) are planted in vineyards. The Columbia Valley AVA includes 99% of the total vineyard area planted in the state of Washington. Grapes grown here include Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Riesling, Syrah, Pinot Gris, and Sauvignon Blanc. Concord grapes and other Vitis labrusca grapes are grown in the region as well. The unique climates of the area allow the Columbia Valley to produce wines that are very fruit-forward, like California wine, but which also retain some of the balance and structure of European wine.
The Columbia Valley AVA lies mostly in Washington state, with a small section in Oregon. The Cascade Range forms its western boundary with the Palouse regions bordering the area to the east.
The Cumberland Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Washington County in west-central Maryland and Franklin and Cumberland counties in south-central Pennsylvania. Only 100 acres (40 ha) of the 765,000 acres (309,585 ha) included in the wine appellation are planted to grapevines, predominantly on high terraces over the Potomac River and on the slopes of South Mountain. The soil in the area is alkaline limestone.
Seyssel is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for white wine in the Savoy wine region of France. The wines are exclusively white, made from the regional grape varieties Altesse and Molette. They are considered to be most suitable to be consumed young.
Nîmes is an AOC for wine made in and around the village of Nîmes in the Rhône wine region. It is the most southerly of the Rhône appellations and was recently allowed by the INAO to be officially considered part of the Rhône AOC proper.
While its winemaking history stretches back to the 3rd century AD, Nîmes has only come into wine-drinking notoriety in the last decade or so, thanks in part to the efforts of importers like Robert Kacher and Frank Kysela. Stylistically, Nîmes largely parallels Southern Rhone with a few notable exceptions. Many Nîmes producers who are eligible for the Nîmes AOC, decide to forgo that moniker and choose to be labeled under the Vin du pays system in order to allow varietal labelling. Much of the motivation for declassifying lies in the desire to popularize the wines to a larger international audience who may not be intimately familiar with France's more traditional AOC labelling standards. While Nîmes is definitely home to winemaking traditionalists, it is also home to many modern winemakers who either seek to improve quality or quantity through newer processes.
The North Fork of Roanoke AVA is an American Viticultural Area located on the eastern slopes of the Allegheny Mountains in the Roanoke and Montgomery counties of Virginia. About 22 miles (35 km) long and including parts of the Roanoke Valley, the AVA altitudes range from between 1,200 feet (366 m) and 2,200 feet (671 m) above sea level.
The North Fork of Roanoke AVA weather is characterized by cool, foggy summer mornings and prevailing westerly winds.
Banyuls is a French appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for a fortified apéritif or dessert wine made from old vines cultivated in terraces on the slopes of the Catalan Pyrenees in the Roussillon county of France, bordering, to the south, the Empordà wine region in Catalonia in Spain.
The AOC production area is limited to four communes of the Côte Vermeille: Banyuls (from which the AOC takes its name), Cerbère, Collioure and Port-Vendres.
Banyuls Grand Cru is an AOC for superior wines that would otherwise be classified as simply Banyuls. They must be matured for 30 months. The grapes permitted are the same.
The production process, known in France as mutage, is similar to that used to make Port. Alcohol is added to the must to halt fermentation while sugar levels are still high, preserving the natural sugar of the grape. The wines are then matured in oak barrels, or outside in glass bottles exposed to the sun, allowing the wine to maderise. The maturation period is a minimum of ten months for Banyuls AOC. The resulting wine bears a similarity to port but tends to be lower in alcohol (~16% vs. ~20%).
Most wines are red, although some white wines are produced. Permitted grape
Saint-Péray is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the northern Rhône wine region of France. Located in the southernmost part of Northern Rhône, the appellation is very small and not widely known. The production is mainly white sparkling wine, somewhat like Champagne. However, some still wine is also made. All Saint-Péray wine is white.
Plinius mentions the wine of Saint-Péray in his natural history, and Napoleon Bonaparte is to have said that he, when he was a young cadet in Valence, had his first experience of wine, drinking Saint-Péray. In the wine's prime in the 19th century, its sparkling wine was held in higher regard than Champagne itself, but since then it's been down hill for the appellation. It was established as an official appellation in 1936 by which time it had shrunk to the meager 55 hectares.
There are two allowed grapes in Saint-Péray, Marsanne and Roussanne, with the former covering 90% of the planted area. A third grape "Roussette" is alleged to also be grown, but apparently only the wine growers themselves distinguish this from Roussanne.
Saint-Péray wines are meant to be drunk young, with 4/5 of the production being sparkling wine after the
The Calistoga AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the northern portion of California's Napa Valley AVA. The appellation is distinguished by its volcanic soil, high temperatures up to 100 °F (38 °C) during the day, and cool nights during the growing season due to breezes from the Russian River, causing the highest diurnal temperature variation in the Napa Valley—up to 50 °F (10 °C).
Despite sharing a name, the Calistoga AVA does not encompass the entirety of the town of Calistoga. The area is noted for its topographical diversity and uniform geology, with bedrock almost exclusively made through volcanic action. The hot days provide color and flavor in the wines, while the cool nights help to maintain acidity and structure
The appellation abuts the Diamond Mountain District AVA to the south and west, the Saint Helena AVA to the southeast, and the Howell Mountain AVA is a short way to the east.
The name Calistoga dates back to 1857, with the first vine plantings in 1862. Viticultural and winery census data from 1880 list Calistoga as a distinct region separate from Napa. The appellation was proposed in 2003 by Bo Barrett petitioning for separate AVA status, with final
The Champagne wine region (archaic English: Champany) is a historic province within the administrative province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term "Champagne" exclusively for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles (160 km) east of Paris. The viticultural boundaries of Champagne are legally defined and split into five wine producing districts within the administrative province: Aube, Côte des Blancs, Côte de Sézanne, Montagne de Reims, and Vallée de la Marne. The towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area.
Located at the northern edges of the wine growing world, the history of the Champagne wine region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir. The area's proximity to Paris promoted the region's economic success in its wine trade but also put the villages and vineyards in the path of marching armies on their way to the French capital. Despite the frequency of these military conflicts, the region developed a reputation for quality wine production in the early
Cornas is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the northern Rhône wine region of France south of Lyon. It is one of the smallest appellations in the Rhône valley and produces only red wine, from the Syrah grape.
The name Cornas is Celtic for "burnt earth", and the first written sources mention wine in the region as early as 885. Both Louis XV and Cardinal Richelieu are said to have been admirers of the wine. Cornas became an official appellation in 1938 although it was not until 1950 that the first local producers began bottling the wine themselves.
Cornas, along with the rest of the northern Rhône, has a continental climate rather than the Mediterranean climate found in the south. However unlike some of the other northern Rhône appellations, Cornas is mostly shielded from the cold le mistral winds that can last into the Spring, and is often the first appellation in the north to begin the harvest. The vineyards are just north of Valence, in a fairly small area of steep slopes facing east south east, south of Tain l'Hermitage. The vineyards are situated at anything between 100 meters and 400 meters above sealevel. In the northern part, especially near "Les
Crémant d'Alsace is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for sparkling wines made in the Alsace wine region of France. It is made using the traditional method (bottle fermentation), mostly from Pinot Blanc grapes, but it may also contain Pinot Gris, Riesling, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes. (Chardonnay may not be used in the two Alsace appellations for still wines.) Rosé Crémant d'Alsace is made exclusively from Pinot Noir grapes. It was granted AOC status on August 24, 1976.
Crémant d'Alsace is a significant part of the wine production in Alsace, with 18% of the region's vineyards used for this purpose. 223 942 hectoliter of Crémant d'Alsace, approximately 30 million bottles, were produced in 2006.
The history of sparkling wine production in Alsace is said to go back to around the year 1900, when Julien Dopff is said to have applied the "champagne method" to his own Alsatian wines with satisfactory results.
The Walla Walla Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Washington State and extending partly into the northeastern corner of Oregon. The wine region is entirely included within the larger Columbia Valley AVA. The area is named after the Walla Walla people who lived along the shores of the Walla Walla River at its junction with the Snake River and the Columbia River. The name Walla Walla means "rapid stream" or "many waters". In addition to grapes, this area is an agricultural producer of sweet onions, wheat and strawberries. After the Yakima Valley AVA, the Walla Walla AVA has the second highest concentration of vineyards and wineries in Washington State.
The soils of the Walla Walla Valley consist largely of wind-deposited silt known as loess, that provides good drainage for the vines. The area receives minimum rainfall and thus relies on irrigation to supply water to vineyards. The 200-day long growing season is characterized by hot days and cool nights. The valley is prone to sudden shifts in temperature as cold air swoops down from the Blue Mountains and gets caught in the Snake and Columbia river valleys. While generally cooler than the surrounding Columbia
Bellet is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France.
Production is very small, and the wines are rarely found outside the local area.
Red, white and rosￃﾩ wines are produced, in approximately equal quantities. The red and rosￃﾩ wines are produced from Braquet, Fuella, Cinsaut and Grenache grapes, while the whites are produced from Rolle, Roussanne and Chardonnay.
Chablis Premier Cru is a wine Appellation d'Origine Contrￃﾴlￃﾩe (AOC) in the Chablis region of France, classified as part of the Burgundy wine region. It is reserved for better quality sites in the general Chablis AOC, although not as good as Chablis Grand Cru AOC. The sites are on both sides of the River Serein.
The wines are all white, from the chardonnay grape.
Wines:2005 Chaz Point Columbia Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
The Columbia Valley is the name used for a region in the Rocky Mountain Trench near the headwaters of the Columbia River between the town of Golden and the Canal Flats. The main hub of the valley is the town of Invermere. Other towns include Radium Hot Springs, Windermere and Fairmont Hot Springs. The Panorama Ski Resort is located near the valley.
The Columbia Valley is home to the Columbia Wetlands the wetlands are a vital link on a major bird migration route.
Sancerre is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine produced in the environs of Sancerre in the eastern part of the Loire valley, southeast of Orléans. Almost all of the appellation lies on the left bank of the Loire, opposite Pouilly-Fumé. It is well regarded for and primarily associated with Sauvignon blanc. Some Pinot noir is also grown, accounting for around 20% of the region's production, making mostly light red wines for quaffing under the designation of Sancerre Rouge. A rosé style from Pinot noir is also produced in a style similar to Beaujolais.
White Sancerre was one of the original AOCs awarded in 1936, with the same area being designated for red wines on 23 January 1959. The AOC area has expanded fourfold over the years, most recently on 18 March 1998. The town lies on an outcrop of the chalk that runs from the White cliffs of Dover down through the Champagne and Chablis. A series of small valleys cut through the chalk, each with their own soils and microclimate and terroir. In the east are the "flints" that make minerally, long-lived wines. Between the town and Verdigny the soil consists of marl and gravel – "les caillottes" – producing fruity,
Clos de Vougeot, also known as Clos Vougeot, is a wall-enclosed vineyard, a clos, in the Burgundy wine region, and an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for red wine from this vineyard. It was named for the River Vouge, which is in fact only a stream separating the village Vougeot from Chambolle-Musigny. At 50.6 hectares (125 acres), Clos de Vougeot is the largest single vineyard in Côte de Nuits entitled to the grand cru designation, while Corton in Côte de Beaune is the largest grand cru in Burgundy as a whole.
The Clos de Vougeot vineyard was created by Cistercian monks of Cîteaux Abbey, the order's mother abbey. The land making up the vineyard was purchased by the Cistercians, or donated to them, from the 12th century to the early 14th century. The initial vineyard consisted of donations in 1109 to 1115. The vineyard was complete, and a wall had been built around it, by the year 1336. It served as the flagship vineyard of the Cistercians, and has been a highly recognised name for centuries.
Château de Clos de Vougeot, situated inside the wall, was added in 1551 by rebuilding and enlarging a small chapel and some other buildings previously existing at the site. From 1945,
Coteaux de Pierrevert is a wine-growing AOC in the western part of the Provence wine region of France, where the wines are produced in 11 communes of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département. It is partly located in the valley of the Durance river in the region of Manosque.
Red wines are made from Grenache Noir and Syrah which must account for 70% together with aminimum of 30% of each. Secondary varieties are Cinsault, Mourvedre and Carignan.
Rosé: Grenache Noir minimum 50%, and Syrah 20% minimum. Other secondary varieties are allowed with a maximum of 20% white grapes.
White wines from Clairette Blanche, Grenache Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Roussanne of which no variety may exceed 70% together to a maximum of 20%. Grenache blanc and Vermentino must together represent a minimum of 25%.
The Coteaux de Pierrevert wines are produced by a total of 35 concerns which include 32 growers, 6 private wineries, 2 cooperative wineries, and one producer/merchant.
The vinyards are in the communes of Corbières, Gréoux-les-Bains, Manosque, Montfuron, Pierrevert, Quinson, Saint-Laurent-du-Verdon, Saint-Martin-de-Brômes, Sainte-Tulle, Villeneuve, and Volx.
The Lancaster Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Lancaster and Chester counties of southeastern Pennsylvania, centered around the city of Lancaster. The wine region includes 225,000 acres (91,054 ha) in a valley that is roughly 30 miles (48 km) long and 12 miles (19 km) wide, although only 400 acres (162 ha) are planted to grapevines. The Lancaster Valley area is one of the most fertile agricultural areas in Pennsylvania, and features rich topsoil over limestone bedrock.
The Mokelumne River AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in San Joaquin County, California. It is located in the southwest part of the larger Lodi AVA, and includes the city of Lodi and the towns of Woodbridge and Acampo. The AVA is named after the Mokelumne River, which drains out of the Sierra Nevada Mountains into the San Joaquin River and passes through the heart of the appellation. The wine region includes a portion of the lower Mokelumne River and the Cosumnes River, a tributary. The Mokelumne River AVA covers 87,500 acres (35,410 ha), of which 42,000 acres (16,997 ha) are planted to wine grapes. The soil in the area is alluvial fan deposits of sand and loam. Ample rainfall and soil moisture retention allows most grape growers to farm without the use of irrigation.
Wines:2005 Brewer-Clifton "Cargasacchi Vineyard" Santa Rita Hills Pinot Noir
Santa Rita Hills is a U.S. viticulture and wine grape growing region in Santa Barbara County, California.
The area was designated an American Viticulture Area (AVA) in 2001, with the proper name being Sta. Rita Hills AVA to distinguish it from Chilean winery Vina Santa Rita. Some of its territory falls underneath the somewhat larger Santa Ynez Valley AVA.
The area encompasses approximately 100 square miles between Buellton, California on the east and Lompoc, California on the west, with the Purisima Hills on the north and the Santa Rosa Hills on the South.
The hills run east to west, which allows cool ocean breezes from the nearby Pacific Ocean to enter the valley created by the hills and create a cool micro-climate. When combined with the rocky nature of the area, the Santa Rita Hills area is well-suited for the growing of Pinot Noir grapes, which tend to do well in cool climates with rocky soil.
Besides Pinot Noir, many wineries in the area also produce Chardonnay.
Renamed "Sta. Rita Hills" AVA in January of 2006.
Several wineries are located in and around the Santa Rita Hills, including Babcock Winery, Melville Vineyards & Winery, Sanford Winery &
The Cucamonga Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in San Bernardino County, California, about 15 miles (24 km) west of San Bernardino. Grape cultivation began in the Cucamonga Valley in 1838, and quickly became a major agricultural crop for the area. When Prohibition began in 1920, the Cucamonga Valley produced more wine grapes than Napa County and Sonoma County combined. Following Prohibition, the wine industry and other agricultural endeavors in the Cucamonga Valley faced increasing pressure from the urban expansion of Los Angeles and Orange County. Cucamonga Valley is a hot climate for viniculture, with summer temperatures often exceeding 100 °F (38 °C). The valley floor is sandy, alluvial soils. Pierce’s disease has affected vines in the valley.
The Horse Heaven Hills AVA is an American Viticultural Area in southeastern Washington, and is part of the larger Columbia Valley AVA. The Horse Heaven Hills AVA borders the Yakima Valley AVA on the north and the Columbia River on the south. Elevations in this AVA range from 200 feet (61 m) above sea level in the south to 1,800 feet (549 m) above sea level at the northern boundary. Grapes planted in the south-facing slopes of the Horse Heaven Hills benefit from strong winds that arrive from the west via the Columbia Gorge, reducing the likelihood of rot and fungal diseases.
Horse Heavens Hills AVA is home to the single largest wine making facility in Washington, the Columbia Crest Winery owned by Chateau Ste. Michelle in Paterson. Alexandria Nicole Cellars has a large vineyard at Destiny Ridge. The Mercer and Hogue Families have come together to create Mercer Estates which also occupies the region.
Some of Washington's cult wines are produced from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in this AVA including the 2002 and 2003 Quilceda Creek Vintners Cabernet Sauvignon, which scored the rare 100 point rating from Robert Parker's The Wine Advocate. Only 15 other wines in the US have received
Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) located around the village of Châteauneuf-du-Pape in the Rhône wine region in southeastern France. It is one of the most renowned appellations of the southern part of the Rhône Valley. Vineyards are located around Châteauneuf-du-Pape and in the neighboring villages Bédarrides, Courthézon and Sorgues between Avignon and Orange and covers slightly more than 3,200 hectares or 7,900 acres (32 km). Over 110,000 hectolitres of wine a year are produced here. More wine is made in this one area of southern Rhône than in the entirety of the northern Rhône region.
Châteauneuf-du-Pape roughly translates to "The Pope's new castle" and, indeed, the history of this appellation is firmly entwined with papal history. In 1308, Pope Clement V, former Archbishop of Bordeaux, relocated the papacy to the town of Avignon. Clement V and subsequent "Avignon Popes" were said to be great lovers of Burgundy wines and did much to promote it during the seventy-year duration of the Avignon Papacy. At the time, wine-growing around the town of Avignon was anything but illustrious. While the Avignon Papacy did much to advance the reputation
The Diablo Grande AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Stanislaus County, California. All 30,000 acres (12,141 ha) in the AVA are owned by the Diablo Grande Resort Community, and Isom Ranch Winery is the only winery producing wines that carry the Diablo Grande AVA designation on their labels. Vineyards in the AVA are planted between 1,000 feet (300 m) and 1,800 feet (550 m) above sea level. The region is named after nearby Mount Diablo, the highest peak in the Pacific Coast Range.
The Hudson River Region AVA is an American Viticultural Area around the Hudson River in eastern New York. The region is home to the oldest continuously operating winery in North America, the Brotherhood Winery, established in 1839. The oldest continusously cultivated vineyard in North America is also located in the Hudson River Region AVA, and is today operated by Benmarl Winery. Most vineyards in the region are located within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the river. The Hudson River flows from north to south, and most vineyards are planted on hills on the western side of the river, where early morning sunshine can rapidly warm the vines. Ocean breezes channeled north up the river help to moderate the climate in the region, making it cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter than surrounding areas. The most important grape varieties in the area are French hybrids and cool-climate Vitis vinifera varieties.
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for wine from the region of Burgundy in France. Most Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains, which is sometimes written unhyphenated as Bourgogne Passetoutgrains, is red although rosé wine may also be produced. Unlike other Burgundy wines, which are primarily produced from a single grape variety, Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains is an essentially a cuvée of Gamay and Pinot Noir. It is considered to be an uncomplicated, fruity wine intended to be consumed young.
The Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains became a regional AOC on 31 July 1937.
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains is allowed to be produced in the entire area which can use the basic Bourgogne appellation. This means 91 communes from the department of Côte d'Or, 85 communes of Rhône (not to be confused with the wine region Rhône), 154 communes of Saône et Loire region and 54 communes of Yonne.
Since Côte d'Or and Yonne have very little Gamay, most Passe-Tout-Grains are produced from grapes grown in Saône et Loire (essentially the Côte Chalonnaise subregion of Burgundy), where Gamay makes up almost half of the red grapes.
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains must contain more that 30% Pinot
Alsace is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for wines made in the Alsace wine region of France.
Unlike most other French wine regions, there is only one AOC appellation for most wines made in the whole of Alsace. In 2006, 78 per cent of the Alsatian vineyards were producing wine under this appellation. Other French wine regions have numerous appellations within them, often designating wine from a particular town or, even, an area within a certain town. Alsace AOC wines are often sold with one of the varietal labels or similar designations that are allowed under the AOC rules. In some cases, a lieu-dit, the name of a vineyard, is also displayed on the bottle. Neither the varietal labels or the lieux-dits are separate appellations; all carry "Appellation Alsace Contrôlée" on the label.
The Alsace Grand Cru AOC, which is a separate appellation, was not created until 1975.
Savigny-lès-Beaune is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Savigny-lès-Beaune is one of the wine communes of the Côte de Beaune. It is a picturesque village of some architectural interest, including several châteaux, a Romanesque clock tower and a charming church (St.-Cassien). The main château (pictured) dates from the fourteenth century and it houses a museum (aviation, automotive) that has nothing to do with wine.
Bonnes Mares is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. The AOC was created in 1936. It is shared between the two communes of Chambolle-Musigny (where the main part is located) and Morey-Saint-Denis in the Côte-d'Or département. Bonnes Mares is located a little to the north of the Chambolle-Musigny village, and borders the Route des Grands Crus in the east and the Grand Cru vineyard Clos de Tart in the north.
In 2008, 16.24 hectares (40.1 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 522 hectoliter of wine was produced, corresponding to 70,000 bottles.
The origin of the vineyard's name is unknown, although it is known to have been used since the High Medieval age, and at least three different hypotheses exist. The one most commonly assumed is that it may come from the bonnes mères ("good mothers"), nuns of the Cistercian order at Notre-Dame de Tart. There is also the hypothesis that it originates from the verb marer, cultivate, which means that the literal translation is often given as "good vintage". The third hypothesis, favoured by the
Chambolle-Musigny is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
It is one of the wine villages situated on the Côte-d'Or escarpment, and is one of the twelve Côte d'Or communes of France which added/adopted the name of their most well-known vineyard as a suffix to the original name of the village.
Wine and viticulture is the main business of Chambolle-Musigny. The village name is also an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for red wine with Pinot Noir as the main grape. There are also 25 vineyards classified as Chambolle-Musigny Premier Cru, the most famous of these Les Amoureuses, and two Grand Cru vineyards: Musigny and Bonnes Mares. It is Musigny which has lent its name to the village as a suffix. The trend of adding a vineyard name as a suffix started in 1847 by Gevrey successfully applying to the king to add Chambertin as a suffix to its name. This trend started off as a result of a clever marketing strategy to be able to use the name of the most famous vineyard also as part of the name of simpler wines from the same village. Thus, Chambolle became Chambolle-Musigny in 1882.
Towering high above the other vineyards stands Le Musigny, a 10.86 ha piece of land
Charlemagne is a little used Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) at Grand Cru level for white wine in Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. The vineyards that can use this AOC are located within the communes of Aloxe-Corton and Pernand-Vergelesses. The AOC was created in 1937.
There are three partially overlapping Grand Cru AOCs that cover the vineyards on the Corton hill; Corton for red and white wine, Corton-Charlemagne for white wine, and Charlemagne for white wine, totaling 147.5 hectares (364 acres) of vineyards in 2008. Charlemagne is the least used of these, as practically all producers have elected to use the Corton-Charlemagne AOC for white wines from vineyards (climats) that are entitled to both appellations. In 2008, only 0.28 hectares (0.69 acre) of vineyard surface was in production for Charlemagne AOC, producing a total of 7 hectoliter of wine, corresponding to three barrels or some 900 bottles. It therefore has the smallest de facto production of all Burgundy AOCs, although its theoretical maximum surface is much larger than a number of other Grand Cru vineyards, where there are no overlapping Grand Cru AOCs.
Roussette de Savoie is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for white wine in the Savoy wine region of France. The AOC covers much of the Western part of the Savoie AOC for wines made at least in part from the regional grape variety known as Altesse or Roussette. Typically wines that are designated merely as Roussette de Savoie AOC (rather than with some specific Cru) are blended with up to 50% Chardonnay, although those marked specifically as Altesse will be made from this grape exclusively. The wine's high acidity give it the potential to age. These dry white wines typically have a nose of violet and mountain herbs with flavors of minerals, bergamot, honey and hazelnut.
Geographical (village) designation within the Roussette de Savoie AOC include Frangy, Marestel, Monterminod and Monthoux. Wines bearing these Cru designtaions are made from Altesse exclusively. The best vineyards within the AOC are situated on Quaternary alluvial fans along the edges of the Massifs of Bauges and Borne.
Vosne-Romanée is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in Burgundy in eastern France.
It produces the region's most celebrated wines, all made entirely from the Pinot Noir grape: "There can be little doubt that in the firmament of the Cote de nuits, Vosne-Romanée is the brightest star"
Despite the monopoly control of four of the six grand crus, the village has at least forty growers sharing its vineyards.
The wines produced from the vineyards are diverse, but they are generally considered to be rich, silky and well balanced, with a complexity which surpasses that of the other wines of Burgundy.
In addition to many excellent wines at both the village and premier cru level, the village has six grand crus.
The Romanée-Conti vineyard dominates the village, with its wines among the most expensive in the world. It is a monopole of Domaine de la Romanée-Conti. Around 600 cases are made each year from the vineyard's 1.8 ha. Its highly sought after wine develops strongly over several decades.
La Romanée is a monopole of the Château de Vosne-Romanée. Only 300 cases are made each year from this plot of 0.84 ha.
La Tâche is Domaine de la Romanée Conti's other monopole, and its 6 ha consist of
Clos Saint-Denis is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. It is situated in the commune of Morey-Saint-Denis in the Côte-d'Or département. Clos de la Roche is located just to the north of the village Morey-Saint-Denis (which has borrowed its name from the vineyard) and borders to the Grand Cru vineyard Clos de la Roche in the north. The AOC was created in 1936, and the Clos part of its name refers to a wall-enclosed vineyard.
Clos Saint-Denis was originally a church-owned vineyard, belonging to the Collégiale de St-Denis de Vergy, named after Saint Denis.
In 2008, 5.99 hectares (14.8 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 200 hectoliter of wine was produced, corresponding to just under 27,000 bottles.
The main grape variety for Clos Saint-Denis is Pinot Noir. The AOC regulations also allow up to 15 per cent total of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris as accessory grapes, but this is practically never used for any Burgundy Grand Cru vineyard. The allowed base yield is 35 hectoliter per hectare, a minimum planting density of 9,000
Lake Michigan Shore AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in southwest Michigan. Located in the state's traditional "fruit belt", Lake Michigan Shore AVA is the oldest modern commercial grape region of the state and home to a majority of Michigan vineyards and half of the state wine grape production. Vineyards in the region date back to 1867. The AVA boundaries include the smaller Fennville AVA and extend as far as 45 miles (72 km) inland from the lakeshore; however, the climate and glacial moraine soils are relatively similar throughout. The "lake effect" off of Lake Michigan tempers the northern climate. Lake Michigan Shore AVA has a warmer growing season, as much as two weeks longer than the only other Michigan AVAs, Leelanau Peninsula AVA, and Old Mission Peninsula AVA, both of which are in Northern Michigan.
The Lime Kiln Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the larger Cienega Valley AVA in San Benito County, California. This appellation spans 2,300 acres (931 ha) and was granted AVA status in 1982. The soil in the region is composed of foundations of limestone and dolomite with sandy, gravelly loam above. The area has a wide diurnal temperature variation of up to 50 °F (10 °C), with daytime temperatures in 85 °F (29 °C) to 95 °F (35 °C) range during the summer growing seasons. The AVA is home to old vine Mourvedre plantings.
The only vineyards in the Lime Kiln Valley AVA are owned by the Enz Family. Currently there are 40 acres of vineyards, including a 15 acre parcel of head-trained Mourvedre that was originally planted in 1922.
Limoux wine is produced around the city of Limoux in Languedoc in southwestern France. Limoux wine is produced under four Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) designations: Blanquette de Limoux, Blanquette méthode ancestrale, Crémant de Limoux and Limoux, the first three of which are sparkling wines and dominate the production around Limoux. The main grape of the region is the Mauzac, locally known as Blanquette, followed by Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc. In 2005, the Limoux AOC was created to include red wine production consisting of mostly Merlot. Local wine historians believe that the world's first sparkling wine was produced in this region in 1531, by the monks at the abbey in Saint-Hilaire.
The Limoux wine region is located in the eastern foothills of the Pyrénées in southern France, south of the fortified city of Carcassonne. The classified vineyards are all in the Aude département, in the general vicinity of Limoux, west of the Corbières hills. The climate is dominated by the strong winds of the region, the dry, Atlantic vent cers and the warm, Mediterranean vent marin. The Mediterranean climate of the region has more Atlantic influences than other Languedoc wine regions. The
Condrieu (From the French coin de ruisseau meaning "corner of the brook") is a French wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) located in the northern Rhône wine, near Vienne and to the south of the Côte-Rôtie AOC. The vineyards are situated in the seven communes of Limony, Chavanay, Malleval, Saint-Michel-sur-Rhône, Saint-Pierre-de Boeuf, Vérin, and Condrieu in the French departments of Ardèche, Rhône and Loire on the steep slopes of the foothills of the Massif Central on the right bank of the Rhône river. The four southernmost communes can also produce wine under the Saint-Joseph AOC. The wines made in this AOC are exclusively white, from the Viognier grape, which may have originated in the region. Within Condrieu is the enclave AOC of Château-Grillet, producing wines that are also 100% Viognier. The Condrieu AOC was officially created in 1940.
Viticulture in the area around Condrieu has existed since at least Roman times and it is possible that the area was first cultivated by the native Allobroges tribe. In the 18th century, Condrieu enjoyed a period of popularity as it gained access to the lucrative Parisian market. The wine was transported north by land to the city
The Mesilla Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located primarily in the state of New Mexico with a small area in the state Texas. Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate arrived in the area in 1598 and named a Native American village in the valley Trenquel de la Mesilla, from which the valley as a whole became known as Mesilla Valley. Although viticulture began in nearby El Paso as early as 1650, grapes were first planted in the Mesilla Valley only in the early twentieth century, near the town of Doña Ana. The climate in the Mesilla Valley is very dry and hot.
Wines:2003 Crane Brothers "Hillside Block, Crane Ranch Vineyard" Oak Knoll District Estate Cabernet Sauvignon
The Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA at the southern end of valley floor. The appellation's close proximity to San Pablo Bay results in a climate that is cooler and more moderate than any region in Napa Valley other than the Los Carneros AVA. A wide variety of wine grapes do well in this climate, including varieties not widely grown in other parts of Napa Valley, such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. Oak Knoll District has begun to develop a reputation for a restrained, delicate style of Chardonnay. The appellation was officially designated a sub-appellation of the Napa Valley AVA on February 25, 2004.
The Texas Davis Mountains AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas. Surrounded by the Chihuahuan Desert, the appellation takes advantage of cooler elevation and lower annual rainfall in the Davis Mountains. The land within the boundaries of the AVA ranges between 4,500 feet (1,372 m) and 8,300 feet (2,530 m) above sea level. The soil is primarily granitic, porphrytic, and volcanic in nature.
Only one commercial winery has ever been operated in the Texas Davis Mountains AVA since its creation in 1998: Pleasant Hill Winery.
Bourgogne Aligoté is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for white wine produced from the Aligoté grape variety in the region of Burgundy in France. The AOC was created in 1937.
Approximately 1,700 hectares (4,200 acres) of Burgundy vineyards were devoted to the production of Bourgogne Aligoté in 2007, and the average annual production over the period 2003-2007 was 107,470 hectoliter.
Bourgogne Aligoté is a regional AOC, which means that the wines can be produced in all of the Burgundy region. Since 1998, there is also a delimited AOC for Aligoté-based wines called Bouzeron, which previously was known as Bourgogne Aligoté Bouzeron.
While the primary grape is Aligoté, AOC regulations allow up to 15% Chardonnay to be blended into these wines. The wines tend to be light and acidic in style, and are usually unoaked, in contrast to many of Burgundy's more common and more noted Chardonnay-based white wines. Bourgogne Aligoté is frequently mixed together with Crème de cassis to make kir, a traditional pre-dinner drink.
Coteaux Champenois is a wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the Champagne province of France. It covers the same area as sparkling Champagne production, but covers only still wines. The grapes are the same as those allowed for sparkling Champagne: Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier for red wines, and Chardonnay for whites. Rosé wines are made very rarely, but there is also a rosé AOC in the Champagne region, Rosé des Riceys. Like sparkling Champagne, most wines are non-vintage. Production is small, especially in vintages where yields are low, given the high demand for Champagne and the higher profit of producing sparkling wine.
The Eola-Amity Hills AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Polk County and Yamhill County, Oregon. It is entirely contained within the Willamette Valley AVA, and stretches from the city of Amity in the north to Salem in the south. The Eola and Amity hills cover an area west of the Willamette River approximately 15 miles (24 km) long by 6 miles (10 km) wide. The Eola-Amity Hills area benefits from steady winds off the Pacific Ocean that reach the Willamette Valley through the Van Duzer Corridor, a gap in the Oregon Coast Range, moderating the summer temperatures. The Eola Hills were named after the community of Eola, whose name was derived from Aeolus, the Greek god of the winds.
The Eola-Amity Hills has around 1,300 acres of the area's 37,900 acres planted to grape vines. Like most of the Willamette Valley, the Eola-Amity Hills experiences a maritime climate that includes mild winters but summers that are cooler and wetter than the continental climate experienced by Washington State's wine regions to the north and the Mediterranean climate experienced by many of California's wine regions to the south. The climate is influenced by the Pacific currents that escape through
The Old Mission Peninsula AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Grand Traverse County, Michigan known for well-regarded Michigan wine. The Old Mission Peninsula extends northward from Traverse City into the Grand Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan, ending at Old Mission Point. The peninsula is 19 miles (31 km) long by 3 miles (5 km) wide at its widest point. The climate on the peninsula is moderated by the surrounding waters, helping to prevent frost during the growing season. Grape varietals suitable to cool climates, such as Riesling, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot do best in the Old Mission Peninsula AVA.
The peninsula has extensive cherry orchards and vineyards. There are seven vineyards, but only five have tasting rooms. Because of the remoteness of the peninsula, wine tours take some planning.
The Old Mission Peninsula was settled in 1842 by a Presbyterian minister. During the Civil War period, the area saw an influx in population with many families today able to trace their ties to the area back to this period. Located along the 45th parallel north, and moderated by Lake Michigan and the deep Grand Traverse Bay, the region
The Seneca Lake AVA is an American Viticultural Area around Seneca Lake in Upstate New York. The wine appellation is entirely contained within the larger Finger Lakes AVA, and includes portions of Ontario, Schuyler, Seneca, and Yates counties. Seneca Lake is a glacial lake about 35 miles (56 km) long and up to 600 feet (180 m) deep. The lake does not freeze in winter, and acts as a giant heat storage unit for the vineyards surrounding the lake, extending the growing season. The most commercially important grape variety in the region is Riesling, although a wide variety of Vitis vinifera and French hybrid grapes are grown.
Wagner Vineyards, established by Stanley Wagner in 1979, was one of the earliest wineries in the area.
The Iroquois were the first to utilize the microclimates created by the lake’s varying water temperatures. The Iroquois’ fruit crops flourished. Later, white settlers planted only what they needed to survive or use for local barter, until the opening of the Erie Canal. Backyard fruit trees and arbors quickly grew into commercial orchards and vineyards.
The area’s earliest vineyard on record belonged to the Reverend William Boswick. In 1829, Boswick grew Catawba
The Sonoma Coast AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA containing more than 500,000 acres (2,000 km), mostly along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean. It extends from San Pablo Bay to the border with Mendocino County. The appellation is known for its cool climate and high rainfall relative to other parts of Sonoma County. The area has such a broad range of microclimates that petitions are being made to the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau for the creation of sub-AVAs such as the proposed Fort Ross-Seaview AVA.
The boundaries of the appellation are defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Section 9.116. The following seven cities are located in, or partly in, the Sonoma Coast AVA:
The Petaluma Gap is also part of the Sonoma Coast AVA.
E & J Gallo Winery operates Two Rock Vineyard, a 400-acre (1.6 km) hillside vineyard near Cotati.
The Augusta AVA was the first federally approved American Viticultural Area gaining the status on June 20, 1980, eight months before the Napa Valley AVA in northern California. Located entirely within the state of Missouri, the boundaries of this wine region encompass 15 square miles (39 km) around the city of Augusta near the intersection of St. Charles County, Warren County and Franklin County.
Located 40 miles (64 km) west of St. Louis along the Missouri River, the area is known for its river bottoms and alluvial plains that follow the winding river. The soil in this area is a type of loam known as Hayne Silt-Loam which is heaviest in clay composition in the areas closest to the river but has more silt concentration in the higher elevations where most of the vineyards are now located.
The area around the present day city of Augusta was founded in 1836 by Leonard Harold, a follower of Daniel Boone, as a riverboat landing along the Missouri. The town was originally named Mount Pleasant with the riverboat landing known as Augusta Bend. In 1855, the town was incorporated as the city of Augusta. In 1859, Georg and Friedrich Muench founded one of the earliest wineries in the area,
The Chalone AVA is an American Viticultural Area in the Monterey and San Benito counties of California, located in the Gabilan Mountains east of Soledad. The 8,640 acres (3,496 ha) region is named for the nearby Chalone peaks. The region has limestone and decomposed granite soil.
The El Dorado AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in El Dorado County, California, USA. Wine grape growers in the region produce Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot and are beginning to plant the Rhône varietals. Located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, vineyards are found at elevations between 1,200 feet (366 m) and 3,500 feet (1,067 m) above sea level and some of the best vineyards are planted above 2,000 feet (610 m) elevation. The region benefits from the cool breezes that come off the mountains and push hot air off the vines and down to the valley. The soils of the region are magma based with high levels of acidity.
The Jahant AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within the Lodi AVA. Most of the AVA is located within San Joaquin County, California, with a small part in Sacramento County. At 28,000 acres (11,331 ha), Jahant is the smallest of the Lodi sub-appellations. The area is known for its distinctive pink colored Rocklin-Jahant loam soil with the AVA's boundaries being delineated by the extent and reaches of the soil. This low lying AVA is affected by its close proximately to the Mokelumne River and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta which keeps the climate cool and dry.
Les Baux de Provence is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France, near the town of Les Baux de Provence.
About 80% of production is of red wines, made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Syrah, Mourvￃﾨdre, Carignan and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. These can benefit from ageing. Rosￃﾩ wines are also produced in much smaller quantities from the same grapes..
The wines are kept very disease free by the Mistral. For this reason, pesticide use is less necessary than in other wine regions. As a result, this region has always had a large proportion of organic wine production, and is working on becoming the first entirely biodynamic appellation.
The Arroyo Seco AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Monterey County, California, southeast of Monterey Bay. The appellation encompasses 42,880 acres (17,353 ha) in the valley adjacent to the Arroyo Seco Creek. Because of its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, the area has a cool climate, and is best suited for those grape varieties that benefit from the cool afternoon breeze. The area is known for its gravelly soil that absorbs heat during the day and radiates that heat in the evening. This helps keep the grapes from freezing at night.
Wines:2005 Domaine Gabriel Billard "Milliane" Bourgogne Rouge
Pommard is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in Bourgogne in eastern France.
It is famous for its Côte de Beaune wine production. This village is situated directly south of Beaune along the Route des Grands Crus. The D973 runs through the village from Beaune and then via Saisy to Autun.
Like Nuits-Saint-Georges, the name of Pommard was made famous as a marketplace for wines from better areas, in the days before Appellation Controlee. The fact that its name is easy for foreigners to pronounce also helped. 130,000 cases produced from 337 hectares makes it the second biggest area by production after Beaune. 135 hectares of that is Premier Cru, of which Les Epenots and Les Rugiens are the most notable.
Pommard produces purely red wine - no whites.
The square bell tower of its eighteenth century church characterise the village and on the hills that surround Pommard the vineyards dominate the landscape.
Pommard is twinned with:
Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for naturally sweet, fortified wines (vin doux naturel) made in the Languedoc-Roussillon wine region of France. They are similar to Muscat de Rivesaltes AOC wines, except the grape varieties are not restricted to Muscat. The wines are red or white, and made from Muscat, Grenache Noir, Grenache Blanc, Grenache Gris, Macabeu and (rarely) Malvoisie grapes.
The Sonoma Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA which centers on the Sonoma Valley (also known as The Valley of the Moon) in the southern portion of the county. The appellation is bordered by two mountain ranges: the Mayacamas Mountains to the east and the Sonoma Mountains to the west.
Sonoma Valley has played a significant role in the history of California wine. The first vineyards in the valley were planted by Franciscan monks at Mission San Francisco Solano in 1823. In 1857, Agoston Haraszthy established one of California's first successful commercial wineries here when he founded Buena Vista Winery. By 1920, there were 256 wineries in Sonoma Valley with more than 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) planted to grape vines. Prohibition affected Sonoma Valley as hard as any other wine region in California, and most wineries were unable to continue operating. Recovery after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 was slow. Even in 1969, there were only 58 bonded wineries in Sonoma Valley. The wine industry in the valley began to expand rapidly in the 1970s and 1980s. Official boundaries for the Sonoma Valley wine region were codified into federal law in 1981
The Sta. Rita Hills AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Santa Barbara County, California.
From its creation in 2001 through 2006, the wine appellation was officially named Santa Rita Hills AVA. The formal name change was the result of a protest by and subsequent negotiations with Vina Santa Rita, a very large Chilean wine producer that was concerned about the AVA name diluting its international brand value. The name change took effect on January 5, 2006, with a year long period for producers in the AVA to change their wine labels.
Sta. Rita Hills is part of the larger Santa Ynez Valley AVA, located between the towns of Lompoc and Buellton with the Purisima Hills on the north and the Santa Rosa Hills on the South. The wine region is exposed to fog and coastal breezes from the nearby Pacific Ocean. The hills run east to west, which allows cool ocean breezes from the nearby Pacific Ocean to enter the valley created by the hills and create a cool micro-climate. When combined with the rocky nature of the area, the Santa Rita Hills area is well-suited for the growing of Pinot Noir grapes, which tend to do well in cool climates with rocky soil. The region is best known for
The Applegate Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in southern Oregon. It is entirely contained within the Rogue Valley AVA, which is itself included within the larger Southern Oregon AVA. The region is named for the Applegate River, which flows through the town of Applegate and near the city of Jacksonville. One of Oregon's first wineries (the winery has been restored and re-opened as Valley View Winery) was established in the Applegate Valley. This region contains vineyards at altitudes ranging from 1,000 feet (300 m) to 1,500 feet (500 m) above sea level, and is warmer and drier than the Illinois Valley to the west, but less so than the Bear Creek Valley to the east. Grapes that thrive here include Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, and Zinfandel, with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot being the dominant varietals.
Cahors (pronounced: [ka.ɔʁ]) is a red wine from grapes grown in or around the town of Cahors, France. Cahors is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) which forms part of the South West France wine region. The dominant grape variety in AOC Cahors wines is Malbec, which must make up a minimum of 70% of the wine, and which is known locally as "Côt", "Côt Noir" or "Auxerrois". It is supplemented by up to 30% Merlot and Tannat. As a reflection of the character of the Malbec variety, Cahors wine can be rather tannic when young, and benefit from aging. Generally, the style of Cahors wine is often similar to robust versions of Bordeaux wine.
There are 4,200 hectares (10,000 acres) of Cahors vineyards.
The designation AOC Cahors may only be used for red wines. There is also some white and rosé wine produced in the same area, and it is sold under the designation Vin de Pays du Lot instead.
The history of wine Cahors winemaking go back to the era of Ancient Rome, with vines being planted in the area around 50 BC. Since that time, the vines have remained in the land of Quercy and their history has been combined with that of the region.
During the Middle Ages, Cahors wine was called "the
Saint-Péray Mousseaux is a wine-growing AOC in the northern Rhône wine region of France.
The wines are exclusively white sparkling wines, made from the Marsanne and Roussanne grapes. Still wines from the same region and grapes are made under the appellation Saint-Péray AOC.
Vin de Savoie is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for red and white wines in the Savoy wine region of France, which is located in the foothills of the Alps. The region is divided roughly into three distinct parts: the glacially sculpted terrain along the South shore of Lake Geneva, the hilly country near the northern end of Lac de Bourget, and the area bordering the Massif de Bauges South of Chambéry.
The wines are mostly white, made from grape varieties Chasselas, Jacquère, Altesse (also known as Roussette), Verdesse, Chardonnay and Roussanne grapes, although there are also some (relatively light) reds made from Mondeuse, Gamay Noir and occasionally Pinot Noir, and rosés made from Gamay, and some sparkling wines.
Sixteen dénominations géographiques are authorized within the appellation:
Arbois is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Jura wine region of France, around the town of Arbois. Red and rosé wines can be produced from Poulsard, Trousseau and Pinot Noir grapes, and white wines from Chardonnay and Savagnin.
Costières de Nîmes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for wines that are produced in an area between the ancient city of Nîmes and the western Rhône delta, in the French department of the Gard. Formerly part of the Languedoc region of France, as the wines more resemble those of the Rhône valley in character than of the Languedoc, it is now part of the Rhone wine area and administered by the Rhône Wine committee which has its headquarters in Avignon.
Wines from the region have been produced for over two millennia and were consumed by the Greeks in pre-Roman times, making it one of the oldest vinyards in Europe. The area was settled by veterans of Julius Caesar's campaigns in Egypt, and bottles of Costières de Nîmes bear the symbol of the Roman settlement at Nîmes, a crocodile chained to a palm tree. According to a chart in the kitchen of the Palais des Papes in Avignon, many of the towns in what is now the Costieres de Nîmes region were the main suppliers of wine to the Popes of that era.
Formerly known as Costières du Gard, a VDQS, the wine achieved AOC status in 1986 and was renamed Costières de Nîmes 1989. In 1998 the growers' organization (the syndicate) requested that
The Covelo AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in northern Mendocino County, California. Although the region only has 2 acres (1 ha) under vine, it was granted AVA status by the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau on February 16, 2006 based purely on the unique climate conditions of the area. The appellation is located 45 miles (72 km) north of Ukiah, California and includes the areas of Round and Williams Valleys. The area is relatively flat terrain built upon deep loam layers of soil. Unlike other areas in the California wine country, Covelo has a continental climate with the high peaks surrounding the valley shielding it from the influence of the Pacific Ocean. The growing season here is one of the shortest in Mendocino County and the area experiences one of the widest diurnal temperature variation in the region.
Graves ( /ˈɡrɑːv/; from French: 'gravelly land') is an important subregion of the Bordeaux wine region. Graves is situated on the left bank of the Garonne river, in the upstream part of the region, southeast of the city Bordeaux and stretch over 50 kilometres (31 mi). Graves is the only Bordeaux subregion which is famed for all three of Bordeaux' three main wine types—reds, dry whites and sweet wines—although red wines dominate the total production. Graves AOC is also the name of one Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) which covers most, but not all of the Graves subregion.
The area encompasses villages including Sauternes, Pessac, Talence, Léognan, Martillac, Saint-Morillon, and Portets.
The name Graves derives from its intensely gravelly soil. The soil is the result of glaciers from the Ice Age, which also left white quartz deposits that can still be found in the soil of some of the top winemaking estates.
The Graves is considered the birthplace of claret. Graves wine production for export dates back to Eleanor of Aquitaine, who married Henry II, King of England, creating a flourishing trade between both countries: wine versus coal and iron. In the Middle Ages, the wines that
Les Baux-de-Provence is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France, in the province of Provence. It has a spectacular position in the Alpilles mountains, set atop a rocky outcrop crowned with a ruined castle overlooking the plains to the south. Its names refers to its site — in Provençal, a baou is a rocky spur. The village gives its name to the aluminium ore Bauxite which was first discovered there in 1821 by geologist Pierre Berthier.
The defensive possibilities of Les Baux led to the site being settled early on in human history. Traces of habitation have been found dating back as far as 6000 BC, and the site was used by the Celts as a hill fort or oppidum around the 2nd century BC. During the Middle Ages it became the seat of a powerful feudal lordship that controlled 79 towns and villages in the vicinity. The lords of Baux sought control of Provence for many years. They claimed ancestry from the Magus king Balthazar and placed the Star of Bethlehem on their coat of arms.
Despite their strengths, the lords of Baux were deposed in the 12th century. However, the great castle at Les Baux became renowned for its court, famed for a high level of ornateness,
Maury is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Roussillon wine region of France. Almost all wines are red, made from at least 75% Grenache Noir grapes. Other permitted grapes are Grenache Blanc, Grenache Gris, and (rarely used) Macabeu, Malvoisie and Muscat. Maury is well known for its sweet, fortified dessert wines. Although the grapes are different, they are used and marketed very like port.
Montrachet is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for white wine from Chardonnay in the Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is situated across the border between the two communes of Chassagne-Montrachet and Puligny-Montrachet and produces what many consider to be the greatest dry white wine in the world. It is surrounded by four other Grand Cru vineyards all having "Montrachet" as part of their names. Montrachet itself is generally considered superior to its four Grand Cru neighbours.
Montrachet is located in the south of the Côte de Beaune, which is the southern half of the Côte d'Or, which in turn is the most important of the several wine producing subregions of Burgundy.
The Montrachet vineyard is almost equally divided between Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet. The wine from the Chassagne side is usually known as Le Montrachet while the wine from the Puligny side is known as Montrachet.
In 2008, 7.99 hectares (19.7 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 349 hectoliters of wine was produced, corresponding to just under 47,000 bottles.
Wines from Montrachet are composed almost entirely of Chardonnay, unlike in
Ostuni is an Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) in the Province of Brindisi of Puglia. The zone of production of the area, elevated to DOC status in 1972, is limited to the communes of Ostuni, Carovigno, San Vito dei Normanni, San Michele Salentino and parts of the communes of Brindisi, Latiano and Ceglie Messapica.
The Ostuni region has a Mediterranean climate influenced by its close proximately to the Adriatic Sea. Situated among three small mountains at the edge of the Murge range, vineyards in the area experience diverse microclimate and terroir variations. The DOC gets it name from the nearby town of Ostuni.
The primary grape variety of the DOC classified red wine is Ottavianello (also known as Cinsaut in France), with the wine sometimes labeled as Ostuni Ottavianello. Ottavnianello must comprise at least 85% of the blend. Up to 15% may consist of Negroamaro and/or Malvasia Nera and/or Notar Domenico and/or Sussumaniello grapes. The white DOC classified wine, Ostuni Bianco, is composed of a blend of mostly Impigno and Francavilla. Impigno must account for at least 50% of the blend with Francavilla usually comprising the remainder. DOC regulations also permit an
Wines:2006 McFadden "McFadden Vineyard" Potter Valley Estate Pinot Noir
The Potter Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in northern Mendocino County, California centered around town of Potter Valley. The appellation is found east of the Redwood Valley AVA and has an elevation of around 200 feet (61 m) higher than surrounding areas. The influence of the nearby Eel River watershed has created conditions conducive to the production of botrytized wines - especially Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon.
The Ribbon Ridge AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Yamhill County, Oregon. It is the smallest AVA in Oregon and is entirely contained within the Chehalem Mountains AVA, which in turn is entirely contained within the larger Willamette Valley AVA. Ribbon Ridge stretches between the towns of Newberg and Gaston. The ridge is defined by local geographic boundaries and an uplift of ocean sediment. It lies at 45° 21' N latitude and 123° 04' W longitude, at the northwest end of the Chehalem Mountains. The name originates in the 19th century. The ridge is approximately 0.25 miles (0.40 km) wide and 3.50 miles (5.63 km) long, and is 3,350 acres (14 km) in area, with 500 acres (202 ha) planted on 20 vineyards. It is estimated that between 1,000 acres (4 km) and 1,400 acres (6 km) in the region is suitable for planting.
Wines:2004 De Loach "Gambogi Ranch" Russian River Valley Zinfandel
The Russian River Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area (AVA) in Sonoma County, California. Centered around the Russian River, the Russian River Valley AVA accounts for about one-sixth of the total planted vineyard acreage in Sonoma County. The appellation was granted AVA status in 1983 and enlarged in 2005. The area generally lies between Sebastopol and Santa Rosa in the south, and Forestville and Healdsburg in the north. The Russian River Valley has a characteristically cool climate, heavily affected by fog generated by the valley's proximity to the Pacific Ocean. The area is known for its success with cool climate varietals, notably Pinot noir and Chardonnay.
Despite its name, the Russian River Valley AVA does not cover the entire Russian River Valley-which extends north into Mendocino County, California and southwest all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Originally the river continued south and emptied into San Francisco Bay but during its history, for reasons not yet understood by geologists, the river changed course. The small segment of the river valley that makes up the AVA begins near Healdsburg once the river leaves the Alexander Valley region through a narrow gorge in
Wines:2005 Rosenblum "Carla's Vineyards" San Francisco Bay Zinfandel
The San Francisco Bay AVA is a large American Viticultural Area centered around the San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California. The AVA includes the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Francisco and San Mateo as well as parts of Santa Cruz and San Benito counties. The AVA was created in 1999 and encompasses over 1,500,000 acres (6,100 km). The AVA falls within the larger Central Coast AVA, four smaller designated AVAs are contained within it: Livermore Valley AVA, Pacheco Pass AVA, San Ysidro District AVA, and Santa Clara Valley AVA.
Wines:2005 Saucelito Canyon Arroyo Grande Valley Estate Zinfandel
The Arroyo Grande Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in San Luis Obispo County, California. It is part of the larger Central Coast AVA. The 16 miles (26 km) long appellation benefits from it east-northeast orientation which allows the breeze from the Pacific Ocean to moderate the climate of the area. The valley is divided by a fog line produced by the cool coastal fogs where Zinfandel, Petite Sirah and Rhône varietals are grown on the higher elevations near Lopez Lake and the cooler mid-valley vineyards being home to Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
Wines:1995 Bruno Giacosa Gallina di Neive Barbaresco
Barbaresco is an Italian wine made with the Nebbiolo grape. Barbaresco is produced in the Piedmont region in an area of the Langhe immediately to the east of Alba and specifically in the comunes of Barbaresco, Treiso and Neive plus that area of the frazione San Rocco Senodelvio which was once part of the comune of Barbaresco and now belongs to the comune of Alba. It was granted Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) status in 1966 and Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita status in 1980. The wine is often compared with Barolo-another Nebbiolo based wine from the Piedmont area. Though the wines do share many similarities, there are some distinct differences between them.
Historically the Nebbiolo grape was used to produce slightly sweet wines and while it gained fashion in the Turin and among members of the House of Savoy in the incarnation of Barolo, the Barbaresco style wine was always more obscure and less widely known. The sweet style common in Barbaresco was partially a product of circumstance though the fashion of European tastes at the time did prize some of the sweetness. The Nebbiolo grape tends to ripen late into October and temperatures in the region after
Bardolino is an Italian red wine produced along the chain of morainic hills in the province of Verona to the east of Lake Garda. It takes its name from the town Bardolino on the shores of Lake Garda and was awarded Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) status in 1968. The blend of grapes used to produce the wine includes Corvina, Rondinella and Molinara. Up to 15% of the blend may include Rossignola, Barbera, Sangiovese and/or Garganega.
Located on the south eastern shores of Lake Garda, the classico zone surrounds the towns of Bardolino, Affi, Cavaion, Costermano, Garda and Lazise. Beyond the classico zone to the south are flat, fertile plains where Bardoline wine is produced from high grape yields. About 45% of the production comes from the Bardolino Classico region, but unlike its neighboring Veneto DOCs - Soave and Valpolicella - there does not seem to be much terroir driven quality difference between the wine produced in the classico region and that from the greater DOC zone.
The three main grapes used to produce Bardolino are also used to produce Valpolicella but the two wines are quite different. This is partly because Bardolino generally contains less Corvina which
Wines:2005 Brown Estate Vineyards Chiles Valley Zinfandel
The Chiles Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA. The Chiles Valley is nestled in the Vaca Mountains on the northeast side of Napa Valley. The appellation has a warmer and more continental climate than other portions of Napa Valley. The cooling fog and winds that moderate temperatures in other parts of Napa Valley have difficulty reaching as far inland as Chiles Valley. The most planted grapes in Chiles Valley are Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc. Chiles Valley was named after Joseph Ballinger Chiles, who received the Rancho Catacula Mexican land grant in the 1841.
The Sonoma Mountain AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA. It is centered on the Sonoma Mountain landform in the Sonoma Mountains. The appellation includes the town of Glen Ellen, California and is bordered on the west by the Sonoma Valley AVA. The area is known for the diverse micro-climates that occur within the crevices and folds of the hillside terrain and as such is home to production for a wide range of varietals including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, and Zinfandel.
The Bell Mountain AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Gillespie County, Texas. It was the first designated wine area located entirely in the state of Texas, and covers an area of over 3,200 acres (13 km). The appellation is entirely contained within the Texas Hill Country AVA, which was established nine years after Bell Mountain AVA. As of 2006, there were nine wineries in the appellation.
Chassagne-Montrachet is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department of Burgundy in eastern France.
It used to be known under the name Chassagne-le-Haut, but the name was changed to Chassagne-Montrachet by a decrete on November 27, 1879. Around this time, many Burgundy villages appended the name of their most famous vineyard to that of the village name.
Chassagne-Montrachet is an appellation consisting of 350 ha (865 acres) of clayish limestone located south of Côte de Beaune. Most wine produced in the village is white wine from the Chardonnay grape, although red wine is also made from the Pinot Noir grape.
The village shares two Grand Cru vineyards - Montrachet and Bâtard-Montrachet - with the neighbouring village of Puligny-Montrachet, and also includes the entirety of a third, Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet, within its boundaries. These three vineyards produce some of the most expensive and long-lived white wines in the world.
Lodi ( /ˈloʊdaɪ/) is a city located in San Joaquin County, California, in the northern portion of California's Central Valley. The population was 62,134 at the 2010 census. The California Department of Finance's population estimate as of January 1, 2011 is 62,473.
Lodi is best known for being the center of wine production (the "Zinfandel Capital of the World"), although its vintages have traditionally been less prestigious than those of Sonoma and Napa counties. However, in recent years, the Lodi Appellation has become increasingly respected for its Zinfandel wine and other eclectic varietals. National recognition came from the Creedence Clearwater Revival song "Lodi." Nearby Woodbridge is the home of the well known winery, Woodbridge by Robert Mondavi. Mondavi grew up in Lodi, and Mondavi Winery is considered one of the most influential in the American wine industry.
Lodi gained international attention in 2005 when local residents Hamid and Umer Hayat were arrested and charged in the first terrorism trial in the state of California.
When a group of local families decided to establish a school in 1859, they settled on a site near present-day Cherokee Lane and Turner Road. In 1869,
Bordeaux clairet is a generic Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for the Bordeaux defined as "clairet". All other appellations in the Bordeaux region, including the most prestigious ones, are entitled to produce under this AOC. Bordeaux clairet is a wine which can either be described as a dark rosé wine or a light-coloured red wine. As there is also a more commonly used Bordeaux rosé designation, Bordeaux clairet is not simply any rosé from Bordeaux.
Bordeaux clairet wines are similar in colour to the wines which were shipped from Bordeaux to England during the Middle Ages, known as French Claret. These wines established the fame of Bordeaux as a wine-making region, and led to the (primarily British) practice of referring to Bordeaux as "claret". They are refreshing wines, appreciated because they can be easily enjoyed with picnics or exotic food.
Yearly production is 52,000 hectoliters from 925 hectares of vineyard surface. Maximum authorized yield is 55 hectolitres per hectare.
The authorized grape varieties are the same as red Bordeaux AOC although Merlot is the most common of this AOC.
Wines:2000 Chateau du Cayrou "Chateau du Cayrou Cahors" oregon Valdigui
Cahors (French pronunciation: [kaɔʁ]; Occitan: Caors [kaˈurs, ˈkɔws, ˈkɔw]) is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France.
Its site is dramatic being contained on three sides within an udder shaped twist in the river Lot known as a 'presqu'île' or peninsula. Today it is perhaps best known as the centre of the famous AOC 'black' wine known since the Middle Ages and exported via Bordeaux, long before that region had developed its own viticulture industry.
Cahors has had a rich history since Celtic times. The original name of the town was Divona or Divona Cadurcorum, "Divona of the Cadurci," a Celtic people of Gaul before the Roman conquest in the 50s BC. Cahors derives from Cadurcorum. It has declined economically since the Middle Ages, and lost its university in the eighteenth century. Today it is a popular tourist centre with people coming to enjoy its mediaeval quarter and the unique 14th century fortified Valentré bridge. It is the seat of the Diocese of Cahors.
Cahors was prominent in the Middle Ages and saw considerable conflict during the Hundred Years War and the later Wars of Religion. It was also infamous at that time for having bankers that charged interest
Corton is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red and white wine in Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is located on a hill shared between the three villages of Aloxe-Corton, Pernand-Vergelesses and Ladoix in the Côte de Beaune, Burgundy. The appellation covers the lower parts of the Corton hill and includes several subordinate vineyard names, or climats, within the AOC. Because of the size of the AOC and the variability of these climats, it is the rule rather than the exception that the name of the climat is indicated together with that of the Corton AOC, leading to designations such as Corton Clos du Roi and Corton Les Bressandes. Corton is rare in this aspect, as the 'climat' is seldom used for other Grand Cru appellations in Côte d'Or. The AOC was created in 1937.
Corton wines are mostly red (around 95 per cent of the total production in the AOC) and made from the Pinot Noir grape, however a smaller quantity of white Corton from Chardonnay is also produced. Around 500,000 bottles a year are produced from the vines.
The Corton appellation itself is the Côte de Beaune's only Grand Cru appellation for red wine, and is the largest Grand Cru of
The Escondido Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Pecos County, Texas. It was the fifth designated wine area in the state of Texas, and covers an area of over 32,000 acres (129 km). There are no wineries located in the Escondido Valley AVA. One winery that makes Escondido Valley AVA designated wines is Ste. Genevieve Wines, whose winery facilities are located near Fort Stockton.
The Grand Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Mesa County, Colorado, east of the city of Grand Junction. The AVA includes the agricultural area around the Grand Valley of the Colorado River. Viticulture began in the area in the late 19th century. State Governor George A. Crawford planted a 60 acres (24 ha) vineyard in the Grand Valley in 1890. Approximately 75% of all wineries in the state of Colorado are located in the Grand Valley AVA. Vineyards in the valley are planted at elevations as high as 4,700 feet (1,400 m) above sea level. The valley has consistent breezes that provide good air drainage, reducing the risk of frost. During the growing season, the valley has hot and dry days with lots of sunshine. Winters are mild.
Wines:2004 Stryker Sonoma "Speedy Creek Vineyard" Knights Valley Zinfandel
Knights Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California. One of Sonoma County's original five American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), Knights Valley AVA was formally designated an American Viticultural Area on October 21, 1983. Knights Valley AVA includes approximately 37,000 acres (150 km). Over 30 growers maintain the 2,000 acres (8 km) planted to wine grape vineyards. The easternmost designated Sonoma County wine region, Knights Valley AVA has the warmest climate in the county. The valley lies between the Alexander Valley AVA and Chalk Hill AVA wine regions to the west and the Mayacamas Mountains to the east. Geographically, the appellation separates the rest of Sonoma County from the Napa Valley AVA.
Very few people inhabited the valley in 1843 when a 17,742-acre (71.80 km) land grant was given to Jose de los Santos Berryessa as a reward from the Mexican Governor for his years of good service. Most of Knights Valley (known as Mallacomes Valley) and Calistoga (Known as Agua Caliente) was within this grant. Knights Valley became Berryessa's private hunting preserve where he built an adobe hunting lodge that remains to this day. In 1850, after the Mexican War,
Rosé des Riceys is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the three villages of Les Riceys, a commune in the Aube département in the Champagne province of France. The wines are all rosé, produced from the pinot noir grape. They are either fermented in stainless steel tanks for early drinking or in wood allowing longer ageing. They have a distinctive taste known to the French as goût des Riceys.
The San Antonio Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area centered around San Antonio Valley in Monterey County, California. The AVA was approved by the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau in July 2006. The area has one of the longest grape growing traditions in the United States when the mission of San Antonio de Padua was first established in 1771 with a small vineyard. The AVA is bordered to the west by the Santa Lucia Mountains with its typical warm climate benefiting from the cooling effects of nearby Lake San Antonio and the Pacific Ocean. Overall, the AVA is similar in climate to the Paso Robles AVA and is likewise known for its Bordeaux and Rhône varietals.
Wines:2006 Harrington Wild Horse Valley Pinot Noir
The Wild Horse Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area whose borders overlap both Napa County and Solano County, California and is partially contained within the Napa Valley AVA. The appellation's southerly location results in more hours of sunshine than other locations in Napa Valley or nearby Green Valley. The proximity to San Pablo Bay results in a cooler climate, making Wild Horse Valley attractive for the cultivation of grapes like Pinot Noir.
The Wild Horse Valley AVA features two distinct subregions. To the west, the area is cooled by San Pablo Bay, although the elevation keeps the area above the fogline. The eastern half, being protected by the slope of the ground, is much warmer. The soil type is generally volcanic throughout the entire AVA
Grapes were first planted in the area in the 1880s. The current vineyard plantings date back to 1980, with commercial production starting in 1985.
The Red Mountain AVA is an American Viticultural Area that includes the land surrounding Red Mountain in Benton County, Washington. It is part of the Yakima Valley AVA, which in turn is part of the larger Columbia Valley AVA. Located between Benton City and the City of West Richland, the Red Mountain AVA is the smallest in the state at only 4,040 acres (16 km) in area. The area has 600 acres (2.4 km) under cultivation of primarily red varietals including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sangiovese, Cabernet Franc and Syrah. The reputation of the wines produced in this area has brought Red Mountain AVA worldwide acclaim. The vineyards in this appellation have produced grapes for some of the most sought after wines in Washington State.
The Missoula floods, a series of massive floods that occurred at the end of the last Ice Age, profoundly affected the soils of Red Mountain. The fast travelling flood waters, estimated at 390 meters tall, would sweep around the east and west edges of Red Mountain, creating powerfully back-eddies. As a result of the back-eddies, sediments were deposited in an irregular manner, creating a heterogeneous soil with a series of gravel lenses. In the 10,000 years
The Snake River Valley AVA in an American Viticultural Area that encompasses an area in Southwestern Idaho and two counties in eastern Oregon. The area was designated an AVA as a result of a successful petition from the Idaho Grape Growers and Wine Producers Commission and the Idaho Department of Commerce and Labor. The petition was granted in 2007, and for wines to bear the Snake River Valley AVA label, at least 85% of the grapes used for production must be grown in the designated area, which includes the Southwestern Idaho counties of Ada, Adams, Boise, Canyon, Elmore, Gem, Gooding, Jerome, Owyhee, Payette, Twin Falls, and Washington, and the Eastern Oregon counties of Malheur and Baker. The boundary encompasses 15 wineries, 46 vineyards, and 1,800 acres (728 ha) of commercial vineyard production.
Located on the same latitude as Oregon's Umpqua Valley AVA, the Snake River Valley has a more drastic diurnal temperature variation than other appellations in the Pacific Northwest due to the high elevation of most of the region's vineyards. At elevations of 2,500 feet (760 m) to 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level, the region is also more than 400 miles (640 km) from the tempering
The St. Helena AVA (or Saint Helena AVA) is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley, centered around the town of St. Helena, California. The appellation covers 9,000 acres (3,642 ha) along the flat narrow land towards the northern end of the valley between the Vaca and Mayacamas Mountains. Charles Krug, one of pioneers of Napa Valley winemaking, opened his winery here in 1861.
Valpolicella is a viticultural zone of the province of Verona, Italy, east of Lake Garda. The hilly agricultural and marble-quarrying region of small holdings north of the Adige is famous for wine production. Valpolicella ranks just after Chianti in total Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) wine production. The red wine known as Valpolicella is typically made from three grape varietals: Corvina Veronese, Rondinella, and Molinara. A variety of wine styles are produced in the area, including a recioto dessert wine and Amarone, a strong wine made from dried grapes. Most basic Valpolicellas are light, fragrant table wines in flavor. These wines can be produced in a nouveau style, similar to Beaujolais nouveau and released only a few weeks after harvest. Valpolicella Classico is made from grapes grown in the original Valpolicella production zone. Valpolicella Superiore is aged at least one year and has an alcohol content of at least 12 percent. Valpolicella Ripasso is a form of Valpolicella Superiore made with partially dried grape skins that have been left over from fermentation of Amarone or recioto.
Winemaking in the region has existed since at least the time of the
Wines:2005 DuMOL "Aidan" Green Valley of Russian River Valley Pinot Noir
The Green Valley of Russian River Valley AVA (formerly Sonoma County Green Valley AVA) is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA. Located at the southwestern corner of the Russian River Valley AVA, its close proximity to the Pacific Ocean makes it one of the coolest appellations within Sonoma County. The climate in the Green Valley is even cooler than other parts of the Russian River Valley, and favors the cultivation of cool climate varietals like Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer.
Green Valley was first designated as a wine region with the name Sonoma County Green Valley AVA on November 21, 1983, a name that was similar in structure to the Solano County Green Valley AVA created in 1982. Many wines that could have been labelled with the Sonoma County Green Valley AVA designation were instead labelled with the broader appellation designation of the Russian River Valley AVA, due to the greater market awareness of Russian River Valley wines. A group of wine producers from the region petitioned the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau for a name change to associate the Green Valley with the more popular
The North Coast AVA is an American Viticultural Area in the state of California that encompasses grape-growing regions in six counties located north of San Francisco: Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Sonoma, and Solano. This large appellation covers over 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km) and includes a number of smaller sub-appellations that all share the common ecology trait of having its weather affected by the cool fog and breezes of the Pacific Ocean.
The boundary of the North Coast AVA encompasses many smaller wine appellations, which generally have higher consumer appeal and therefore higher commercial value. Wine produced primarily from grapes grown in any one of these appellations will likely carry that appellation on its bottle label rather than the North Coast AVA designation. The North Coast AVA designation is primarily used on bottles of wine created by blending wines from several counties or American Viticultural Areas.
Because U.S. county names automatically qualify as legal appellations of origin for wine, the following appellations do not require registration with the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau:
The following American Viticultural Areas are all entirely
The Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA is an American Viticultural Area in eastern portion of the state of Virginia. Wines made from grapes grown in Westmoreland, King George, Northumberland, Lancaster, and Richmond counties may use this appellation. The area is located on a peninsula of land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers in the Tidewater region of Virginia and known as the Northern Neck. This provides a climate which features more frost free days than the rest of Virginia. The tip of the Northern Neck is located at the Chesapeake Bay.
Pessac-Léognan is a wine growing area and Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, in the northern part of the Graves region of Bordeaux. Unlike most Bordeaux appellations, Pessac-Léognan is equally famous for both red and (dry) white wines, although red wine is still predominant. It includes the only red-wine producer outside the Haut-Médoc classified in the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, the premier cru Château Haut-Brion, and also includes all of the châteaux listed in the 1953/59 classification of Graves. These classed growths account for a third of the wine produced in Pessac-Léognan.
Pessac-Léognan lies on the left bank of the Garonne. It is immediately south of the city of Bordeaux (with a small portion to the west): indeed some of the northern vineyards of Pessac-Léognan are completely surrounded by the housing estates of Bordeaux, as a result of the city's southward expansion. It consists of 8 communes: (from north to south) Mérignac, Talence, Pessac, Gradignan, Villenave-d'Ornon, Cadaujac, Léognan and Martillac. A significant part of the area is forested. It includes 1580 hectares of vines. The soil is very gravelly.
Pessac-Léognan has a long wine-making history.
The Rogue Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in southern Oregon. The federal government approved this appellation in 1991. It is entirely contained within the larger Southern Oregon AVA and includes the drainage basin of the Rogue River and several tributaries, including the Illinois River, the Applegate River, and Bear Creek. Most wineries in the region are found in the valleys formed by one of these three tributaries, rather than along the Rogue River itself. The region is 70 miles (113 km) wide by 60 miles (97 km) long (most of the land within the AVA capable of producing high quality wine is not currently used for grape cultivation); there are fewer than 20 wineries with only 1,100 acres (450 ha) planted. Each river valley has a unique terroir, and grows different varieties of grapes. Overall, however, this region is the warmest and driest of Oregon's wine-growing regions.
The Applegate Valley AVA, established in 2000, is the only sub-AVA in the Rogue Valley AVA. The Applegate River flows through the town of Applegate and near the city of Jacksonville, which was the location of Oregon's first winery (the winery has been restored and re-opened as Valley View
Madiran wine is produced around the village of Madiran in Gascony under two Appellations d'Origine Contrôlées (AOCs): Madiran for red wines and Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh and Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh Sec for white wines. The production area for Madiran wine is spread over three départments - Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées and Pyrénées-Atlantiques - and is a part of the South West France wine region. There are 1,300 hectares (3,200 acres) of Madiran vineyards.
Madiran was created as an AOC in 1948, and only red wine can be produced under this appellation. The main grape variety in Madiran AOC is Tannat, which must make up 40-60% of the vineyard, and it is supplemented by Cabernet Franc (locally also called Bouchy), Cabernet Sauvignon and Fer (locally also called Pinenc) Some of the appellation's top wines are in fact made from 100% Tannat; this is within AOC regulations.
The wine is typically very concentrated, high in tannin and traditionally requires several years aging to be at its best. The style of really good Madiran is not unlike that of high-end Cabernet Sauvignon-dominated Bordeaux wines. However, recently some of the younger generation of winemakers have been experimenting with, and
Rasteau is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wine in the southern Rhône wine region of France, covering both fortified and unfortified wines. The sweet fortified wines (Vin Doux Naturel, VDN) can be red, rosé or white, and have long been produced under the Rasteau AOC. In 2010 dry red wines (unfortified) were also added to the appellation, effective from the 2009 vintage.
The Rasteau appellation covers mostly the commune of Rasteau, but also includes some vineyards in Cairanne and Sablet. 47 hectares (120 acres) of vineyards are used for the fortified wines, with an annual production of around 1,400 hectoliter, or around 190,000 bottles.
The production of fortified wine was introduced in 1934, and in 1944, the Rasteau AOC for VDN wines was created, with effect from the 1943 vintage. Dry red wines from the same area traditionally had to be sold under the Côtes du Rhône Villages designation. From 1996, Rasteau was one of the village names that could be added to Côtes du Rhône Villages. In 2002, the Rasteau winegrower's syndicate requested that Rasteau should become its own appellation. This was finally approved by INAO in 2010, effective from the 2009 vintage.
Cabardès is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for red and rosé wine in Languedoc-Roussillon wine region in France. Cabardès was named after the Lords of Cabaret who defended the Châteaux de Lastours against Simon de Montfort in 1209. Despite the name's medieval origins, this appellation is one of the youngest in France, having only become official in February 1999.
The residents of the Cabardes region produced wine as early as the Roman occupation, but the modern appellation was made official only in 1999. It had previously been a VDQS wine under the alternative names Cabardès and Côtes du Cabardès et de l'Orbiel since 1973. The unique requirement of blending Mediterranean varietals and Atlantic varietals is the result of experimentation in cultivation and blending that began in the late 1970s.
As of 2007, these wines were relatively unknown in France, and their export, in terms of volume, is exceptionally rare due to limited production quantities and a relatively small marketing budget.
The vineyards of the Cabardes cover a mere 500 hectares on the northwestern border of the modern Languedoc-Roussillon region of France, an area that runs up against the foothills of the
Côtes du Rhône (English: Slopes or Hills of the Rhône) is a wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for the Rhône wine region of France, which may be used throughout the region, also in those areas which are covered by other AOCs. In a limited part of the region, the AOC Côtes du Rhône-Villages may be used, in some cases together with the name of the commune.
Côtes du Rhône are the basic AOC wines of the Rhône region, and exist as red, white and rosé wines, generally dominated by Grenache (reds and rosés) or Grenache blanc (whites).
Wines have been produced in the region since pre Roman times, and those from the right bank were the favourite wines of kings and the papal community in Avignon at the time of the schism. In the mid 17th century the right-bank district of Côte du Rhône had issued regulations to govern the quality of its wine and in 1737 the king ordered that casks of wine shipped from the nearby river port of Roquemaure should be branded with the letters CDR to introduce a system of protecting its origin. The rules for its Côte du Rhône thus formed the very early basis of today's nationwide AOC system governed by the INAO. The name was changed to Côtes du
Côtes du Roussillon AOC is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Roussillon (Northern Catalonia) wine region of France. The appellation is in the foothills of the Pyranees and the better wines are normally produced from vines on the slopes, not in the valley floors.
Côtes du Roussillon-Villages is a superior sub-appellation in the northern half of the appellation in the valley of the river Agly, from the best slopes around the valley.
It is purely for red wines, with stricter appellation regulations than regular Côtes du Roussillon.
The blend allowed is:
Carignan (maximum 60%)
Syrah, Mourvèdre (minimum 30% combined)
Note that a minimum of three varieties are allowed in the blend.
Like many appellations in the Midi, the quality is rising fast and it is an excellent source for wine at a good quality to price ratio.
The Mendocino AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Mendocino County, California. Within this larger appellation are several smaller AVAs, and applications are pending with the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau to create new AVAs out of the Sanel and Ukiah valleys along the Russian River. The Mendocino AVA is known for the cultivation of Mediterranean climate grapes including Carignan, Charbono, Grenache, Petite Sirah, Syrah and Zinfandel. The cooler climate in the Anderson Valley is known for its Pinot Noir and sparkling wine production. Many wineries in nearby Sonoma and Napa counties purchase Mendocino grapes to blend into wines labeled with other appellations.
Paso Robles Wine Country is an American Viticultural Area located in the San Luis Obispo County, California. It has approximately 26,000 vineyard acres planted with wine grapes, and is well known for its heritage varietal Zinfandel, Rhône-style wines, and "Crazy Blends," blends and styles that are unique to Paso Robles Wine Country.
Grapes were first introduced into the Paso Robles area in 1797 by missionaries at Mission San Miguel Arcangel, where more than one thousand vines were planted. Commercial wine growing, however, wasn't started until the 1880s with the establishment of Ascension Winery, today known as York Mountain Winery, the longest continuously operating winery in the County.
Since 1990, when there were fewer than 20 wineries in Paso Robles, a large expansion of activity has seen the number rise to more than 200 wineries today. Wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr. commented on the region's promise of quality of wine, emphasizing the wineries Alban Vineyards, L'Aventure, Linne Calodo, Saxum Vineyards, Villa Creek Cellars and Tablas Creek Vineyard as the "leading Paso pioneers".
In 2007, a proposal to split the area at the Salinas River and form a new "Paso Robles Westside
The Rattlesnake Hills AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Yakima County, Washington. United States Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) awarded Rattlesnake Hills its appellation status on March 20, 2006, making Rattlesnake Hills Washington’s ninth federally recognized American Viticultural Area. The Rattlesnake Hills AVA is entirely contained within the Yakima Valley AVA, which is in turn is entirely contained within the larger Columbia Valley AVA. The hills form the northern boundary of Yakima Valley, and the AVA includes land between the north bank of the Sunnyside Canal and the entirety of the southern slopes of the Rattlesnake Hills between Outlook and the Wapato Dam. The AVA is centered around the city of Zillah. With elevations ranging from 850 feet (259 m) to 3,085 feet (940 m), this AVA contains the highest point in the Yakima Valley AVA
Vineyards in Rattlesnake Hills AVA include the Morrison Vineyard, planted in 1968 to Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon for Chateau Ste. Michelle. It is the oldest vineyard in the AVA. In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, the Hyatt Vineyard, Whisky Canyon, Outlook, and the Portteus Vineyard were also planted.
When an AVA
Rockpile AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Sonoma County, California, northwest of the town of Healdsburg. Established on February 28, 2002, Rockpile AVA was Sonoma County's twelfth designated wine appellation. The wine region consists of approximately 15,400 acres (62 km) in northwestern Sonoma County. All of the AVA has an elevation in excess of 800 feet (244 m) above sea level. Eleven vineyards are currently located within the AVA and there are approximately 160 acres (1 km) of planted wine grapes.
Sonoma Mountain is a prominent landform within the Sonoma Mountains of southern Sonoma County, California. At elevation of 2,463 ft (751 m), Sonoma Mountain offers expansive views of the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Sonoma Valley to the east. In fact, the viticultural area extends in isolated patches up the eastern slopes of Sonoma Mountain to almost 1,700 feet (520 m) in elevation.
The eastern and northern slopes are protected from afternoon heat and hence are more densely forested in oak woodlands, abetted by the well drained nutrient rich soils. The western and southern slopes, on the other hand, are drier and warmer, leading to fewer dense woodlands and more chaparral, grassland and oak savannah.
Up until about twelve million years ago, this location was part of the seabed of the Pacific Ocean. In the Miocene era, precipitated by the combination of tectonic movement due to the seismically active environment and the presence of magma not far below the Earth's surface, a massive period of uplift ensued. This uplift formed the volcanically based Sonoma Mountains as well as the Mayacamas Mountains to the east. Residual evidence of these ancient geological features appears in
Wines:2005 Benessere "BK Collins, Old Vine" Napa Valley Zinfandel
St. Helena ( /ˌseɪnt hɨˈliːnə/ saint hə-LEE-nə) (Wappo: Anakotanoma, "Bull Snake Village") is a city in Napa County, California, United States. It is part of the northern San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 5,814 at the 2010 census.
St. Helena is located at 38°30′10″N 122°28′11″W / 38.50278°N 122.46972°W / 38.50278; -122.46972 (38.502858, -122.469648). The city has a total area of 5.03 sq mi (13.0 km). Of that, 4.99 sq mi (12.9 km) is land and 0.11 sq mi (0.3 km) (0.81%) is water.
Ellen White, co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, had a home called "Elmshaven" near St. Helena, beginning in 1900. She died there in 1915 and the site is now a National Historic Landmark.
The St. Helena AVA is in the region.
The National Weather Service has a cooperative weather station in St. Helena. Winters are cool and wet, while summers have hot days and cool nights with little precipitation. Average January temperatures range from 56.8 °F (13.8 °C) to 36.4 °F (2.4 °C). Average July temperatures range from 89.8 °F (32.1 °C) to 52.7 °F (11.5 °C). There are an average of 55.7 days with highs of 90 °F (32 °C) or higher and an average of 34.7 days with lows of 32 °F (0 °C) or lower.
The Yakima Valley AVA was the first American Viticultural Area established within Washington State, gaining the recognition in 1983. Part of the larger Columbia Valley AVA, Yakima Valley AVA is home to more than 11,000 acres (45 km) of vineyards, giving the area the largest concentration of wineries and vineyards in the state of Washington. The most widely planted varietals in the area are Chardonnay, Riesling, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, and Syrah. Nearly 40% of Washington state yearly wine production is made from Yakima Valley grapes. In addition to grapes, the Yakima Valley is also home to several fruit orchards growing apples, cherries, nectarines, peaches, pears and plums. Around the town of Zillah, there is the Zillah Fruit Loop driving tour through the area's orchards and vineyards. The area is also home to nearly 80% of the US hop production.
The Yakima Valley's borders include the sub-AVA of the Rattlesnake Hills to the north, the Horse Heaven Hills to the south and Red Mountain forming parts of its eastern boundaries. The Snipes Mountain AVA also lies within its boundaries. To the west, the Cascade Range forms a natural border and creates a rain shadow over
Mercurey dates from pre-historic times, and is the most widely recognized and important wine village of the Côte Chalonnaise, producing more wines than all other village appellations combined.
It is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the Bourgogneregion of eastern France.
The town was first documented in the foundation charter for the Saint-Marcel de Chalon-sur-Saône Monastery, which is believed to be have been around 580, under the name 'Mercureis'. This was changed in 885 to 'Mercuriacum', became 'Mercoriacus' in 942 and the 11th century brought about another change to 'Mercuriacus'.
The name is thought to have been derived from the Roman God Mercury, who in Roman mythology was a messenger for the Gods, as well as the God of trade and abundance, and patron of travellers.
According to historical documents the Romans built a temple in his honour when the town was part of one of the Roman Empire's provinces, located on the Lyon to Arles section of their strategically important trading route, the Via Agrippa.
However there is no sign of the temple today, although a 13th century Roman Church still stands in the town.
It was the Romans who cultivated the areas along the
Wines:2005 Ridge "Pagani Ranch" Sonoma Valley Zinfandel
Sonoma Valley is the birthplace of the California wine industry and often called The Valley of the Moon. Sonoma Valley is home to some of the earliest vineyards and wineries in the state, some of which survived the phylloxera epidemic of the 1870s and the impact of Prohibition. Its wineries are generally well prepared for receiving tourists, and Sonoma Valley offers a wide range of year-round festivals and events, including the prestigious Sonoma International Film Festival. Today, this small valley's wines are protected by the US Federal Government's Sonoma Valley and Carneros AVAs (or American Viticultural Areas).
The valley is located in southeastern Sonoma County between the Mayacamas Mountains and Sonoma Mountains. It stretches from San Pablo Bay in the south to the city of Santa Rosa in the north. Sonoma Creek flows down the valley to the bay. The area includes the incorporated city of Sonoma and part of the City of Santa Rosa, as well as numerous unincorporated communities, including Kenwood and Glen Ellen near Santa Rosa and, near Sonoma, El Verano, Boyes Hot Springs, Fetters Hot Springs, and Agua Caliente.
Once a valley of the coastal Miwok, Pomo and Wintun peoples, called
Asti (formerly known as Asti Spumante) is a sparkling white Italian wine that is produced throughout southeastern Piedmont but is particularly focused around the towns of Asti and Alba. Since 1993 the wine has been classified as a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) and as of 2004 was Italy's largest producing appellation. In fact, on an average vintage more than ten times as much Asti is produced in Piedmont than the more well-known Piedmontese red wine Barolo.
Made from the Moscato Bianco grape, it is sweet and low in alcohol, and often served with dessert. Unlike Champagne, Asti is not made sparkling through the use of secondary fermentation in the bottle but rather through a single tank fermentation utilizing the Charmat method. It retains its sweetness through a complex filtration process. Another wine called Moscato d'Asti is made in the same region from the same grape, but is only slightly sparkling (frizzante) and tends to have even lower alcohol.
The Moscato Bianco grape (also known as Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains) has long been found in the Piedmont and, along with Nebbiolo, may be one of the oldest grapes in the region. However, the production of
Cￃﾴtes d'Aix-en-Provence is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France, around the city of Aix-en-Provence.
About 70% of the wines are rosￃﾩ. These and the red wines are made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Syrah, Counoise, Mourvￃﾨdre, Carignan and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. There are also a few white wines, made from Rolle, Ugni Blanc, Clairette, Sauvignon Blanc, Bourboulenc, Grenache and Semillon grapes.
Los Carneros AVA (also known as Carneros AVA) is an American Viticultural Area which includes parts of both Sonoma and Napa counties in California, U.S.A.. It is located north of San Pablo Bay. The proximity to the cool fog and breezes from the bay makes the climate in Los Carneros cooler and more moderate than the wine regions further north in Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley. The cooler climate has made Los Carneros attractive for the cultivation of cooler climate varietals like Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Many of the grapes grown in Los Carneros are used for sparkling wine production. Receiving its AVA status in 1983, the Carneros area was the first wine region in California to be defined by its climate characteristics rather than political boundaries.
In 1942, wine producer Louis M. Martini purchased the old Stanly Ranch and began a replanting effort. By the 1970s, the Carneros region had more than 1,300 acres (530 ha) of vineyards. By this time the Carneros region was starting to develop a reputation for the quality of the Chardonnays and Pinot Noirs that came from this cool-climate region. This reputation caught the eyes of sparkling wine producers from Champagne and elsewhere.
Pauillac (Occitan: Paulhac) is a commune in the Gironde department in Aquitaine in southwestern France.
The commune consists of only 3000 acres (12 km²) of vineyards in the Haut-Médoc between the villages of Saint-Julien to the south and Saint-Estèphe to the north, but is home to three of Bordeaux's five first growth wines: Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Latour, and Château Mouton Rothschild.
Wines:2004 Chalk Hill Winery Chalk Hill Estate Cabernet Sauvignon
The Chalk Hill AVA is an American Viticultural Area (AVA) located in Sonoma County, California. The boundaries of the wine appellation cover the northeast corner of the Russian River Valley AVA. The majority of vineyards are located to the east of U.S. Route 101, near the town of Windsor. The name Chalk Hill comes from the unique volcanic soil of chalky white ash which has shown itself to perform well with planting of white wine varietals like Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. The majority of the region's wineries are located on the western slopes of the Mayacamas Mountains.
The boundaries of the Chalk Hill AVA cover 33 square miles (85 km) of land within the northeast corner of Russian River AVA. Many of the region's 1,600 acres (650 ha) of planted vineyard land is located along the western slopes of the Mayacamas Mountain reaching up to altitudes of 200-1300 feet (60-400 meters). Compared to the rest of the Russian River Valley, the Chalk Hill region is relatively warm due to the influence of a thermal belt that runs through the area. Harvest time often takes place in September while harvest in the surrounding regions usually takes place in October.
The area takes it name from the
Charmes-Chambertin is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. It is located in the southern part of the commune of Gevrey-Chambertin and on the lower hillside east of Chambertin (on the other side of the Route des Grands Crus), north of Mazoyères-Chambertin and south of Griotte-Chambertin. The AOC was created in 1937.
Wines from Charmes-Chambertin are known for being highly fragrant in their youth, and known for the typicity character of the Pinot noir and its soft, ripe fruit flavors that typically peak between 10-20 years. The section of the vineyard closest to the Route N74 road is often considered closer to premier cru than Grand cru status.
In 2008, 28.97 hectares (71.6 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, which made it the largest Grand Cru in Gevrey-Chambertin. 1,115 hectoliter of wine was produced, corresponding to just under 150,000 bottles.
The main grape variety for Charmes-Chambertin is Pinot Noir. The AOC regulations also allow up to 15 per cent total of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris as accessory grapes, but this
Clos des Lambrays is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. It is situated in the commune of Morey-Saint-Denis in the Côte-d'Or département, and is located immediately to the southwest of the village Morey-Saint-Denis. The Clos part of its name refers to a wall-enclosed vineyard. Clos des Lambrays was elevated from premier cru to grand cru status in 1981, which meant that it was created as a separate AOC.
Clos de Lambrays totals 8.84 hectares (21.8 acres) and most of it (8.66 hectares (21.4 acres)) is owned by the winery Domaine de Lambrays. However, Domaine Taupenet-Merme also has a small holding in this vineyard, so Domaine de Lambrays is unable to put a "Monopole" label on their bottles.
In 2008, 7.04 hectares (17.4 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 236 hectoliters of wine were produced, corresponding to slightly over 31,000 bottles.
The main grape variety for Clos des Lambrays is Pinot Noir. The AOC regulations also allow up to 15 per cent total of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris as accessory grapes, but this is
Collioure is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for French wines situated around the town of Collioure in the Roussillon wine region of France. Red, rosé and a few white wines are produced-the reds from Grenache Noir, Mourvèdre, Syrah, Carignan and Cinsaut grapes; the white are made from a blend of from Grenache blanc and Grenache gris. The boundaries of the AOC are identical with the Banyuls AOC as many of the grapes grown in Collioure destined for use in the fortified Vins doux naturels of the region. The grapes that do not get used for Banyuls are then produced as non-fortified still wines under the Collioure AOC.
Viticulture was likely introduced to the area soon after the ancient Greeks introduced winemaking to the Languedoc are in the 6th century BC. Under the Romans, viticulture spread throughout the area with the nearby cities of Narbonne, Carcassonne and Perpignan being major centers for the trade of Roussillon wine from areas like Collioure. For a large part of its history, the region has been under Spanish rule and was even a part of the Catalonia region until the mid-17th century. Like other Roussillon wine regions, this Spanish influence can be seen in the types
Coteaux du Tricastin AOC is the northernmost wine-growing AOC in the southern area of the Rhône wine region of France. The wines are produced in 21 communes in the department of Drôme on the east bank of the Rhône River in a triangle bounded by Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, Montélimar, and Grignan; opposite the Côtes du Vivarais AOC on the right bank. the vineyards straddle both the true Mediterranean and the continental climatic regions where in this part of France the transition is rapid, winter snow being frequent in Montélimar but rare some 20 - 30 kilometres further south. In this transitional area between the northern and southern Rhône wine regions that constitutes the northern limit of the Provence, the climate in Baume-le-Transit and St Paul are more typically Mediterranean climate than the slightly cooler areas dominated by the Lance mountain.
According to archeological finds, particularly the remains of the largest Roman wine villa in Donzère dating from the 1st century BC, wine has been produced in the region since the antiquity. Tricastin wines were mentioned in the writings of the Marquise de Sevigné in the 16th century. The wines were accorded an AOVDQS on 19 March
Ventoux AOC (formerly Côtes du Ventoux AOC) is a wine-growing AOC in the southeastern region of the Rhône wine region of France, where the wines are produced in 51 communes of the Vaucluse département along the lower slopes of the Ventoux mountain and at the foot of the Vaucluse Mountains. The neighbouring appellation of Côtes du Luberon AOC stretches along its southern border and is separated from it by the Calavon river.
The three main areas of the region, the Malaucène basin, the foothills of the Mont Ventoux to the east of Carpentras and to the north of Cavaillon are less ravaged by the Mistral due to some shelter afforded by the Ventoux-Vaucluse-Luberon mountain range. Archeological discoveries of wine making equipment have dated that wine has been produced in the area at least since around 30 AD.
Red and rosé wines are made from, Grenache, Syrah, Cinsault, Mourvèdre, and Carignan (maximum 30%). Other varieties which may be used to a maximum of 20%.The red wine is distinctly characterised by its aromas of black fruit, spice, and pepper. White wines are produced from Clairette blanche, Bourboulenc, Grenache Blanc, and Roussane (maximum 30%). A Primeur wine is also produced in
Côtes du Vivarais is a wine-growing AOC in the northwestern extreme of the southern Rhône wine region of France. The wines are produced in 9 communes of the Ardèche department, and in 5 communes of the department of the Gard. The region is bisected by the deep Gorges of the Ardèche and is shares the same latitudes as the Coteaux de Tricastin AOC on the left bank of the Rhône. The wine became a VDQS in 1962 and was awarded the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée in 1999.
Red wines account for 80% of the production and are made from Grenache Noir minimum 30%, and Syrah, minimum 40% with carignan at less than 10% (until the harvest of 2017), and Cinsault at less than 10% (from the harvest of 2018) as secondary varieties.
Rosé wines account for 15% of the production and are made from Grenache Noir, Syrah and Cinsault at .
White wines comprise 5% of the production and are made from Clairette Blanche, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne.
Wines have been produced in the region for over 2,000 years. In the region extending from the Rhône valley to the Cévennes and the Ardèche mountains - both foothills of the Massif Central - vines were cultivated by the Helvians, an ancient Gallic tribe. Pliny the Elder
Wines:2005 Martin Ray "Constant-Diamond Mountain Vineyard" Diamond Mountain District Cabernet Sauvignon
The Diamond Mountain District AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in California's Mayacamas Mountains in the northeast portion of the Napa Valley AVA. The appellation sits at a higher elevation than most of Napa Valley's wine region, resulting in less cool fog coming in from San Pablo Bay, and more direct exposure to sunlight. The soil of this AVA is volcanic and very porous which allows it to cool down quickly despite the increased sunlight.
The entire AVA is over 400 feet (120 m) above sea level, which helps to cool it compared to the nearby valley floor appellations. The soil of the Diamond Mountain District is volcanic, including the small bits of volcanic glass that give the area its name.
The AVA is defined by the Napa-Sonoma county line on the west, Petrified Forest Road on the north, the 400 foot line of altitude running parallel to Route 29 on the east, and the Spring Mountain District to the south.
Diamond Mountain District's history as a winegrowing region dates back to 1862 or 1863, when the first vines were planted by Jacob Schram on a tract of land he purchased on the Napa side of the mountain. By 1892, his holdings had expanded to 100 acres, including
Ladoix-Serrigny is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
Ladoix-Serrigny is one of the wine communes of the Côte de Beaune, and the wines are usually labelled Ladoix, without the Serrigny part. The northeastern part of the Corton hill is in the commune, including some vineyards used to produce the Grand Cru wines Corton and Corton-Charlemagne. Some of the Premier Cru vineyards in Ladoix-Serrigny are part of the appellation of the neighboring village, and sold as Aloxe-Corton Premier Cru.
Wines:2005 Mitchell Katz "Ruby Hill Vineyard" Livermore Valley Estate Zinfandel
Livermore Valley, formerly Valle De San Jose, is a valley in eastern Alameda County, California location of the city of Livermore. The valley is bounded by the Diablo Range on the north, east and south and is linked to the west with the Amador Valley.
Watercourses draining the Livermore Valley include Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo del Valle, Arroyo Seco and Arroyo Las Positas.
Livermore Valley was named after Robert Livermore, a local rancher who settled in the area in the 1830s. His name and the valley where his ranch was located, became well known during the California Gold Rush when an inn in his old adobe ranch house, hosted travelers on the roads to the gold fields to the east, through the passes in the Diablo Range. The valley came to be called by his name as was Livermore Pass the northern most pass, that lead to Stockton and the mines of the Mother Lode.
The Ohio River Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area centered around the Ohio River and surrounding areas. It is the second largest wine appellation of origin in the United States (only the Upper Mississippi Valley is larger) with 16,640,000 acres (67,300 km) in portions of the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia. The area is mostly planted with hybrid grapes like Baco Noir, Marechal Foch, Seyval Blanc and Vidal. Of the Vitis vinifera found in the area Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Petit Manseng and Riesling are the most commonly found.
The Ohio River Valley AVA is the birthplace of American viticulture. Wine has been produced in Ohio since 1823 when Nicholas Longworth planted the first Alexander and Isabella grapes in the Ohio River Valley. In 1825, Longworth planted the first Catawba grapes in Ohio. Others soon planted Catawba in new vineyards throughout the state and by 1860, Catawba was the most important grape variety in Ohio. At this time, Ohio produced more wine than any other state in the country, and Cincinnati was the most important city in the national wine trade. Of the 570,000 gallons of wine that were produced each year in Ohio,
The Yadkin Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area that includes land in seven counties of northwestern North Carolina. The AVA encompasses an area of approximately 1,400,000 acres (5,666 km) in the Yadkin River valley. The Yadkin Valley AVA includes all of Wilkes, Surry, and Yadkin counties, and parts of Davie, Davidson, Forsyth and Stokes counties.
For decades, the area was a key tobacco-growing region. However, as tobacco farming and cigarette manufacturing in the area declined, some entrepreneurs, including tobacco farmers, have turned to winemaking. The native grapes of this region of the southeastern United States are the Muscadine and the Scuppernong. Early attempts to grow the European wine grape, Vitis vinifera, in the southeastern United States, including 18th century efforts by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, Virginia, had mixed success. But in the past two to three decades, viticultural research has helped adapt these grapes to the climate, soil, and pests of the region. Additionally, Surry Community College, located in Dobson, North Carolina, has served as a valuable community resource for this growing industry by offering certificate and degree programs in
Chianti Superiore is an Italian DOCG wine produced in the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and Siena, in Tuscany. Superiore is a specification for wines produced with a stricter rule of production than other Chianti wines.
Chianti Superiore has been authorized since 1996. In 2004 there were still only 16 producers listed in the Chianti Superiore register among over 5000 Chianti producers in total.
Chianti Superiore wines can be produced only from grapes cultivated in the Chianti wine areas except from those vineyards that are registered in the Chianti Classico sub-zone.
Vineyards registered in Chianti sub-zones other than Classico can produce Chianti Superiore wines but must omit the sub-zone name on the label.
Chianti Superiore wines must be produced with the following grapes:
Ageing is calculated from January 1 after the picking. Chianti Superiore cannot be sold to the consumer before nine months of ageing, of which three must be in the bottle. Therefore it cannot be bottled before the June after picking or sold to consumers before the next September.
The Chianti production area is vast and includes many microclimates and terroirs. Differences between Chianti
Wines:2003 Beaulieu "Georges de Latour Private Reserve" Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
Napa Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Napa County, California, United States. Napa Valley is considered one of the premier wine regions in the world. Records of commercial wine production in the region date back to the nineteenth century, but premium wine production dates back only to the 1960s.
The combination of Mediterranean climate, geography and geology of the region are conducive to growing quality wine grapes. John Patchett established the Napa Valley's first commercial vineyard in 1858. In 1861 Charles Krug established another of Napa Valley's first commercial wineries in St. Helena. Viticulture in Napa suffered several setbacks in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including an outbreak of the vine disease phylloxera, the institution of Prohibition, and the Great Depression. The wine industry in Napa Valley recovered, and helped by the results of the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, came to be seen as capable of producing the best quality wine - equal to that of Old World wine regions. Napa Valley is now a major enotourism destination.
The valley floor is flanked by the Mayacamas Mountain Range on the western and northern sides the Vaca Mountains on
The Puget Sound AVA is an American Viticultural Area in western Washington state. It is the only AVA in the state of Washington that is located west of the Cascade Mountains.
The AVA encompasses the entire Puget Sound area from the Canadian border to just south of Olympia.
Rainfall in the Puget Sound AVA ranges from 15 inches (38 cm) to 60 inches (152 cm) annually, which is similar to many European grape growing areas and the Willamette Valley AVA in Oregon. Most of that rainfall occurs in the winter time. Summers are mild, sunny and dry. Irrigation is a necessity in some of the drier locations. The AVA is suited to cool climate varieties such as Madeleine Angevine, Madeline Sylvaner, Muller-Thurgau and Siegerrebe with some clonal varieties of Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris and Chardonnay growing well in warmer locations. Many new varieties showed promise during tests at the Washington State University Mount Vernon Agricultural Research Station. Those include Regent, St. Laurent, Zweigelt, Dornfelder and Garanoir.
One of the earliest recorded plantings in the Puget Sound area was done in 1872 by an American Civil War veteran named Lambert Evans on Stretch Island, near modern day
The Alta Mesa AVA is an American Viticultural Area entirely located within the Lodi AVA in Sacramento County, California in the United States. The appellation's name is Spanish for "high table", a reference to the higher elevation of the land compared to the surrounding terrain.
90% of the soil in the Alta Mesa AVA is dense clay and heavy gravel. The appellation is known for warm summers, and low annual rainfall. Alta Mesa is considered one of the warmest subregions of the Lodi AVA.
Federal recognition of the AVA occurred on July 17, 2006.
5,300 acres (21.4 km) of the appellation are planted to grapevines. The most common grape varieties are Zinfandel, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, and Merlot.
There are no wineries currently located in this AVA that produce wine. Wineries located outside of the appellation may produce wines created from grapes grown in Alta Mesa AVA vineyards and label their wines as such.
The Capay Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Capay Valley, in northwest Yolo County, California.
The 102,400 acres (41,440 ha) region included in the AVA borders Napa County, Lake County, and Colusa County, and is bounded by the Blue Ridge to the west and the Capay Hills to the east.
The AVA was created as a result of a petition by Capay Valley Vineyards, the largest winery in the valley.
John Gillig purchased part of the Rancho Canada de Capay Mexican land grant and established Yolo County's first winery in 1860.
Chablis Grand Cru is a wine Appellation d'Origine Contrￃﾴlￃﾩe (AOC) in the Chablis region of France, classified as part of the Burgundy wine region. It is reserved for the best quality sites in the general Chablis AOC. The sites are all on the right bank of the River Serein.
The wines are all white, from the chardonnay grape.
The Grand Crus of Chablis are connected on a chain of three interlocking slopes on the right bank overlooking the Serein. The seven Grand Cru vineyard are (from southeast to northwest): Blanchot, Les Clos, Valmur, Grenouilles, Vaudesir, Les Preuses and Bougros. There is an eighth vineyard, la Moutonne, that has "quasi" Grand Cru status. (It is recognized by the BIVB, but not by the INAO.) It is located entirely within the Grand Crus les Preuses and Vaudesir.
Chambertin is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. Chambertin is located within the commune of Gevrey-Chambertin, and it is situated approximately in the centre of a group of nine Grand Cru vineyards all having "Chambertin" as part of their name. The other eight vineyards, which all are separate AOCs, have hyphenated names where Chambertin appears together with something else, such as Chapelle-Chambertin. Chambertin itself is situated above (to the west of) the Route des Grands Crus. It borders on Chambertin-Clos de Bèze in the north, Griotte-Chambertin and Charmes-Chambertin in the east (across the road) and the Latricières-Chambertin in the south. The AOC was created in 1937.
Of the surrounding vineyards, wines from Chambertin-Clos de Bèze may also be sold under the Chambertin AOC. However, Chambertin-Clos de Bèze has a very good reputation on its own, so this is not widely practiced. The other seven "hyphenated Chambertin" Grand Cru vineyards do not have this right to use the Chambertin AOC.
As with most of Burgundy's vineyards, both Chambertin and Clos
Dão is a Portuguese wine region situated in the Região Demarcada do Dão with the Dão-Lafões sub region of the Centro, Portugal. It is one of the oldest established wine regions in Portugal. Dão wine is produced in a mountainous region with a temperate climate, in the area of the Rio Mondego and Dão rivers in the north central region of Portugal. The region became a Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) appellation in 1990. The Dão region is the origin of the Touriga Nacional vine that is the principal component of Port wine.
The wine region is located primarily on a plateau that is sheltered on three sides by the granite mountain ranges of Serra da Estrela, Serra do Caramulo and Serra da Nave. This helps the area maintain its temperate climate away from the effects of the nearby Atlantic Ocean. The region experiences abundant rainfall in the winter months and long, warm dry summers leading up to harvest. The region's vineyards are planted on sandy well-drained soil on top of granite rock.
The Dão was first officially recognized as a Região Demarcada in 1908. In the 1940s, to improve the quality of the wine from the region and promote some sort of national identity, the government
Gevrey-Chambertin is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department of France in the Bourgogne region in eastern France.
It lies 15 km South of Dijon. This touristic, winemaking village is situated on the Route des Grands Crus in the Côte de Nuits. The village is noted for the Grand cru Burgundy wine that is produced from its vineyards, the most famous of which is Chambertin.
Gevrey-Chambertin is one of the wine villages of the Côte de Nuits which lies along the foot of the Côte-d'Or escarpment, to the south of Dijon and with the broad Saône valley plain to its east. It produces red Burgundy wine from vineyards at the village, Premier Cru and Grand Cru level.
The vineyards on the slope of the Côte d'Or form a strip below and east of the woodland on the Jurassic limestone hills. In the plain of the Saône to the east, there are large fields. The commune is also traversed by the A31 road and the railway from Dijon to the south with a large marshalling yard (Gevrey-Triage). There is also a stretch of Roman road from Dijon to the southern end of the Forest of Cîteaux, to the south of the abbey.
As in England, Île de France and in the South of France, vines in Burgundy were planted very early on.
Griotte-Chambertin is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. Griotte-Chambertin is located within the commune of Gevrey-Chambertin. It is situated on the lower part of the hillside among the other "Chambertin", on the eastern (downhill) side of the Route des Grands Crus. It borders on Chapelle-Chambertin in the north, Charmes-Chambertin in the south, Chambertin itself in the west (across the road), and village-level Gevrey-Chambertin vineyards in the east.
The name of the vineyard derives from the grill pan shape that the rows of vines imitate. The AOC was created in 1937.
Wines from this vineyard are typically deep colored with soft fruitiness and velvet textures. The wines are expected to hit their peak in 10-20 years.
In 2008, 2.63 hectares (6.5 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 105 hectoliter of wine was produced, corresponding to 14,000 bottles.
The main grape variety for Griotte-Chambertin is Pinot Noir. The AOC regulations also allow up to 15 per cent total of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris as accessory grapes,
The Guenoc Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Lake County, California, USA, about 15 mi (24 km) north of the town of Calistoga. Guenoc Valley AVA was the first American Viticultural Area designaion granted to an area with just a single winery.
Guenoc Valley is a small inland valley comprising an alluvial fan of Arroyo Seco and Conejo Loam series soils isolated from surrounding areas by rocky ridges. Its geographical location also affects the climate. Guenoc Valley has slightly less rainfall than the nearby Middletown area. Guenoc Valley receives approximately 45 inches (114 cm) to 50 inches (127 cm) of rain per year, while Middletown receives approximately 60 in (152 cm) per year. Guenoc Valley also experiences slightly greater seasonal temperature extremes, being warmer in the summer and colder in the winter. Also, due to the surrounding ridges, fog is generally less severe than in Middletown. For these reasons, the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau determined that Guenoc Valley possesses geographical features which distinguish the area viticulturally.
Guenoc Valley has a long tradition of viticulture and wine production.
Irouléguy AOC wines (Basque: Irulegi, Basque pronunciation: [iɾuˈleɡi]) come from Lower Navarre in the Northern Basque Country, France and are usually considered as part of the wine region of South West France (Sud-Ouest). They are named after the village of Irouléguy and are the only wines with AOC certification in the Northern Basque Country. Irouléguy wines are often referred to as coming from "the smallest vineyard in France, the biggest in the Northern Basque Country".
Currently about 550,000 litres are produced annually, with about 70% of production being red wines, 20% rosé and 10% white.
The history of wine-making in the area goes back to at least the 3rd century when the Romans commented on wine-making in the area. It was boosted by monks of the Abbey of Roncesvalles in the 11th century who planted the first large scale vineyards to provide wine for pilgrims travelling along the Way of St James. Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the monks had to give up wine-making and the vineyards which were taken over by the local villagers.
During its peak in the 17th century, the Irouléguy vineyards comprised some 500ha of cultivated land. The production of wine had been
Musigny, sometimes referred to as Le Musigny, is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red and white wine in Côte de Nuits of Burgundy. It is located within the commune of Chambolle-Musigny, to the south of the village itself. It borders on the Grand Cru Clos de Vougeot in the southeast, to Échezeaux in the south, and to the Premier Cru Les Amoureuses in the northeast. The name is derived from a family de Musigny which is now extinct, but which held offices in the court of the Dukes of Burgundy from the 14th century. The AOC was created in 1936, but the borders of Musigny were previously set down legally in 1929.
Musigny is the only Grand Cru vineyard in Côte de Nuits for white wine as well as red, although the production of red wine dominates by over 90 per cent. All the other Burgundy Grand Crus for white wine are located in Côte de Beaune.
In 2008, 10.32 hectares (25.5 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the Musigny AOC, and 307 hectoliter of wine was produced, of which 284 hectoliter red wine and 23 hectoliter white wine. Some 0.66 hectares (1.6 acres) was used for the white wines. The amount produced corresponds to 41,000 bottles;
The Ramona Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located 28 miles (45 km) northeast of the city of San Diego in San Diego County, California centered around the city of Ramona. It was designated the 162nd American Viticultural Area in January, 2006 by the United States Department of the Treasury Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, which recognized the area for its distinctive microclimate, elevation, and soil attributes. Approximately 89,000 acres (360 km) in area and centered around the town of Ramona, California, it is 14.5 miles (23.3 km) long and 9.5 miles (15.3 km) wide. Geographically, the Ramona Valley is described as being a broad, flat valley ringed by hills and mountains that isolate it from the surrounding areas. The valley has an average vineyard elevation of 1,400 feet (430 m) and an annual average rainfall of 16.5 inches (41.9 cm).
Located within the large multi-county South Coast AVA, Ramona Valley was the third AVA to be designated in Southern California, after San Pasqual Valley AVA in 1981 and Temecula Valley AVA in 1986. In an interview on National Public Radio, Bill Schweitzer of the Ramona Valley Vineyard Association described the area's exceptional
Wines:2006 Lockwood "Block 7" San Lucas Estate Pinot Noir
The San Lucas AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Monterey County, California. It is located at the southern end of Salinas Valley, shares an eastern border with the Chalone AVA, and is bordered on the west by the Santa Lucia Range foothills. The appellation has the largest diurnal temperature variation of any of California's AVAs. There is a current petition to designate the San Bernabe vineyard, located at the region's northern end, as its own AVA. The vineyard is currently the world's largest continuous vineyard.
The Shenandoah Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia. The valley is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian and Allegheny Plateaus to the west. Most of the AVA is in Virignia, with a small portion in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. Most of the vineyards in the AVA are located in Virginia and grow a wide variety of Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca, and French hybrid grapes.
The Southern Oregon AVA, is an American Viticultural Area which lies in Southern Oregon, United States. The Southern Oregon AVA was established in 2004, and was created to include the land of two smaller AVAs, the Rogue Valley AVA and the Umpqua Valley AVA. Southern Oregon AVA was established to allow the two principal winegrowing regions in the southern part of the state to market themselves jointly. This creation of a "super-AVA" is a departure from the trend in the Willamette Valley AVA or northern Oregon of establishing smaller AVAs specific to a particular locale's climate or soil conditions.
The Southern Oregon AVA is the union of the Umpqua Valley AVA and the Rogue Valley AVA, and all land suitable for grape cultivation within the Southern Oregon AVA is also located in one of these smaller regions. A small strip of connecting territory is included in the Southern Oregon AVA to make it a contiguous region, however, this strip passes through mountainous regions not suitable for viticulture. The AVA lies entirely within the southwest corner of the state, south of Eugene and west of the Cascades, and consists of the river valleys of the Rogue and Umpqua River rivers and their
Beaumes de Venise is an appellation of wines from the eastern central region of the southern half of the Rhône Valley. It produces wines of two distinctly different types:
1. A sweet fortified wine of the type vin doux naturel (VDN), under the designation Muscat de Beaumes de Venise.
2. A red Côtes du Rhône Villages from the classification of named villages, which typifies the quality wines of the Côtes du Rhône region.
The vines are grown on the slopes around the foot of the Dentelles de Montmirail, a vertical comb of rock jutting out of the plain between the Rhône river and the Luberon-Ventoux mountains. Beaumes is famed for its natural fortified wine made from the Muscat grape, and records of its use go back almost two millennia. More recently it is also the producer of a high quality red wine. In 1943 the natural Sweet Beaumes de Venise Muscat was accorded its appellation contrôlée, to be followed in 1956 by an AOC for its Côtes du Rhône. The red, white and rosé wines were elevated to the appellation of Côtes du Rhône Villages AOC (named villages) in 1978, and in 2005 the greatest honor of all was bestowed on the sweet fortified wine when it became a cru - the highest order of
Wines:2005 Martin Ray "Regusci Vineyard" Stag's Leap District Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon
The Stags Leap District AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within the Napa Valley AVA 6 miles (9.7 km) north of the city of Napa, California. The Stags Leap District was the first appellation to be designated an AVA based on the unique terroir characteristics of its soil. The soil of this region include loam and clay sediments from the Napa River and volcanic soil deposits left over from erosion of the Vaca Mountains. Like many Napa Valley AVAs, Stags Leap District is particularly known for its Cabernet Sauvignon. In 1976 at the Judgment of Paris wine tasting, the 1973 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet from the area that would become this AVA won first place in the red wine category, beating out classified Bordeaux estates. Today, the Stags Leap District is home to twenty different wineries.
Grapes were planted in the area that would become the Stags Leap District as early as the 1870s, with the first winery in the area being founded in 1878. Nathan Fay planted the first Cabernet Sauvignon in the area in 1961, on land that would later be purchased by Warren Winiarski for Stag's Leap Wine Cellars.
The Atlas Peak AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA just northeast of the city of Napa. The appellation sits on a higher elevation than most of Napa's wine region which limits the effects of the cool fog coming in from Pacific Ocean. The westward orientation of most vineyards on the Vaca Mountains also extends the amount of direct sunlight on the grapes. The soil of this AVA is volcanic and very porous which allows it to cool down quickly despite the increased sunlight. The area has a fairly significant diurnal temperature variation upwards of 30°F between daytime and night. This contributes to the balance of acidity that grapes from Atlas Peak vineyards are known to have.
The Edna Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in San Luis Obispo County, California south of the city of San Luis Obispo and north of the town of Arroyo Grande. It is part of the larger Central Coast AVA. The valley is roughly bounded by Lake Lopez to the south and Islay Hill to the north. It runs east to west bounded to the west by the Santa Lucia Mountains. The valley is shadowed by volcanic mountains and characterized by black humus and clay-rich soils. Edna Valley has one of California’s longest growing seasons. The valley is kept cool by breezes from the Pacific Ocean and morning fog. The AVA is most well known for its Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, and to a lesser extent Syrah. Grapes were originally planted here by Spanish missionaries in the early 19th century. The region saw a revival when new vineyards were planted in the early 1970s by Paragon and Chamisal Vineyards. Edna Valley wines are often grouped with those of the contiguous Arroyo Grande Valley AVA.
Lodi AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Central Valley of California, at the northern edge of the San Joaquin Valley east of San Francisco Bay. The AVA gained approval as a designated wine growing area in 1986 and includes 551,000 acres (2,230 km) of which 90,000 acres (364 km) are currently planted with wine grapes. In 2002, the area included in the AVA was expanded by 93,500 acres (37,838 ha) (10,840 acres (4,387 ha) planted) along the southern and western portions of the original AVA boundaries in San Joaquin County. The appellation includes land in southern Sacramento County and northern San Joaquin County. It is bounded on the west by Interstate Highway 5 and to the east by the political borders for the adjacent El Dorado, Amador, and Calaveras Counties.
The Lodi region has been home to grape growing since at least the 1850s when wild grapes would grow down from trees along the edge of rivers. This led some trappers to call the Calaveras River, which runs through the southern portion of the area, "Wine Creek".
Lodi has a Mediterranean climate similar to that along the Mediterranean Sea, with warm days and cool nights. The soil, unlike many other appellations,
Crépy is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for white wine in the Savoy wine region of France. The region is on the south side of Lake Geneva. The wines are exclusively white, made from the Chasselas grape variety which is also extensively grown in Switzerland. The wines are light and dry and best drunk young.
Jumilla is a Spanish Denominación de Origen (DO) for wines that extends over the north of the region of Murcia, including the municipality of Jumilla —from which it takes its name— and the contiguous southeast of the Albacete province (municipalities of Montealegre del Castillo, Fuentealamo, Ontur, Hellin, Albatana and Tobarra) in the Castile-La Mancha region.
There are currently 32,000 hectares currently under vines in Jumilla DO, 45% of which are in Murcia and 55% in Albacete. There are around 3,000 grape-growers registered.
During the outbreak of the phylloxera plague in the 19th century the region surprisingly escaped contamination and so entered a period of economic expansion as wine merchants from France came in great numbers to buy wine. For this reason the vines were never regrafted onto resistant rootstock from the New World as was the case in the rest of Europe. However, the phylloxera pest unexpectedly struck in 1989, devastating the vineyards and reducing production by 60% over the next five years. Replanting and grafting was slow and expensive but allowed the region to adopt the new methods of grape growing and wine making that were already proving successful in the
The Rutherford AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Napa Valley AVA and centered around the town of Rutherford, California. The area is known for its unique terroir particularly with its Cabernet Sauvignon. The well drained soil of this area is composition of gravel, loam and sand with volcanic deposits and marine sediments from the Franciscan Assemblage. The appellation accounts for only 6,650 acres (27 km) in the center of Napa Valley but has been home to some of the regions most historic and world renowned wineries such as Beaulieu Vineyards and Inglenook Winery.
Vouvray is a French region of the Loire Valley located in the Touraine district just east of the city of Tours in the commune of Vouvray. The Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) is dedicated almost exclusively to Chenin blanc though the obscure and minor grape Arbois is permitted but rarely used.
Wine production in this area is highly variable and dependent on climate conditions, with cooler years promoting the production of dry (sec) and sparkling Vouvray while warmer, more favorable vintage encourages the production of sweet moelleux or liquoreux styles produced by noble rot in a manner similar to the sweet dessert wines of Sauternes. With the naturally high acidity of Chenin blanc, Vouvrays from favorable vintages have immense aging potential with some examples drinking well into 100 years of age. Across the Loire River from Vouvray is the Montlouis AOC which produces Chenin blanc based wines like Vouvray that tend to have less acidity and concentration of flavor.
Viticulture has existed in Vouvray since at least the Middle Ages when the Catholic Church maintained vineyards at the local monasteries. The Chenin blanc grape, known locally as Pineau de la Loire, is believed to
Gaillac AOC is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in South West France in the département of Tarn, just north of Toulouse.
The region makes claims to be the earliest viticultural centres of ancient Gaul, though possibly after those of Languedoc around Narbonne, with wine production established in early 1st century. Roman merchants transported wine to Bordeaux and Northern Europe down the Tarn River, and vineyards soon followed in the valley. Archaeologists have found Roman pottery in Montans.
The town of Gaillac grew up around a Benedictine monastery in the Middle Ages. As elsewhere, vineyards flourished in the care of the monks, who needed wine for religious purposes. In time the Counts of Toulouse gave Gaillac the right to put a rooster on the barrel in recognition of their wine.
The vineyards cover 4,200 hectares (10,000 acres). The production is between 110-150,000 hl of red wine, 45-60,000 hl of white wine, and 20,000 hl of rosé.
Chevalier-Montrachet is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for white wine from Chardonnay in the Côte de Beaune subregion of Burgundy. It is located within the commune of Puligny-Montrachet. Bâtard-Montrachet borders on the Grand Cru vineyard Montrachet and on the Puligny-Montrachet Premier Cru vineyard Le Cailleret in the east. In terms of the Côte d'Or hillside, Chevalier-Montrachet is located above Montrachet, and is located highest of the five "Montrachet" vineyards. The AOC was created in 1937.
In 2008, 7.47 hectares (18.5 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 311 hectoliter of wine was produced, corresponding to just over 41,000 bottles.
The only grape variety allowed for Chevalier-Montrachet is Chardonnay, unlike other white Burgundy wines, where up to 15% Pinot Blanc may be added. The allowed base yield is 40 hectoliter per hectare, and the minimum grape maturity is 12.0 per cent potential alcohol.
Clos de Tart is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) and Grand Cru vineyard for red wine in the Côte de Nuits subregion of Burgundy, with Pinot Noir as the main grape variety. It is situated in the commune of Morey-Saint-Denis in the Côte-d'Or département. Clos de Tart is located in the southern part of the commune, starts immediately west (uphill) of the village itself, and borders to the Grand Cru vineyard Bonnes Mares in the south and Clos des Lambrays in the north. The AOC was created in 1939, and the Clos part of its name refers to a wall-enclosed vineyard.
Clos de Tart is a monopole, owned by Mommessin.
In 1141, Clos de Tart was sold by Maison Dieu in Brochon to the Cistercian nuns of Notre Dame de Tart. It remained owned by them until the French Revolution, at which time it was sequestered to the state and sold. The Mommessin family bought it in 1932, and they were the owners when the Clos de Tart AOC was created in 1939, which was just after the first wave of Grand Cru AOCs was definied in 1936-1937.
In 2008, 7.51 hectares (18.6 acres) of vineyard surface was in production within the AOC, and 218 hectoliters of wine was produced, corresponding to 29,000 bottles.
Coteaux du Layon is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for sweet white wine in the Loire Valley wine region of France. Coteaux du Layon is situated in the Anjou district of the region, along the river Layon, which is a tributary of the Loire River. Six of the villages (communes), namely Beaulieu-sur-Layon, Faye-d'Anjou, Rablay-sur-Layon, Rochefort-sur-Loire, Saint-Aubin-de-Luigné and Saint-Lambert-du-Lattay are allowed to add their name to that of the appellation. Usually, the "de" or "sur" part is dropped, to give names like Coteaux du Layon Beaulieu and Coteaux du Layon Saint-Aubin. Furthermore, two villages within the Coteaux du Layon area form their own respective AOC – Bonnezeaux and Chaume. Finally, a favoured enclave within Chaume is a separate AOC under the name Quarts de Chaume. For the geographically delimited AOCs, required grape maturity is higher and allowed yield is lower. The best vineyards are generally located on the north bank of the Layon, where they enjoy a good sun exposure on roughly south-facing slopes. Coteaux du Layon including its enclave appellations cover about 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) in the early 2000s.
The wines of Coteaux du Layon are all
Cￃﾴtes de Provence is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France.
About 80% of the wines are rosￃﾩ. These and the red wines are made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Syrah, Mourvￃﾨdre, Tibouren, Carignan and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. There are also a few white wines, made from Rolle, Ugni Blanc, Clairette and Semillon grapes. The characters of the wines (and the colours of the rosￃﾩs) vary enormously over the region, as the climate and soils are very variable.
Provence vineyards- List of Cￃﾴtes de Provence wines with websites.
Gigondas is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the southern Rhône wine region of France. It is primarily a Red wine region, with a very small amount of rosé wine produced. No white wines carry the Gigondas appellation. Being a little brother of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, the wine is moderately prestigious and can yield beautiful results when treated with care. Gigondas AOC wine is produced exclusively in the commune of Gigondas, in Vaucluse.
The name of the appellation is of roman origin. Jocunditas means great pleasure and enjoyment in Latin with the town being founded as a recreational site for the soldiers from the roman Second Legion. The finding of a Bacchus-head indicates that wine was already grown at this time. Later the fields went to the church and later still, one finds the Prince of Orange to be a large land owner in the area. As early as 1894 the wines from the region won a gold medal at the agricultural fair in Paris. But until the beginning of World War II, the wines were used as reinforcement to thin Burgundies. In 1956, a bitter winter caused the production of wine to experience a renaissance, as the olive trees had died from the cold. In 1971 the
Margaux is a wine growing commune and Appellation d'origine contrôlée within Haut-Médoc in Bordeaux, centred around the village of Margaux. Its leading (premier cru) château is also called Margaux. It contains 21 cru classé châteaux, more than any other commune in Bordeaux..
As well as Margaux itself, the appellation includes the villages of Cantenac, Arsac, Soussans and Labarde. It is on the left bank of the Gironde. It is the southernmost appellation in the Médoc (the haut in Haut-Médoc refers to the fact that it lies upstream), not far north of Bordeaux itself. To the east is the Landes forest. The soil is the thinnest in the Médoc, with the highest proportion of gravel. (The generally received opinion being that poor soil makes good wine.) The gravel provides good drainage. The forest to the west shelters the vines from Atlantic breezes. Margaux contains 1413 hectares of vineyards, making it the second largest appellation in the Haut-Médoc (after Saint-Estèphe). The châteaux are concentrated in the village, and the vineyards are more intermingled than elsewhere. The vines ripen 7-10 days before the rest of the Médoc.
Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant grape, but it is
Mendocino (formerly, Big River, Meiggstown, and Mendocino City) is an unincorporated community in Mendocino County, California, United States. Mendocino is located 9.5 miles (15 km) south of Fort Bragg, at an elevation of 154 feet (47 m). The population was 894 at the 2010 census, up from 824 at the 2000 census. The town's name comes from Cape Mendocino, named by early Spanish navigators in honor of Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain.
Despite its small size, the town's scenic location on a headland surrounded by the Pacific Ocean has made it extremely popular as an artist colony and with vacationers.
Prior to 1850, a Pomo settlement named Buldam was located near Mendocino on the north bank of the Big River. The town was founded in 1850 as a logging community, and was originally named Meiggsville after Henry Meiggs. The first post office opened in 1858. Many of the town's early settlers were New Englanders, as was true with many older Northern California logging towns. Portuguese fishermen from the Azores also settled in the area, as did immigrants from Canton Province in China, who built a Taoist temple in the town.
Mendocino's economy declined after 1940, and it became a
Wines:2004 Plungerhead "Old Vine" Sierra Foothills Zinfandel
The Sierra Foothills AVA (established in 1987) is an American Viticultural Area (AVA) in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the state of California in the United States. Wine grapes were introduced to the area in the nineteenth century during the California Gold Rush. Over 100 wineries are located within the boundaries of the AVA.
The Sierra Foothills AVA contains portions of eight California counties: Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, Tuolumne and Yuba. The total area of the appellation is 2,600,000 acres (10,522 km), one of the largest AVAs in the state of California.
Wine grapes were first planted in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the California Gold Rush of the late 1840s and early 1850s. Federal recognition of the AVA occurred on November 18, 1987.
5,700 acres (23.1 km) of the appellation are planted to grapevines. The most common grape variety is Zinfandel, which accounts for 2,300 acres (9 km). Cabernet Sauvignon is planted on 600 acres (2 km), and Syrah is planted to 560 acres (2 km). The most common white grape variety is Chardonnay, planted to 289 acres (1 km). Other grape varieties are grown in smaller quantities.
Wines:2005 Ridge "York Creek Vineyard" Napa Valley Zinfandel
The Spring Mountain District AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Napa Valley AVA in California. Spring Mountain District AVA was officially established as an American Viticulture Area in 1993. Encompassed within its bounds are about 8,600 acres (3,480 ha), of which about 1,000 acres (400 ha) are planted to vineyards. Given the small crop yields on hillsides, the region represents less than 2% of Napa Valley wine. Currently the region has just over 30 winegrowers.
The appellation sits on steep terraces of the Mayacamas Mountains that separate Napa Valley from Sonoma Valley and the Santa Rosa Plain. It lies in a northwestern portion of the Napa Valley above and behind the town of Saint Helena. The boundaries of the appellation extend from the top of the ridgeline on the western edge, tracing the Sonoma/Napa County border. From the ridgeline the boundaries extend down to the 400 feet (122 m) contour line at the eastern base of the hillside. The southern boundary is Sulphur Creek and one of its tributaries, while the northern boundary is Ritchie Creek.
Elevations range from 400 feet (122 m) to 2,600 feet (792 m). The region has a predominantly eastern exposure.
The Texas High Plains AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Texas panhandle. The appellation is the second largest American Viticultural Area in Texas, and covers an area of over 8,000,000 acres (32,375 km). Most of the vineyards are on flat terrain at elevations between 3,000 feet (914 m) and 4,000 feet (1,219 m) above sea level. The Texas plains can be very dry, so most vineyards are irrigated with water from the Ogallala Aquifer.
There are at least six wineries located within the Texas High Plains AVA, although many wineries outside of the AVA source grapes from the high plains including Llano Estacado Winery.
Wines:2006 Ambullneo "Bulldog" Santa Maria Valley Reserve Pinot Noir
Santa Maria Valley is an American Viticultural Area located in Northern Santa Barbara County and San Luis Obispo County, California USA.
This appellation is the oldest in this portion of California. Grape growing in this region dates back to the Mexican Colonial period of the 1830s. In the late 1960s commercial vineyards were planted to supply wineries around the state. Since then, vineyards in the valley have come to encompass 7,500 acres (3,000 ha).
The Santa Maria Valley is a natural funnel-shaped valley opening west to the Pacific Ocean. The elevation of the area ranges from approximately 200 feet (60 m) at the intersection of Highway 101 and Santa Maria River to approximately 3,200 feet (980 m) at Tepusquet Peak. The grapes that are grown within the area are on the valley floor at an approximate elevation of 300 feet (90 m) and on the slopes and rolling hillsides up to an elevation of 800 feet (240 m). The soils within the area range in texture from a sandy loam to clay loam and are free from adverse salts.
Since the valley opens to the ocean, there is no opposition to the sea fog that moves in overnight, engulfing lower lying vineyards, and often lingering into mid-day. This
Barolo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 50 km southeast of Turin and about 40 km northeast of Cuneo. As of April 30, 2009 it had a population of 750 and an area of 5.6 km².
Barolo borders the following municipalities: Castiglione Falletto, La Morra, Monforte d'Alba, Narzole, and Novello.
Cassis is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France.
Most of the wines are white, made from Clairette Blanc, Ugni Blanc, Marsanne, Sauvignon Blanc and Pascal Blanc grapes. Unusually for southern French white wines, these age well. Red wines are made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Mourvￃﾨdre, Carignan and Barbaroux. As in most of Provence, rosￃﾩ wines are also common.
Little is transported outside of the region as production is small with a large amount usually going to serve the people and reaturants of the Riviera.
Frascati is an Italian white wine from the region of Frascati, in Lazio, Italy. Frascati is made from Trebbiano, Greco and Malvasia grapes and has Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) status. The Frascati DOC is located in the heart of the Alban Hills, south of Rome, and north of Lake Albano. The DOC allows for a minimum of 70% Malvasia (Bianca di Candia) and/or Trebbiano (Toscano), a 30% maximum of Greco and/or Malvasia (del Lazio) and a maximum of 10% other white grapes.
Lirac is a wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the department of Gard situated in the low hills along the right bank of the Rhône river in the southern Rhône wine region of France. It is named after the town of Lirac. Bordering on the neighbouring cru of Tavel AOC, a rosé-only cru in the next village, Lirac is one of the 13 crus of the Rhône valley family. On the opposite river bank is the famous Châteauneuf-du-Pape vineyard.
Lirac wines have been produced in the region since pre Roman times and were the favourite wines of kings and the papal community in Avignon at the time of the schism. Pope Innocent IV ordered 20 casks of wine from there in 1357 and Henry IV of France and Louis XIV served them regularly in court known only as Rhône wine. In the mid 17th century the right-bank district of Côte du Rhône had issued regulations to govern the quality of its wine and in 1737 the king ordered that casks of Lirac wine shipped from the nearby river port of Roquemaure should be branded with the letters CDR to introduce a system of protecting its origin. The rules for its Côte du Rhône thus formed the very early basis of today's nationwide AOC system governed by the
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, on Central California's Pacific coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet (8 m) above sea level, on a land area of 70008470000000000008.47 sq mi (21.9 km). The 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810.
Monterey was the capital of Alta California from 1777 to 1846 under both Spain and Mexico. It was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U.S. flag was raised over the Customs House, and California was claimed for the United States.
The city had California's first theatre, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century and many celebrated painters and writers have lived there. Until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery.
Among Monterey's notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman's Wharf and the annual Monterey Jazz Festival.
Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as
Saint-Bris is an Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) for white wine in the Burgundy wine region of France. This AOC is located around the village Saint-Bris-le-Vineux in the Yonne department, a few kilometers southwest of the Chablis AOC area, and southeast of the city of Auxerre, which places it roughly halfway between Paris and Burgundy's heartland in Côte d'Or. The approximately 100 hectares (250 acres) of vineyard in the appellation are situated in the communes Chitry, Irancy, Quenne, Saint-Bris-le-Vineux and Vincelottes.
What makes Saint-Bris something of an oddity for Burgundy is that it is made from Sauvignon grapes, with the varieties Sauvignon blanc and Sauvignon gris both being allowed, rather than the Chardonnay of Chablis and the notable white Burgundies, or the Aligoté of many simpler, easy-drinking whites of the region. It is the only Burgundy AOC that allows Sauvignon in the wines. Wines from vineyards around Saint-Bris-le-Vineux planted with Chardonnay or Pinot Noir are not included in the Saint-Bris AOC, but are allowed the appellation Côtes d'Auxerre.
While showing typical Sauvignon aromas, the wines have been characterised as less concentrated than the
The Anderson Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area centered around the Anderson Valley in Mendocino County, California. It is known primarily for its Pinot Noir and sparkling wine production. Lying 10 miles (16 km) to 15 miles (24 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the AVA is prone to wide diurnal temperature variation of between 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The valley frequently has long Indian summers. Wineries in the AVA host an annual Alsatian wine festival where locally produced Riesling and Gewurztraminer wines are showcased.
Wines:2004 Carol Shelton "Monga Zin, Lopez Vineyard" Cucamonga Valley Zinfandel
The Cucamonga Valley is a region between the Los Angeles and San Bernardino areas, in San Bernardino County and Riverside County, of California, United States. It is located east of the Pomona Valley and it is a major site of wine production and is the location of the Cucamonga Valley AVA, a designated American Viticultural Area. The valley is in the Inland Empire.
The demographics of the Cucamonga Valley have been shifting in recent years. The population of European Americans, who once constituted a large majority, is on the decline while the population of Latinos and African Americans is growing . Unlike most of Southern California, there is not a particularly strong representation of Asian Americans in the Cucamonga Valley, although it is steadily increasing. Rancho Cucamonga has the highest population of Asian Americans in the Cucamonga Valley, at 9.0% of the population.
Two Metrolink commuter rail lines, the San Bernardino Line and the Riverside Line, serve the Cucamonga Valley. The lines are named for their eastern terminal stations, with their shared western terminal being Los Angeles Union Station.
Freeways running in an east-west direction are (from northernmost to
Haut-Médoc is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for wine in the Bordeaux wine region of southwestern France, on the Left Bank of the Gironde estuary. Covering a large part of the viticultural strip of land along the Médoc peninsula, the zone covers approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) of its length.
As defined by the original Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO) decree of November 14, 1936, its southern edge borders the city of Bordeaux and the Médoc AOC to the north, encompassing fifteen communes exclusive to the appellation, while at the same time it enclaves six appellations made up of nine communes (Margaux AOC, Listrac-Médoc AOC, Moulis-en-Médoc AOC, Saint-Julien AOC, Pauillac AOC and Saint-Estèphe AOC) that are technically wine-making communes of Haut-Médoc. Similarly, Haut-Médoc is a sub-appellation of the Médoc AOC.
Of Haut-Médoc's fifteen wine-producing communes, eight are located along the waterfront of Garonne and Gironde: Blanquefort, Parempuyre, Ludon, Macau, Arcins, Lamarque, Cussac and Saint-Seurin-de-Cadourne. Seven communes lie inland: Le Taillan, Le Pian-Médoc, Avensan, Saint-Laurent-Médoc. Saint-Sauveur, Cissac and Vertheuil.
Few of the
The Mendocino Ridge AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in coastal Mendocino County, California. The boundaries of the AVA include a range of coastal mountains adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Although the area included in the AVA is over 250,000 acres (1,000 km), the only land suitable for grape cultivation lies above 1,200 feet (366 m) in altitude, above the coastal fog. Most of the land is unsuitable for grape growing, and currently less than 75 acres (30 ha) are under vine. Nearly all of the plantings in this area are Zinfandel, and grapes have been planted in the valley since the late 19th century. Much of the non-planted land is covered by Redwood and Douglas Fir trees.
The San Pasqual Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in northern San Diego County, California. San Pasqual Valley was the fourth wine region to be designated an American Viticultural Area when the AVA was created in 1981. It belongs to Region IV on the Winkler scale. The climate in this appellation is desert-like but tempered by cool breezes from the Pacific Ocean, with long growing seasons (average temperatures above 50 °F (10 °C) year-round), warm winters with nighttime lows rarely dipping below 35 °F (2 °C), and summers with daily highs rarely exceeding 95 °F (35 °C). With cooler evenings and granite-based soils that drain well, grapes from this area are able retain their colors and balanced acidity. The area is planted with a wide range of Vitis Vinifera with Grenache, Merlot Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo and Viognier being some of the most widely planted. The AVA is defined roughly to include both coasts of San Dieguito River on the east side of I-15, between San Diego and Escondido, up to the elevation of 500 feet.
There is a total of one commercial vineyard in this AVA, namely the Orfila Winery. The Ferrara Winery and the Cordiano Winery are located in the
Wines:1998 Château La Tour Blanche Sauternes Sémillon
Sauternes is a commune in the Gironde department in Aquitaine in southwestern France.
It is also a wine region within the Graves portion of Bordeaux that produces sweet white dessert wines, named "Sauternes" after the commune, as well as some dry white wine.
The Columbia Gorge AVA is an American Viticultural Area which includes land surrounding the Columbia River Gorge, straddling the border between Oregon and Washington. Due to the unique climate and geography found in the gorge, this AVA exhibits a wide range of terroir in a relatively small region; it is marketed as a "world of wine in 40 miles".
The Columbia Gorge AVA consists of four counties; Hood River and Wasco counties in Oregon, and Skamania and Klickitat counties in Washington. The region stretches from Hood River, Oregon and White Salmon, Washington in the west, to Biggs Junction, Oregon and Goldendale, Washington in the east. It includes the river valleys of the Hood River and Deschutes River in Oregon, and the Klickitat River and Little Klickitat River in Washington.
As this region lies to the east of the summits of nearby Mount Hood and Mount Adams, it is in rain shadow of these Cascade volcanoes. The region is significantly drier than the Portland metropolitan area to the west. Annual precipitation ranges from 36 inches (91 cm) at the western end of the range, to only 10 inches (25 cm) in the eastern part. Elevation in the region varies considerably, increasing as one
The Fredericksburg in the Texas Hill Country AVA is an American Viticultural Area surrounding the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in the Texas Hill Country. Fredericksburg and the surrounding area were settled by German immigrants in the nineteenth century. These settlers were the first to cultivate grapevines in the Texas Hill Country. The appellation is over 200 miles (322 km) from the Gulf of Mexico, and feels little effect of from the hot, humid, coastal winds..
The Hermann AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Gasconade County, Missouri, and entirely contained within the larger Ozark Mountain AVA. The wine appellation is located on the southern side of the Missouri River near the town of Hermann, about halfway between St. Louis and Jefferson City. The AVA covers the northern-most hills of the Ozark Plateau with many of the 200 acres (80 hectares) of vineyards planted along hillside locations. As of 2007, seven wineries were producing wine in appellation, including Missouri's largest winery, Stone Hill Winery.
The area is a flood plain with alluvial soil deposits up to 30 feet (9 m) deep. Growing conditions in the area have been compared to those in southern and eastern Germany. A wide variety of grapes are grown in Hermann, including Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca, and French hybrids.
The Hermann area was founded in 1836 by settlers from the German Settlement Society of Philadelphia. The location along the southern banks of the Missouri river was selected for its similarities to the Rheingau region that many of the settlers came from. The area was named Hermann after Arminius of Germania, a 1st century German hero who opposed
Muscat de Rivesaltes is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) for fortified wines (of the type vin doux naturel) made in the Roussillon wine region of France. They are similar to Rivesaltes AOC wines, except for the grape varieties used. The wines are white, and made from Muscat d'Alexandrie and Muscat à Petits Grains grapes, usually in equal quantities, although the appellation rules allow these varieties to be used in any proportion. The alcohol content must be at least 15 per cent by volume, the potential alcohol content at least 21.5 per cent, and the sugar content (fermentable sugars, glucose and fructose) of the finished wine at least 100 grams per liter.
The AOC was created in 1956.
The wine is usually served as an aperitif but in Rivesaltes ville and the surrounding area is commonly drunk by the glass in bars and cafes. A popular local starter is foie gras served with a glass of Muscat de Rivesaltes.
Muscat de Noël is a designation for young Muscat de Rivesaltes marketed for the Christmas (Noël) season in its harvest year. Muscat de Rivesaltes with the additional designation Muscat de Noël can be marketed from November 1 in its harvest year, while regular Muscat de
Palette is a small French wine AOC in the Provence region of southern France, near Aix-en-Provence. The AOC was established in 1948.
The grapes for this AOC are grown in Aix-en-Provence, Meyreuil, and Le Tholonet. The hamlet of Palette, which gives its name to the AOC, is located on the territory of the commune of Le Tholonet.
Grapes destined for red, white and rosé wines of Palette must be harvested to a yield no greater than 40 hl/ha and the finished wines must all attain a minimum alcohol level of at least 11%. The blend for the reds and rosé must be composed of a minimum 80% Grenache, Mourvedre and/or Cinsault with the remaining 20% permitted to be a blend from Syrah, Carignan Castet, Manosquin, Muscat noir and Cabernet Sauvignon.
The whites of Palette are composed of at least 80% Clairette with Bourboulenc, Trebbiano, Grenache blanc and several white varieties Muscat permitted to round out the remaining 20%.
Pineau des Charentes, (Pineau Charentais, or simply Pineau) is a regional French aperitif, made in the départements of Charente, Charente-Maritime and, to a much lesser extent, Dordogne in western France. While popular in within the region of production, it is less well known in other regions of France and somewhat uncommon abroad.
It is a fortified wine (mistelle or vin de liqueur), made from a blend of lightly fermented grape must and Cognac eau-de-vie.
Pineau is also found as a home-made product in the neighbouring Deux-Sèvres and Vendée départements. In the Vendée there is also made a similar drink called "Troussepinetteé, which is often flavoured with pine or fruits such as pear. Elsewhere in France analogous drinks are made (Macvin in Jura, Floc de Gascogne in the Armagnac area; there is also Pommeau, similarly made by blending apple juice and apple brandy), but these products are much less well known nationally and internationally than Pineau.
According to legend, during the harvest of 1589, a winemaker accidentally added grape must into a barrel that he believed was empty but in fact contained eau de vie. The mixture was duly returned to the cellars for fermentation. A few
Wines:2003 Storrs "Lion Oaks Vineyard" Santa Cruz Mountains Zinfandel
The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central California, United States. They form a ridge along the San Francisco Peninsula, south of San Francisco, separating the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Valley, and continuing south, bordering Monterey Bay and ending at the Salinas Valley. The range passes through San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, with San Francisco at the northern end and the Pajaro River at the southern end.
The northernmost portion of the Santa Cruz Mountains is known as Montara Mountain, north of Half Moon Bay Road (California State Route 92) the middle portion is known as the Sierra Morena, which includes a summit called Sierra Morena, and extends south to a gap at Lexington Reservoir, south of the gap the mountain range is known as the Sierra Azul.
The highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet (1,154 m), near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet (1,063 m), Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet (985 m), El Sombroso 2,999 feet (914 m), Eagle Rock 2,488 feet (758 m), Black Mountain 2,800 feet (850 m),
The Wahluke Slope AVA is an American Viticultural Area located within Grant County, Washington. It is part of the larger Columbia Valley AVA. The area is primarily known for Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.
The Wahluke Slope AVA is located in Grant County, Washington. It extends from the Columbia River in the west, the Hanford Site boundary in the southwest, the north bank of the Columbia River on the south up to the Wahluke Slope Wildlife Refuge in the east, and along the 1,480-foot (450 m) elevation of the Saddle Mountains on the north. The area has the warmest climates for grape growing in the state.
Crozes-Hermitage is a French wine Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in the northern Rhône wine region of France. The appellation is the largest in the northern Rhone, and its wines are less highly regarded than those from the nearby appellations of Côte-Rôtie or its near-namesake Hermitage. Most of the wines produced here are red wines made from the Syrah grape, sometimes blended with small quantities of white Roussanne or Marsanne grapes. Some white wines are also made, based on Marsanne and/or Roussanne.
In 1846, a panel of tasters commended the wine for its likeness to Hermitage wines. The appellation was officially defined in 1937 and was expanded in 1952.
Crozes-Hermitage, along with the rest of northern Rhône has a continental climate that differs from its southern neighbour, which has a more Mediterranean climate. Winters are wet and marked by the cold le mistral winds that can last into the Spring. The appellation is fairly large by Northern Rhône standards, with its 1,238 hectares accounting for approximately half of the entire region's 2,400 hectares. The appellation's boundary begins around 10 km north of Tain-l'Hermitage, extends around the village of Gervans with
Alsace Grand Cru is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in specific parcels of the Alsace wine region of France. The Grand Cru AOC was recognized in 1975 by the INAO with subsequent expansion in 1983, 1992 and 2007.
The wines come from selected sites in the Alsace AOC region, located at altitudes between 200 m and 300 m. To qualify for Grand Cru status, the wine must first meet the AOC Alsace-rules and then other strict requirements. Thus, the yield of the vineyards has to be 65 hectoliter per hectare or less, the wine has to come from a single named vineyard (which is called a lieu-dit in Alsace) of Grand Cru status, and the name of the vineyard must be listed on the label.
As of 2011, 51 lieux-dits are listed as Grand Cru, the latest addition being Kaefferkopf of Ammerschwihr in January 2007.
In Alsace, the concept of cru came very early.
In 613, the king-to-be Dagobert gave vines on the Steinklotz to the abbey of Haslach.
In Rouffach in 762, Heddo, Archbishop of Strasbourg, founded the abbey of Ettenheim and made his income up of the vines of the Vorbourg.
In Bennwihr in 777, the missi dominici passing through Alsace exposed in their report to Charlemagne the
California (/ˌkæləˈfɔrnjə/) is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third most extensive (after Alaska and Texas). It is home to the nation's 2nd and 6th largest census statistical areas (Los Angeles metropolitan area and San Francisco Bay Area, respectively), and eight of the nation's fifty most populated cities (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach and Oakland). The capital city is Sacramento.
California's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west, to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east – from the Redwood–Douglas-fir forests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in the southeast. The center of the state is dominated by Central Valley, a major agricultural area. California contains both the highest and lowest points in the contiguous United States (Mount Whitney and Death Valley), and has the 3rd longest coastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). Earthquakes are a common occurrence due to the state's location along the Pacific Ring of Fire: about 37,000 are recorded annually.
The name California once referred to a large area of
The California Shenandoah Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area that includes portions of Amador County and El Dorado County, California, USA. The region was first settled during the California Gold Rush in the nineteenth century, and settlers in the region began planting the first grapevines and producing the first wine soon thereafter. In the 1970s, Sutter Home Winery began bottling varietal Zinfandel wines made from Shenandoah Valley grapes, and in 1983 the region became a designated AVA. The most important grape varietal in the region is Zinfandel.
The Clear Lake AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Lake County, California. Half of the area contained within the boundaries of the AVA is Clear Lake, the largest body of freshwater in the state of California, and the namesake for the county. The moderating influence of the lake on the surrounding area results in a climate with less diurnal variation in temperature than surrounding areas. Clear Lake AVA is one of the coolest climates in California, which has led to success with grape varietals like Sauvignon Blanc.
The Texas Hill Country AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the Texas Hill Country north of San Antonio and west of Austin, Texas. The appellation is the second largest American Viticultural Area, and covers an area of over 9,000,000 acres (36,422 km). Despite the cultural influence of the local Texas German population, most of the grape varietals grown in the Texas Hill Country originate from France, Italy, or Spain rather than the cooler climate of Germany.
The Central Coast AVA is a large American Viticultural Area that spans from Santa Barbara County in the south to the San Francisco Bay Area in the north. The boundaries of the Central Coast include portions of six counties. With around 100,000 acres (400 km) planted to wine grapes, Chardonnay accounts for more than half of the total. Within this larger AVA are several smaller appellations that share the same cooling influence from the Pacific Ocean.
Because U.S. county names automatically qualify as legal appellations of origin for wine, the following appellations do not require registration with the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau:
Château-Grillet is a wine-growing AOC in the northern Rhône wine region of France, near Vienne, which produces white wine from Viognier grapes. The whole appellation, which is only 3.8 hectares (9.4 acres) in size, is owned by a single winery, Château-Grillet. The appellation was officially created in 1936.
Château-Grillet AOC is effectively an enclave of the Condrieu appellation, which also produces white Viognier-only wines. These appellations are located just south of Vienne in the northern part of the Rhône valley. The production of white wine in the Rhône region is relatively small compared to the red wines. Condrieu and Château-Grillet are the only appellations in northern Rhône that are exclusively white wine appellations.
The situation of an AOC (or other official wine designation) owned by a single estate is a situation known as a monopole. There are several other monopole estates in France including Romanée-Conti, La Tâche, La Romanée, Clos de Tart, and Clos de la Coulée de Serrant. The Neyret-Gachet family acquired the Château-Grillet estate in 1830, and the family retained ownership until the estate was purchased by French billionaire François Pinault in 2011. Today,
Clarksburg (formerly, Clarksburgh) is a census-designated place in Yolo County, California. It is located on the Sacramento River, in the extreme southeastern corner of the county. It lies at an elevation of 10 feet (3 m) in ZIP code 95612 and area code 916.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 2.0 square miles (5.3 km²), all of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Clarksburg had a population of 418. The population density was 206.0 people per square mile (79.5/km²). The racial makeup of Clarksburg was 339 (81.1%) White, 2 (0.5%) African American, 2 (0.5%) Native American, 16 (3.8%) Asian, 1 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 37 (8.9%) from other races, and 21 (5.0%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 109 persons (26.1%).
The Census reported that 418 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.
There were 168 households, out of which 51 (30.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 102 (60.7%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 11 (6.5%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10
The Cole Ranch AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in Mendocino County, California. At less than a quarter of a square mile, it is the smallest appellation in the United States. The AVA is located between the Russian River and Anderson Valley. All planted land in the appellation is owned by one winery, Esterlina Winery, though some of the grapes are sold to other wineries. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Riesling are the most popular planting. Cole Ranch is located within three larger appellations - Mendocino AVA, Mendocino County, and the North Coast AVA.
Coteaux Varois is a wine AOC in the Provence region of France.
About 70% of the wines are rosￃﾩ, made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Syrah, Mourvￃﾨdre, Tibouren and Carignan grapes. Reds are made from Grenache, Cinsaut, Syrah, Mourvￃﾨdre, Carignan and Cabernet Sauvignon. The small quantity of white wines are made from Clairette, Grenache, Rolle, Ugni Blanc and Semillon.
Crémant du Jura is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée for sparkling wines made in the Jura wine region of France.
White and rosé wines can be produced from Poulsard, Trousseau and Pinot Noir red grapes and Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Savagnin white grapes.
The Dry Creek Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, located northwest of the town of Healdsburg. The valley is formed by Dry Creek, a tributary of the Russian River, and is approximately 16 miles (25.7 km) long and 2 miles (3.2 km) wide. The appellation benefits from the close proximately of the Lake Sonoma reservoir for irrigation in this relatively dry area.
At the turn of the 20th century, Dry Creek Valley was one of California's most prominent producers of Zinfandel. During Prohibition, much of the valley was converted to plum, pear, and prune trees, and much of the fruit was processed by Sunsweet Growers in Healdsburg. Since the resurgence of wine grape production in the 1970s, Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel have become the most planted varietals, and Dry Creek Valley AVA has become one of the state's top Zinfandel producers. Sauvignon Blanc has become the most important white grape varietal produced in the valley.
Over 50 wineries are resident in Dry Creek Valley AVA, and over 160 wineries produce wines that bear a Dry Creek Valley AVA designation. Dry Creek Valley AVA is home to the majority of the Sonoma vineyards of E & J Gallo Winery,
Macvin is a unique late harvest vin du Jura fortified with marc du Jura. On 14 November 1991 it received the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) Macvin du Jura. It is the latest Jurassian AOC and the third vin de liqueur to receive such a designation.
Macvin has been in production since the fourteenth century. It is made from five permitted grape varieties, and can be red or rosé when produced from the poulsard, trousseau and pinot noir, or white when produced from chardonnay or savagnin. The grapes are harvested late in season when their sugar content is at its highest. The grape must is aged in oak barrels for twelve months without prior fermentation in tanks. Marc du Jura, pomace-based eau-de-vie, is then added in a ratio of on litre marc for every two of must. Fermentation stops, leaving behind residual sugar and a sweet dessert wine. The (highly fruity) wine is then barrel-aged to impart smoothness, delicacy, and subtelty. It should be served cool as an apéritif or with sweet dishes. It keeps well.
Producers in the Jura include Frederic Lornet, Gaspard Feuillet, Chateau Béthanie, Domaine Berthet-Bondet, and Henri Maire.
The Northern Sonoma AVA is an American Viticultural Area in Sonoma County, California, USA. The appellation covers most of the county with the notable exceptions of the Los Carneros AVA and Sonoma Valley AVA wine regions, which are located in the southern portion of the county. The creation of this AVA was largely based on the petitioning of the E & J Gallo Winery as part of their expansion of their Gallo of Sonoma brand.
Petit Chablis is a wine Appellation d'Origine Contrￃﾴlￃﾩe (AOC) in the Chablis region of France, classified as part of the Burgundy wine region. It is a smaller region within the general Chablis AOC, and the appellation was created in 1944.
The wines are all white, from the chardonnay grape.
The Rocky Knob AVA is an American Viticultural Area in a mountainous area east of the Blue Ridge Parkway in southwest Virginia. The AVA includes portions of Floyd and Patrick counties. The area is located on the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge Mountains near the towns of Woolwine and Meadows of Dan and astride the Blue Ridge Parkway. It was established in 1983 and encompasses 9,000 acres (36 km). The soil is primarily loam and gravel and is well-drained. Rocky Knob AVA was named for the eponymously named mountainous recreational area located within the AVA.
The elevations in the Rocky Knob AVA range from 1,600 feet (490 m) to 3,574 feet (1,089 m) above sea level. Strong winds at these elevations help protect grapes from fungus and mildew conditions. The average rainfall is 43.10 inches (1,095 mm) per year.
The Santa Cruz Mountains AVA is an American Viticultural Area centered around the Santa Cruz Mountains. It includes three counties in California: Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and San Mateo. Recognized as an AVA in 1981, the Santa Cruz Mountains Appellation was among the first to be defined by its mountain topography. Based on elevation, it largely follows the fog line along the coast, extending down to 800 feet (240 m) in the east (San Francisco Bay side) and 400 feet (120 m) in the west (Monterey Bay side), and encompasses the highest ridgetops at 3000’+ elevation.
The mountain terrain, the Pacific Ocean, and the nearby San Francisco Bay have wide ranging effects on the appellation, creating myriad microclimates in the region - depending on the elevation of the land, on which side of the mountains are the vineyards, the effects of fog, sun exposure, soil type, etc.
The region is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountain range, from Half Moon Bay and Woodside in the north, to Mount Madonna and Watsonville in the south. The appellation encompasses some 322,000 acres (1,300 km) extending through Santa Cruz, Santa Clara and San Mateo Counties.
The subregions are: Skyline, Saratoga/Los Gatos,
Sauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux. Sauternes is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. This causes the grapes to become partially raisined, resulting in concentrated and distinctively flavored wines. Due to its climate, Sauternes is one of the few wine regions where infection with noble rot is a frequent occurrence. Even so, production is a hit-or-miss proposition, with widely varying harvests from vintage to vintage. Wines from Sauternes, especially the Premier Cru Supérieur estate Château d'Yquem, can be very expensive, due largely to the very high cost of production. Barsac lies within Sauternes, and is entitled to use either name. Somewhat similar but less expensive and typically less-distinguished wines are produced in the neighboring regions of Monbazillac, Cérons, Loupiac and Cadillac. In the United States, there is a semi-generic label for sweet white dessert wines known as sauterne without the "s" at the end and uncapitalized.
As in most of France, viticulture is believed to have been introduced into Aquitania by the Romans.
Wines:2002 Fallbrook "Providence Vineyard" Temecula Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
The Temecula Valley AVA is an American Viticultural Area in southern Riverside County, California, part of the Inland Empire, one of the fastest growing areas in the country. Being within 1-1/2 hours of over 15 million people puts tremendous pressure on the land for residential development, as the adjacent cities of Temecula and Murrieta have become bedroom towns for commuters to San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Orange County, and San Diego.
Over 200 years ago, winemaking made its debut in California at Mission San Juan Capistrano. The first winemakers were the mission padres. The tradition of winemaking still exists only 18 miles (29 km) east in Temecula, where mission vineyards were established in 1820.
Vincenzo and Audry Cilurzo established the first modern commercial vineyard in the Temecula Valley in 1968. In the same year, Guasti-based Brookside Winery planted its own vineyard. In 1971, Brookside produced the first wines from Temecula grapes at their Guasti winery. Callaway Vineyard and Winery began farming grapes in 1969, and opened the first Temecula Winery in 1974. Its Founder, Ely Callaway went on to gain fame and fortune in the world of golf with his namesake company,
Wines:2005 La Rochelle "Anindor Vineyard" Umpqua Valley Pinot Noir
Part of the larger Southern Oregon AVA the Umpqua Valley American Viticultural Area is located entirely within Douglas County, Oregon. The official boundaries of the AVA are detailed in the United States of America Code of Federal Regulations Title 27 Chapter I Part 9 section 89(C). Grapes grown here include Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling and more. The first commercial Grüner Veltliner in the U.S. was produced in the Umpqua Valley AVA by Reustle Prayer Rock Vineyards.
Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) in the Loire valley that may be used for red or rosé wines. The AOC was created by a decree on July 31, 1937, and it cover about 800 hectares in the commune of Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil in the département of Indre-et-Loire, on the right bank of the River Loire.
The Saint Nicolas de Bourgueil's wines are made into red wine or rosé. The rosés account for only about 1% of the production. The main variety used is the Cabernet Franc (locally called cabernet Breton), which is allowed to be supplemented with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon.
These wines are renowned for being fruity and well suited for a wide variety of dishes. They are also reputed to have a very high degree of consistency in terms of quality, and also travel well—being less fussy about storage than, for example, a Bordeaux. They are similar to those of the neighbouring Bourgueil AOC.
Volnay is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.
In the middle of the Côte de Beaune, it is a well-known appellation of Burgundy wine.
In general the wines are lighter than most other red Burgundies from the Côte-d'Or. 80,000 cases of red wine come from its 242ha of vineyards, of which 115ha is split among 26 Premier Crus. The most notable of these are Bousse d'Or, Champans, Clos des Chenes, Clos des Ducs, Les Caillerets, Santenots and Taille Pied.
Red wine from the Santenots vineyard is classified as Volnay Santenots, whereas white wine from the same vineyard can call itself Meursault Premier Cru or Meursault Santenots.