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The Argentine Army (Ejército Argentino, EA) is the land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of the country. As of 2007, the army has 38,500 mlitary personnel. Under the Argentine Constitution, the President of Argentina is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, exercising his / her command authority through the Minister of Defense.
The Army's official foundation date is May 29, 1810 (celebrated in Argentina as the Army Day), four days after the Spanish colonial administration in Buenos Aires was overthrown. The new national army was formed out of several pre-existent colonial militia units and locally-manned regiments (most notoriously the Patricios Regiment, which to this date is still an active Army unit). These units had previously fought the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in 1806 and 1807.
Several armed expeditions were sent to the Upper Peru (now Bolivia), Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile to fight Spanish forces and secure Argentina's newly-gained independence. The most famous of these expeditions was the one led by General José de San Martín, who led a 5000-man army across the Andes Mountains to expel the
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991. Founded in 1927 as a scheduled air mail and passenger service operating between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba, the airline became a major company credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry, including the widespread use of jet aircraft, jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems. It was also a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association. Identified by its blue globe logo, the use of the word "Clipper" in aircraft names and call signs, and the white pilot uniform caps, the airline was a cultural icon of the 20th century. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority government-owned, it was also the unofficial flag carrier of the United States. During most of the jet era, Pan Am's flagship terminal was the Worldport located at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York.
Pan American Airways, Incorporated (PAA) was founded as a shell company on March 14, 1927 by Air Corps Majors
The Bulgarian Air Force (Bulgarian: Военновъздушни сили, ВВС) is a branch of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. Its mission is to guard and protect the sovereignty of Bulgarian airspace, to provide aerial support and to assist the Land Forces in case of war. The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the oldest air forces in Europe and the world. In recent times it has been actively taking part in numerous NATO missions and exercises in Europe. The current commanding officer of the Bulgarian Air Force is Major General Constantin Popov.
The history of the Bulgarian Air Force can be traced back to the end of the 19th century, when in 1892 at the Plovdiv International Fair two lieutenants of the Bulgarian Army flew with the ‘La France’ airship of the Frenchman Godard. Later, being inspired by the flight, they succeeded to convince the General Staff that the Bulgarian Army should build a balloon force. The Imperial Aviation School in St. Petersburg enrolled Lieutenant Vasil Zlatarov as a student, following numerous refusals from military schools around Europe to teach Bulgarian officers to use airships. On 20 April 1906 “Vazduhoplavatelno
The Italian Navy (Marina Militare) is the navy of the Italian Republic. It is one of the four branches of Italian Armed Forces and was formed in 1946 from what remained of the Regia Marina (Royal Navy) after World War 2.
The Regia Marina was formed on 17 March 1861, after the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. The Italian Navy assumed its present name after the Italian monarchy was abolished following a popular referendum held on 2 June 1946.
At the end of its five years involvement in World War II, Italy was a devastated nation. After the end of hostilities the Regia Marina, which at the beginning of the war was the fourth largest navy in the world with a mix of modernised and new battleships, started a long and complex rebuilding process. The important combat contributions of the Italian naval forces after the signing of the armistice with the Allies on 8 September 1943, and the subsequent cooperation agreement on 23 September 1943, left the Regia Marina in a poor condition, with much of its infrastructure and bases unusable and its ports mined and blocked by sunken ships. However, a large number of its naval units had survived the war, albeit in a low efficiency state, which
JSC "Domodedovo Airlines" (Russian: ОАО «Авиакомпания «Домодедовские авиалинии» OAO Aviakompaniya Domodedovskiye Avialinii) was an airline with its head office on the grounds of Domodedovo International Airport in Domodedovsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russia. It operated scheduled flights within Russia and the CIS, with a focus on flights to the Russian Far East. The airline also operated scheduled and ad-hoc charter flights to P. R. China, Europe, Thailand, Maldives, Malaysia and Singapore. It was based at Moscow's Domodedovo International Airport.
Domodedovo United Air Detachment (Russian: Домодедовского объединенного авиаотряда Domodedovskogo Obyedinennogo Aviaotryada), a division of Aeroflot Soviet Airlines, was established in March 1964, when Flight Units 206, 211 and 202 were transferred to Domodedovo Airport from Vnukovo Airport. The division was set up to operate long-haul services within the USSR, particularly to the Russian Far East and the Central Asian republics. All flights of the airline were operated as part of Aeroflot services.
On 25 March 1964 the airline operated its first revenue service with a Tupolev Tu-114 on a flight from Domodedovo Airport to Khabarovsk in
The Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) (Japanese: 陸上自衛隊;, Rikujō Jieitai), is main branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the de facto army of Japan.
The largest of the three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force operates is tasked with maintaining internal security in Japan and operates under the command of the chief of the ground staff, based in the city of Ichigaya, Tokyo. The present chief of ground staff is General Eiji Kimizuka (Japanese: 君塚 栄治). The JGSDF numbered around 148,000 soldiers as of 2008.
The JGSDF was created on July 1, 1954. Up until the end of the Cold War, its primary concern was maintaining internal security in Japan and countering a Soviet invasion of Hokkaido.
Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration in 1945, and, based on Potsdam Declaration Article 9, the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy were dismantled. Both were replaced by United States Armed Forces occupation force, which assumed responsibility for the defense of Japan.
On the outbreak of the Korean War, many U.S. units were transferred to Korea, and Japan was perceived as lacking
Société Calédonienne de Transports Aériens, operating as Air Calédonie, is the domestic airline for New Caledonia, headquartered on the grounds of Magenta Airport in Nouméa. It operates scheduled passenger and cargo flights from Nouméa to 10 destinations in New Caledonia. Its main base is Magenta Airport (GEA).
The airline was established in 1954 and started operations on 25 September 1955 as Transpac. It changed its name to Air Caledonie in 1968. The New Caledonian Territorial government became the majority shareholder during a major refinancing operation in 1969. The airline is owned by New Caledonia government (50.28%), Islands Provinces (43.31%), private investors (4.32%) and Air France (2.09%). It had 225 employees as of March 2007.
Air Caledonie operates services to the following domestic scheduled destinations (at March 2005): Bélep, L'Île-des-Pins, Koné, Koumac, Lifou, Maré, Nouméa, Ouvéa, Tiga, La Tontouta and Touho.
The Air Calédonie fleet includes the following aircraft (as of December 2009):
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence (CDF) commands the Australian Defence Force (ADF), the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army (CA). The CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is also directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack.
The history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods:
During its history the Australian Army has fought a large number of major wars, including: Second Boer War (1899–1902), First World War (1914–1918), the Second World War (1939–1945), Korea War (1950–1953), Malayan Emergency (1950–1960), Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1962–1966), Vietnam War (1962–1973) and more recently in Afghanistan (2001 – present) and Iraq (2003–2009). However, since 1947 it has also been involved in many peacekeeping operations, usually under the auspices of the United Nations. The largest one began in
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (Russian: Войска ПВО, Voyska ProtivoVozdushnoy Oborony, Voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defense Troops; and formerly ProtivoVozdushnaya Oborona Strany, PVO Strany, lit. Anti-Air Defense of the Nation) was the air defense branch of the Soviet Armed Forces. It continued being a service branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1998. Unlike Western air defense forces, V-PVO was a branch of the military unto itself, separate from the Soviet Air Force (VVS) and Air Defense Troops of Ground Forces. During the Soviet period it was generally ranked third in importance of the Soviet services, behind the Strategic Rocket Forces and the Ground Forces.
While the preparations for creation of the air defense forces started in 1932, and by the start of the World War II there were 13 PVO zones located within the military districts, the real growth of the Service was during the four years of the Second World War. During World War II its formations were organized as PVO Fronts, Air Armies of PVO, and PVO of military district, such as the Baku Air Defence Army. The largest of these, the PVO Fronts (Russian: Фронты ПВО), had the following service
The Belarussian Air Force is the air force of the Armed Forces of Belarus, formed in 1992 from the 26th Air Army of the Soviet Air Forces which had been serving in the Byelorussian SSR.
In accordance with an edict of the President of Belarus in 2001, the Air Force, and Air Defense troops were created as one of the arms of the Armed Forces of Belarus. The VVS and Air Defense forces are intended to protect population centres such as cities and regions, as well as the administrative, industrial, economic interests of the Republic. They are also intended to defend troops from the impacts of enemy air attacks, and also against the attacks of hostile troops, as well as fire support and the guarantee of combat operations of ground forces.
In peacetime, VVS and Air Defense forces are on standby to protect the state boundary in the air and also control of Belarussian airspace.
The Air Force and Air Defense of the Armed Forces of Belarus are organized into six major flying regiments, including two interceptor, three strike, and a reconnaissance regiments. The air force consists of more than 22,000 personnel, though this number is being reduced. Prior to August 2010, there were 6 primary
Latvian Air Force (Latvian: Latvijas Gaisa spēki) is the aviation branch of the National Armed Forces. The first Air Force (AF) units were established 1992. It has no air combat capability, thus the defense of Latvian air space is maintained by NATO, with rotating detachments of four aircraft to Lithuania at four-monthly intervals (see Baltic Air Policing).
The Air Force was first founded long before Latvia was occupied by USSR. On 7 June 1919 an Air Group was formed with three aircraft. In the years to follow many more aircraft were added to the inventory and the Air Group was eventually renamed the Aviation Regiment. The Soviet invasion ended the activities of the Air Force. At that time there were almost 130 aircraft on strength.
The post-Soviet Latvian Air Force was formed on the 24th of February 1992 at Spilve Airport. In August 1994 the airforce moved to an ex-soviet airbase at Lielvārde. In the beginning of the new century two new and more heavy Mi-8MTV Hip helicopters were bought. Both helicopters are fitted with search and rescue equipment, but are also used for transportation of troops, evacuation and support of the Special Forces. In 2004 the Ministry of Defense bought
The Air Service, United States Army was a forerunner of the United States Air Force during and after World War I. It was established as an independent but temporary wartime branch of the War Department by two executive orders of President Woodrow Wilson: on May 24, 1918, replacing the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps as the nation's air force; and March 19, 1919, establishing a military Director of Air Service to control all aviation activities. Its life was extended for another year in July 1919, during which time Congress passed the legislation necessary to make it a permanent establishment. The National Defense Act of 1920 assigned the Air Service the status of "combatant arm of the line" of the United States Army, with a major general in command.
In France, the Air Service of the American Expeditionary Force began combat operations in the spring of 1918. By the end of the war, the Air Service used 45 squadrons to cover 137 kilometers of front from Pont-à-Mousson to Sedan. 71 pursuit pilots were credited with shooting down five or more German aircraft while in American service. Overall the Air Service destroyed 756 enemy aircraft and 76 balloons in combat. 17 balloon
The Nigerian Air Force (NAF) is the air arm of the Nigerian Armed Forces. It is one of the largest in West Africa, consisting of about 10,000 personnel and aircraft including 15 Chengdu F-7s, and 24 Dassault-Dornier Alpha Jets, armed helicopters, and military transport aircraft. However in recent years many of them are no longer airworthy. Previous combat aircraft, including 32 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21s, Sepecat Jaguars, and Russian made bombers have been withdrawn from use. The IISS says the force has 'very limited operational capability.' (IISS 2009)
Although the Air Force was originally proposed in 1958, many lawmakers preferred to rely on the United Kingdom for air defence. But during peacekeeping operations in Congo and Tanganyika, the Nigerian Army had no air transport of its own, and so in 1962 the government began to recruit cadets for pilot training in various foreign countries, with the first ten being taught by the Egyptian Air Force.
The Nigerian Air Force was formally established on 18 April 1964 with the passage of the Air Force Act 1964 by the Nigerian Parliament. The Act stated that the 'Nigerian Air Force shall be charged with the defence of the Federal Republic by
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research. On October 1, 1958, the agency was dissolved, and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NACA was pronounced as individual letters, rather than as an acronym.
Among other advancements, NACA research and development produced the NACA duct, a type of air intake used in modern automotive applications, the NACA cowling and several series of NACA airfoils which are still used in aircraft manufacturing.
NACA began as an emergency measure during World War I to promote industry/academic/government coordination on war-related projects. It was modeled on similar national agencies found in Europe. Such agencies were the French “L’Etablissement Central de l’Aérostation Militaire” in Meudon (now Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales), the German “Aerodynamical Laboratory of the University of Göttingen” and the Russian “Aerodynamic Institute of Koutchino”. However, the most influential agency upon which the NACA was based was the
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) (Arabic: Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya القوة الجوية العراقية) is the Iraqi Armed Forces branch responsible for aerial warfare. Other roles include the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets. The IQAF also acts as a support force for the Iraqi Navy and the Iraqi Army and it also allows Iraq to rapidly deploy its developing Army.
The Iraqi Air Force was first founded in 1931, during British rule of Iraq with only a few pilots. Aside from a brief period during the Second World War, The Iraqi Air Force operated mostly British aircraft until the 14 July Revolution in 1958, when the new Iraqi government began increased diplomatic relationships with the Soviet Union. The air force used both Soviet and British aircraft throughout the 1950s and 1960s. When Saddam Hussein came to power in 1979, the air force grew very quickly when Iraq ordered more Soviet and French aircraft. Its peak came a few years after the long and bloody Iran-Iraq War, in 1988, when it consisted of over 950 aircraft, becoming one of the largest air forces in the region. Its downfall came during the Gulf War and continued while coalition forces enforced no-fly
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האוויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as חיל האוויר, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") is the air force of the State of Israel and the aerial arm of the Israel Defense Forces. It was founded on May 28, 1948, shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence. As of May 2012 its Commander in Chief was Aluf Amir Eshel.
The Israeli Air Force states the following as its functions:
The forerunners of the Israeli Air Force were the Palestine Flying Service established by the Irgun in 1937, and Sherut Avir, the air wing of the Haganah. The Israeli Air Force was formed on May 28, 1948, shortly after Israel declared statehood and found itself under attack. It consisted of a hodge-podge of commandeered or donated civilian aircraft converted to military use. A variety of obsolete and surplus ex-World War II combat aircraft were quickly sourced by various means to supplement this fleet. The backbone of the IAF consisted of 25 Avia S-199s (purchased from Czechoslovakia, essentially Czechoslovak-built Messerschmitt Bf 109s) and 62 Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk IXEs. Creativity and resourcefulness were the early foundations of
Tasman Empire Airways Limited (TEAL) was the forerunner of Air New Zealand. It was first registered in Wellington as a limited liability company on 26 April 1940. The shares were originally held by the New Zealand government (20%), Union Airways (19%), BOAC (38%) and Qantas (23%).
The inaugural service from Auckland to Sydney on 30 April 1940 was flown by Aotearoa, one of its two Short S30 flying boats. There was a connection at Sydney with the Qantas/BOAC route to Great Britain which meant that there was, for the first time, a regular through air service between New Zealand and Britain. This lasted less than 6 weeks as, when Italy entered World War II in June 1940, it was no longer possible to fly through the Mediterranean. The TEAL service then provided a connection with the Horseshoe Route. The first four months of operation saw a weekly return service between Auckland and Sydney. This was expanded to thrice fortnightly with connections to San Francisco using Pan Am flights from Auckland (Pan Am was not flying into Australia). The connection to San Francisco ended in December 1941 when Japan entered the war.
In the first year, the annual report revealed that 130 trans-Tasman
The Royal Navy (RN) is the principal naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Tracing its origins to the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service. From the end of the 17th century until well into the 20th century it was the most powerful navy in the world, playing a key part in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power. Due to this historical prominence, it is common - also among non-Britons - to refer to it as "The Royal Navy" without qualification.
Following victory in the First World War the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the largest in the world. By the end of the Second World War the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the course of the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union its focus has returned to global expeditionary operations.
The Royal Navy operates a "blue-water" fleet of technologically sophisticated ships including an aircraft carrier (though without
Lufthansa Cargo AG is a cargo airline from Germany, operating worldwide air freight and logistics services on behalf of Lufthansa, of which it is a wholly owned subsidiary. The company is headquartered in Building 451 of the Frankfurt Airport area in Frankfurt, the major hub of Lufthansa. Lufthansa Cargo does not only offer space on its own freighters, but also has access to the cargo capacities of more than 300 Lufthansa passenger aircraft (including Austrian Airlines, Brussels Airlines and SunExpress)
Lufthansa had already operated a cargo subsidiary, called German Cargo, between 1977 and 1993 (earlier still, cargo operations were executed in-house, already under the Lufthansa Cargo name), when in an effort to restructure the company the cargo division was re-integrated into the mother concern, and split up into two parts (one for scheduled operations using Lufthansa-owned aircraft, and one for freight and logistics services using chartered or leased aircraft).
Thus, Lufthansa Cargo was created as a limited stock company on 30 November 2004, along with Lufthansa Cargo Charter. Concerning its airline codes, Lufthansa Cargo uses LH (the same IATA code as Lufthansa), as well as GEC
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO ( /ˈneɪtoʊ/ NAY-toh; French: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)), also called the (North) Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defence spending.
For its first few years, NATO was not much more than a political association. However, the Korean War galvanized the member states, and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two U.S. supreme commanders. The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, which formed in 1955. The
Delta Air Lines, Inc. (NYSE: DAL), operating as Delta Air Lines, is a major United States airline headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta Air Lines and its subsidiaries operate over 5,000 flights every day with approximately 75,000 employees. The airline's hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic (88 million passengers per year) and number of landings and takeoffs. Delta is the sixth-oldest operating airline by foundation date, and the oldest airline still operating in the United States. Delta Air Lines is one of the four founding members of the SkyTeam airline alliance, the other three being Korean Air, Air France, and Aeroméxico. The loyalty program for Delta Air Lines is SkyMiles. Delta Air Lines is the world's largest airline in terms of fleet size, revenue passenger-kilometers flown, and scheduled passenger traffic.
Formed with a Huff-Daland Duster, the first true crop duster, the plane was deployed to combat the boll weevil in 1925 and was nicknamed "The Puffer" due to the
CJSC "Aeroflot-Cargo" (Russian: ЗАО «Аэрофлот-Карго») was a fully owned subsidiary of Aeroflot, founded on 26 October 2005 and incorporated on 19 April 2006. It was the second largest cargo airline in Russia, behind Volga-Dnepr subsidiary AirBridge Cargo. In June 2009 the shareholders of Russia's flagship air carrier, Aeroflot, decided to declare the company's cargo subsidiary, Aeroflot Cargo, bankrupt.
The cargo division of Aeroflot now operates as part of the airline's regular fleet instead of a subsidiary. On May 11, 2011 Aeroflot Russian Airlines completed preparations for joining the global airline alliance SkyTeam Cargo. They will be the 9th member of the alliance.
Aeroflot-Cargo served the following destinations (at June 2009):
The Aeroflot-Cargo Division fleet consists of the following (at 24 May 2011):
The French Air Force (French: Armée de l'Air (ALA), literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1933. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence and the French Senate give a divergent figure of 643 to 805 aircraft. The former figure being sourced from the French Ministry of Defence and giving a far more detailed list of the numbers, types and roles of each aircraft in the Air Force.
The French took active interest in developing the air force from 1909 and had the first World War I fighter pilots. During the interwar years, however, particularly in the 1930s, the quality fell after they compared with the Luftwaffe, which crushed the French during the Battle of France.
In the post–World War II era, the French made a successful effort to develop a domestic aircraft industry. Dassault Aviation led the way with delta-wing designs, which formed the basis for the Mirage series of jet fighters. The Mirage demonstrated its abilities in the
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters) and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President at any time, or by Congress during time of war.
Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Marine first, and later as the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790, it is the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton headed the USRCS, and the branch was involved in every war from 1790 to World War 1. As of August 2009 the Coast Guard had approximately 42,000 men and women on active duty, 7,500 reservists, 30,000 auxiliarists, and 7,700 full-time civilian employees.
The Coast Guard's legal authority differs from the other four armed services: it operates simultaneously under Title 10 of the United
The Vietnam People's Army (VPA) (Vietnamese: Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam, also known as the Vietnamese People's Army and the People's Army of Vietnam) is the army of Vietnam. The VPA is a part of Vietnam People's Armed Forces. The VPA includes: Ground Force (including Strategic Rear Forces), Navy, Air Force, Vietnam Border Defense Force and Vietnam Marine Police. However, Vietnam does not have a specific separate Ground Forces or Army branch. All of the ground troops, army corps, military districts, and specialized arms belong to the Ministry of Defence (Vietnam), directly under command of the Central Military Commission, Minister of Defence and General Staff (Vietnam People's Army).
Communist Party of Viet Nam leaders of the People's Army of Vietnam absolute and direct all aspects; the centralized leadership of the Party is unified into the Central Executive Committee that directly, often the Politburo, the Secretariat (Charter of CPV - Article 25).
The name People's Army can be traced to President Ho Chi Minh's phrase "born from people, for people to fight and for people to serve". The word People are also present in many names of such organizations in Vietnam such as the People's
Pulkovo Federal State Unified Aviation Service Company (ФГУАП “Пулково”) was an airline with its head office in Moskovsky District, Saint Petersburg, Russia. It operated the Pulkovo Airport and was 100% state owned. It was the third largest airline in Russia. On 29 October 2006 it completed a merger with government owned Federal State Unified Aviation Service Company to form a new company under the Rossiya name.
The airline was named after the area where it is located, along with the village of Pulkovo and Pulkovo Observatory. The airline began on 24 June 1932 with the landing of two aircraft from Moscow at the newly-constructed Shosseynaya Airport south of Leningrad. Air travel expanded rapidly, and in 1939 Shosseynaya Airport operated 29 routes, carrying 6,305 passengers, 708 tons of cargo, and over 333 tons of mail.
The airport became known as Pulkovo in the late 1950s. The airport complex consists of two separate terminals which are so far away from each other than can they can be classified as separate airports.
Pulkovo Airlines used Aeroflot livery until ordered to change it in 1997 so to avoid confusion. Pulkovo Airlines joined IATA in June 2000.
As of 2003, it employs
British United Airways (BUA) was a private, independent British airline formed as a result of the merger of Airwork Services and Hunting-Clan Air Transport in July 1960, making it the largest wholly private airline based in the United Kingdom at the time. British and Commonwealth Shipping (B&C) was the new airline's main shareholder.
At its inception, BUA assumed the aircraft and operations of its predecessors. These included a fleet of 90 assorted fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters that continued to operate mainly non-scheduled services. Gatwick became BUA's main operating base while Stansted was the main base for trooping flights until 1964.
An order for ten BAC One-Eleven jet aircraft in May 1961 launched BUA's fleet re-equipment programme in support of its long-term policy to develop primarily as a scheduled airline. This was also the first time a private British airline had placed a launch order for a new jet.
In January 1962, BUA merged with British Aviation Services, the holding company of rival UK independent airlines Britavia and Silver City Airways. This made BUA the largest unsubsidised airline outside the United States. Silver City's pre-merger status as the main
The Air Component, formerly the Belgian Air Force, is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces. Originally founded in 1909, it is one of the world's first air forces, and was a pioneer in aerial combat during the First World War. Despite many obstacles, it performed commendably even in its first few years of existence.
The present commander is Major-General Claude Van de Voorde, appointed on 23 July 2009.
The Belgian Air Force was founded in 1909 as a branch of the Belgian Army, carrying the name Compagnie des Ouvries et Aérostiers. King Albert's interest in the military use of airplanes was a main impetus for its formation. Coincidently, in the civil aviation sector, Baron Pierre de Caters earned the first civil pilot's brevet that same year. Caters would promptly establish an aviation school. At approximately the same time, the War Ministry decided to follow the French military's example and have pilots earn a civil pilot's brevet before their military one.
As a result, in 1910, three Belgian lieutenants earned their Pilot's Brevets at that school, voluntarily paying their own fees. There were two artillery lieutenants; Baudoin de Montens d'Oosterwyck, who earned Brevet No. 19 on
Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide. A business division of parent The Boeing Company, Boeing Commercial Airplanes operates from a division headquarters in Renton, Washington and more than one dozen engineering, manufacturing and assembly facilities located throughout the United States and internationally. Boeing Commercial Airplanes includes the assets of the Douglas Aircraft division of the former McDonnell Douglas Corporation, which merged with Boeing in 1997. The current President and CEO of Boeing Commercial Airplanes is James F. Albaugh, who is also an Executive Vice President of The Boeing Company. Albaugh is being replaced by Ray Conner, the Head of Sales.
For all models sold beginning with the Boeing 707 in 1957, Boeing's naming system for commercial airliners has taken the form of 7X7. All model designations, 707 through 787 have been assigned, leaving 797 as the only 7X7 model name not assigned to a product.
For model numbers in the 707 to 777 range, the model number consists of an airplane's model number, for example 707 or 747,
Air Canada (TSX: AC.A, AC.B) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1936, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 178 destinations worldwide. It is the world's tenth-largest passenger airline by number of destinations, and the airline is a founding member of Star Alliance, an alliance of 28 member airlines formed in 1997. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are located in Montreal, Quebec, while its largest hub is Toronto Pearson International Airport, located in Mississauga, Ontario. Air Canada had passenger revenues of CA$10.2 billion in 2011. The airline's regional service is Air Canada Express.
Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines (TCA), which began operating its first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval. Following the 1980s deregulation of the Canadian airline market, the airline was privatized in 1988. In 2001, Air Canada acquired its largest rival, Canadian Airlines. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and, the following year, emerged and
The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (航空自衛隊, Kōkū Jieitai), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. The JASDF carries out combat air patrols around Japan, while also maintaining an extensive network of ground and air early warning radar systems. The branch also has an aerobatic team known as Blue Impulse and has recently been involved in providing air transport in several UN peacekeeping missions.
The JASDF has an estimated 45,000 personnel in 2005. As of 2010, the JASDF operates 805 aircraft, 424 of them being fighter aircraft.
Before forming the Japanese Self-Defense Forces after World War II, Japan did not have a separate air force. Aviation operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. Following World War II the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were dissolved and replaced by the JSDF with the passing of the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Law with the JASDF as the aviation branch.
Major units of the JASDF are the Air Defense Command, Air Support Command, Air Training Command, Air Development and Test Command, and Air
The Musée de l'air et de l'espace, (English: Aerospace Museum), is a French aerospace museum, located at the south-eastern edge of Le Bourget Airport, north of Paris, and in the commune of Le Bourget. It was inaugurated in 1919 after a proposal by the celebrated aeronautics engineer Albert Caquot (1881–1976).
Occupying over 150,000 square metres (1,600,000 sq ft) of land and hangars, it is one of the oldest aviation museums in the world. The museum's collection contains more than 19,595 items, including 150 aircraft, and material from as far back as the 16th Century. Also displayed are more modern air and spacecraft, including the prototype for Concorde, and Swiss and Soviet rockets. The museum also has the only remaining piece of L'Oiseau Blanc (The White Bird), the 1927 aircraft which attempted to make the first Transatlantic crossing from Paris to New York. On May 8, 1927, the aircraft took off from Le Bourget, jettisoned its landing gear (which is stored at the museum), but then disappeared over the Atlantic.
Other items of interest range from a gilded bronze medallion of the Montgolfier brothers, created in 1783 by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741–1828), the Glider Massia-Biot
Cubana de Aviación S.A is Cuba's largest airline and flag carrier.
Cubana was established on 8 October 1929 as Compañía Nacional Cubana de Aviación Curtiss, indicating its association with the Curtiss aircraft manufacturing company. It was one of the earliest airlines to emerge in Latin America. Cubana's predecessors were the Compañía Aérea de Cuba, founded in 1919, and the Compañía Aérea Cubana, founded in 1920 (both airlines flew out of Havana's Columbia Airport, which started operations in 1919). Those companies were dissolved soon after they started, however, due to the difficult economic conditions affecting Cuba (and many other nations) in the aftermath of World War I.
Other air transport companies in Cuba at the time of Cubana's founding were Servicio Cubano de Aviación, Líneas Aéreas de Cuba, and Compañía Nacional Cubana de Transporte Aéreo. All of these companies existed only for short periods of time, and had limited finances. They mostly operated occasional flights that carried packages for urgent delivery, or individuals who sought air travel for private business trips or recreational purposes. They were all greatly affected by the onset of the Great Depression in 1929
The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) (simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军空军; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍空軍; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Kōngjūn) is the aviation branch of the People's Liberation Army, the military of the People's Republic of China. In 2010, the PLAAF had approximately 330,000 personnel and 2,500+ aircraft, of which 1,617 were combat aircraft; the PLAAF is the largest air force in Asia, and the third largest in the world behind the United States Air Force and the Russian Air Force. This does not include PLA Naval Aviation which had 26,000 personnel and 570 aircraft (290 combat aircraft).
The PLAAF was founded with Soviet assistance on November 11, 1949, shortly after the formation of the People's Republic of China. The PLA had operated few aircraft before that. The PLA's first organized air unit, the Nanyuan Flying Group, was formed only in the summer of 1949 from about 40 ex-Nationalist aircraft; its task was to defend Beijing, the nation's new capital.
The PLAAF fought the Korean War in Soviet-built MiG-15, known as the J-2 in Chinese service, with training from Soviet instructors. The war also brought Soviet assistance for the indigenous aircraft
The Vietnam Air Force – VNAF (Vietnamese: Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa – KLVNCH) was the Air Force branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975.
The VNAF began with a few hand-picked men chosen to fly alongside French pilots during the State of Vietnam era. It eventually grew into the world's sixth largest air force at the height of its power, in 1974. It is an often neglected chapter of the history of the Vietnam War as they operated in the shadow of the world’s largest air war machine. It was dissolved in 1975 after the Fall of Saigon. Many of its members emigrated to the United States.
In March 1949, Emperor Bảo Đại officially requested that the French help set up a Vietnamese military air arm. Pressure was maintained with the assistance of Lt. Col. Nguyễn Văn Hinh, who had flown the B-26 Marauder with the French Air Force in the Second World War. In March 1952, a training school was set up at Nha Trang, and the following year two army co-operation squadrons began missions flying the Morane-Saulnier MS.500 Criquet light aircraft. In 1954, the French allocated a number of Dassault MD.315
The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: les Forces canadiennes; FC), officially the Canadian Armed Forces (French: Forces armées canadiennes), is the unified armed force of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."
This unified institution consists of the sea, land and air command elements:Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). Personnel may belong to either the Regular Force, Primary Reserve, Supplementary Reserve, Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service, or the Canadian Rangers. The Department of National Defence acts as the civilian support system for the Canadian Forces.
The Canadian Forces is overseen by the Armed Forces Council, chaired by the Chief of the Defence Staff. The Commander-in-Chief is the reigning Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who is represented by the Governor General of Canada.
Since the Second World War, Canadian defence policy has consistently stressed three overarching objectives:
During the Cold War, a principal focus of Canadian defence policy
Canadian Pacific Air Lines was a Canadian airline that operated from 1942 to 1987. It operated under the name CP Air from 1968 to 1986. Based at Vancouver International Airport in Richmond, British Columbia, it served Canadian and international routes until it was purchased and absorbed into Canadian Airlines.
In the early 1940s, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company purchased ten bush airlines in a short time span, finishing with the purchase of Canadian Airways in 1942, to form Canadian Pacific Air Lines. Early management were largely bush flying pioneers, including president Grant McConachie, superintendent Punch Dickins, and Wop May, who would become a repair depot manager in Calgary.
In 1968, Canadian Pacific Air Lines was rebranded as CP Air. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company (renamed Canadian Pacific Limited in 1971) had decided to align the airline's name and logo design to that of its other subsidiaries, including CP Hotels, CP Ships, and CP Transport (CP Rail was spun off from the parent company later).
CP Air battled with the government-owned Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA. later Air Canada) for international and transcontinental routes for much of its history. Despite
The Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare, or AM) is the air force of the Italian Republic. It has held a prominent role in modern Italian military history. Its aerobatic display team is the Frecce Tricolori.
Among the earlier adopters of military aviation, Italy's air arm dates back to 1884, when the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) was authorised to acquire its own air component. The Air Service (Servizio Aeronautico) operated balloons based near Rome.
In 1911, reconnaissance and bombing sorties during the Italo-Turkish War by the Servizio Aeronautico represented the first ever use of heavier than air aircraft in armed conflict.
On 28 March 1923, the Italian air force was founded as an independent service by King Vittorio Emanuele III of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia). This air force was known as the Regia Aeronautica (Royal Air Force).
During the 1930s, the fledgeling Regia Aeronautica was involved in its first military operations, first in Ethiopia in 1935, and later in the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939. After a period of neutrality, Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940 alongside Germany. The Regia Aeronautica could deploy more than 3,000 aircraft,
KLM Cityhopper is the regional subsidiary of KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (part of the Air France-KLM Group). The airline, with its head office, the Convair Building, on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Schiphol-Oost, Haarlemmermeer, operates short haul services in Europe on behalf of the mother company, KLM. Therefore, in practise, the ICAO code 'KLM' is used by air traffic control and the IATA code 'KL' are used on tickets and flight information displays et cetera. Flights are scheduled to approximately 44 destinations but this can vary on the time of year and the carrier takes up differing routes when required to do so by its parent carrier KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.
The company identity is identical to that of its parent carrier with the addition of “cityhopper” after the KLM Crown logo and the absence of “The Flying Dutchman” & “Royal Dutch Airlines” on its aircraft livery. A reworked font style was introduced in 2010, & is now featured on the youngest Embraer 190 aircraft & all forthcoming deliveries. The rest of the fleet does not carry the new font style.
The airline has 5 fully crewed UK bases in operation, inherited from its purchase of Air UK and subsequent merge
The Myanmar Air Force (Burmese: တပ်မတော် (လေ), pronounced: [taʔmədɔ̀ lè]) is the aerial branch of Myanmar's armed forces, the Tatmadaw. It is mainly used in counter-insurgency campaigns, and, on a smaller, scale, in relief missions, especially after the deadly Cyclone Nargis of May 2008.
The Myanmar Air Force was formed on 16 January 1947, while Myanmar (also known as Burma) was still under British rule. By 1948, the new air force fleet included 40 Airspeed Oxfords, 16 de Havilland Tiger Moths, 4 Austers and 3 Supermarine Spitfires transferred from Royal Air Force with a few hundred personnel. The primary mission of Myanmar Air Force since its inception has been to provide transport, logistical, and close air support to Myanmar Army in counter-insurgency operations. in its entire history, the air force has never been in air to air battle.
The Mingaladon Air Base HQ, the main air base in the country, was formed on 16 June 1950. No.1 Squadron, Equipment Holding Unit and Air High Command - Burma Air Force, and the Flying Training School, were placed under the jurisdiction of the base. A few months later, on 18 December 1950, No. 2 Squadron was formed with nine Dakotas as a transport
The Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. The Turkish Air Force can trace its origins back to June 1911 when it was founded by the Ottoman Empire, however, the air force as it is known today did not come into existence until 1923 with the creation of the Republic of Turkey.
As of 2012 the Turkish Air Force ranks third in NATO in terms of fleet size behind the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. According to the Flight International (Flightglobal.com) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Turkish Air Force has an active strength of 60,000 military personnel and operates around 800 manned aircraft.
The history of Ottoman military aviation dates back to between June 1909 and July 1911. The Ottoman flight squadrons participated in the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) and World War I (1914–1918). The fleet size reached its apex in December 1916, when the Ottoman aviation had 90 active combat aircraft. The General Inspectorate of Air Forces (Kuva-yı Havaiye Müfettiş-i Umumiliği) trying to reconstruct itself on July 29, 1918 had no personnel, but only remained as a title on paper.
The Imperial Russian Air Force (Императорскiй военно-воздушный флотъ, Emperor's Military Air Fleet) existed in the Russian Empire between 1910 and 1917.
The origins of Russian aviation go back to theoretical projects of the 1880s by pioneer Russian scientists such as Nikolai Kibalchich and Alexander Mozhaysky. During the 1890s aviation innovation was further advanced by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.
In 1904 Nikolai Zhukovsky established the world's first Aerodynamic Institute in Kachino near Moscow.
In 1910 the Imperial Russian Army purchased a number of French planes and began training the first military pilots. The history of military aircraft in Imperial Russia is closely associated with the name of Igor Sikorsky .
In 1913 Sikorsky built the first four-engine biplane, the Russky Vityaz, and his famous bomber aircraft, the Ilya Muromets.
In the same year Dmitry Grigorovich built a number of “flying boats” for the Imperial Russian Navy.
In 1914 Russian aviators conducted the first ever flights in the Arctic looking for the lost expedition of polar explorer Georgy Sedov.
At the beginning of World War I, Russia had an air force second only to France, although a significant part of the
The Republic Aviation Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer based in Farmingdale, Long Island, New York. Originally known as the Seversky Aircraft Company, the company was responsible for the design and production of many important military aircraft, including its most famous product, World War II's P-47 Thunderbolt fighter, the F-84 Thunderjet and F-105 Thunderchief jet fighters, as well as the A-10 Thunderbolt II close-support aircraft.
The Seversky Aircraft Company was founded in 1931 by Alexander de Seversky, a Russian expatriate and veteran World War I pilot who had lost a leg in the war. In the beginning, many of Seversky Aircraft's designers were Russian and Georgian engineers whom Seversky had rescued from Joseph Stalin's purges by bringing them to the United States, including Michael Gregor and Alexander Kartveli, who would go on to design many of Republic's most famous aircraft.
After several failed attempts, Seversky Aircraft finally won a design competition for a new United States Army Air Corps fighter, and was awarded its first military contract in 1936 for the production of its Seversky P-35.
In 1939, Seversky Aircraft again entered in a military fighter
The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (1955–1991), more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the communist states of Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was a Soviet military reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO in 1955, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.
In the West, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw Pact military alliance; abbreviated WAPA, Warpac, and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw Treaty is known as:
The Warsaw Treaty’s organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. Furthermore, the Supreme
Airbus SAS (English pronunciation: /ˈɛərbʌs/, French: [ɛʁbys] ( listen), German: [ˈɛːɐbʊs], Spanish: [airˈβus]) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces approximately half of the world's jet airliners.
Airbus began as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers, Airbus Industrie. Consolidation of European defence and aerospace companies in 1999 and 2000 allowed the establishment of a simplified joint-stock company in 2001, owned by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%). After a protracted sales process BAE sold its shareholding to EADS on 13 October 2006.
Airbus employs around 63,000 people at sixteen sites in four European Union countries: France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain. Final assembly production is based at Toulouse, France; Hamburg, Germany; Seville, Spain; and, since 2009, Tianjin, China. Airbus has subsidiaries in the United States, Japan, China and India.
The company produced and markets the first commercially viable fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, and the world's largest airliner, the A380.
Airbus Industrie began
American Eagle Airlines Inc. (formerly Simmons Airlines), is a certificated air carrier based in Fort Worth, Texas. American Eagle the "marketing brand" however, is used by both Executive Airlines (OW) based in San Juan, Puerto Rico, along with American Eagle Airlines (MQ), in the operation of passenger air services as the regional affiliates of American Airlines, (AA) . All three airlines are wholly owned subsidiaries of AMR Corp. American Airlines also allows codeshares through 15 aircraft with an outside airline, Chautauqua Airlines under contract to provide regional service under the AmericanConnection brand.
Operating over 1,800 flights a day, serving 159 cities across the USA, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean, American Eagle is considered to be the world's largest regional airline system.
The American Eagle brand is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance. Until April 11, 2012 Eagle had a code share agreement with Delta Air Lines on California routes.
The name was also used between April 1980 and April 1981 by an unrelated air charter service that suspended operations and filed bankruptcy before flying any scheduled operations. SkyWest, Inc. announced that
British Airways Ltd was a British airline company operating in Europe in the period 1935–1939. It was formed in 1935 by the merger of Spartan Air Lines Ltd, United Airways Ltd (no relation to the US carrier United Airlines), and Hillman's Airways. Its corporate emblem was a winged lion.
On 30 September 1935, Allied British Airways Ltd was formed for the purpose of merging the publicly-quoted company Hillman's Airways with the private companies of Spartan Air Lines and United Airways Ltd, both controlled by Whitehall Securities Corporation Ltd (WSC), owned by the Hon. Clive Pearson. Its directors were W.D.L. Roberts, Harold Balfour and John DeC Ballardie from WSC, plus John R. McCrindle, Edgar L. Granville and Gerard L. D'Erlanger from Hillman's. On 29 October 1935, the name was changed to British Airways Ltd, and on 11 December 1935 it converted to a public company. The combined assets of 37 operational aircraft included Armstrong Whitworth Argosy II, Spartan Three Seater, DH.60 Moths, DH.84 Dragons, DH.89 Dragon Rapides, DH.86As and Spartan Cruisers.
In early 1936, aircraft and services of Hillman's Airways were transferred from Stapleford Aerodrome to Heston Aerodrome, the
The Estonian Air Force (Estonian: Eesti Õhuvägi, listen (help·info)) is the name of the unified aviation forces of Estonia. The Õhuvägi is the main arm of the Estonian aviation forces. The average size of the military formation in peacetime is about 210 men. The Estonian Air Force is tasked with dealing with political, military, economical, social, environmental and psychological threats. The Air Force has an important role in enhancing flight safety in Estonian airspace.
The roots of the current organization go back to the Russian revolution of February 1917, after which the Estonian state obtained a degree of autonomy within Russia, which included the establishment of national armed forces. Thus many Estonians in the Russian Army returned home to take up arms for their homeland. The Estonian Declaration of Independence in early 1918 was not recognized by Germany, which invaded and occupied the country during 1918. The Estonian armed forces were disbanded.
After the armistice on 11 November 1918, the Estonian Provisional Government immediately set about establishing a military aviation unit. On 21 November 1918 Voldemar Victor Riiberg, the Commander of the Engineering Battalion,
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard. The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military. The President is the overall head of the military, and helps form military policy with the United States Department of Defense (DoD), a federal executive department, acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and Cabinet member. The Secretary of Defense is second in the military's chain of command, just below the President, and serves as the principal assistant to the President in all matters related to the Department of Defense. To coordinate military action with diplomacy, the President has an advisory National Security Council headed by a National Security Advisor. Both the President and Secretary of Defense are advised by a seven-member Joint Chiefs of Staff, which includes the head of each of Department of Defense service branches as well as the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Leadership is provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Vice
Finnair Plc (Finnish: Finnair Oyj, Swedish: Finnair Abp) is the flag carrier and largest airline of Finland with its headquarters in Vantaa, Finland and its main hub at Helsinki-Vantaa Airport. Finnair and its subsidiaries dominate both the domestic and international air travel markets in Finland. The largest owner is the government of Finland with 55.8% of the shares. Finnair is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance. In 2006, the airline transported 8.8 million passengers, on a network of 15 domestic and 55 international destinations. In addition there are about 60 seasonal charter-flight destinations. As of early 2012, the Finnish government is considering decreasing its share of Finnair ownership below 50%.
In 1923, consul Bruno Lucander founded Finnair as Aero O/Y (Aero Ltd). The company code originates from this AY = Aero Yhtiö i.e. company in Finnish. Lucander had previously run the Finnish operations of the Estonian airline Aeronaut. In mid-1923 he concluded an agreement with Junkers Flugzeugwerke AG to provide aircraft and technical support in exchange for a 50% ownership in the new airline. The charter establishing the company was signed in Helsinki on September 12,
The Yugoslav Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovensko ratno vazduhoplovstvo or Jugoslavensko ratno zrakoplovstvo), was the air force of Yugoslavia, and functioned as one of three branches of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), the Yugoslav military. The full name of the branch was Air Force and Anti-Air Defense (Ratno zrakoplovstvo i protuzračna obrana, RZ i PZO or Ratno vazduhoplovstvo i protivvazdušna odbrana, RV i PVO). At its height, it was one of the largest air forces in Europe. The SFR Yugoslav Air Force was disbanded following the Yugoslav civil wars of 1991-1995.
By early 1945, Yugoslav Partisans under Marshal Tito had liberated a large portion of Yugoslav territory from the occupying forces. The NOVJ partisan army included air units trained and equipped by Britain (with Supermarine Spitfires and Hawker Hurricanes, see Balkan Air Force) and the Soviet Union (with Yak-3, Yak-7, Yak-9 and Ilyushin Il-2 aircraft) and a number of ad-hoc units equipped with aircraft captured from German Luftwaffe and Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia (Messerschmitt Bf-109G, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and many others).
On 5 January 1945 the various air units of the NOVJ were formally
The Afghan Air Force or Afghan National Army Air Force (Persian/Dari:قوای هوایی اردوی ملی افغانستان), formerly the Afghan National Army Air Corps, is a branch of the military of Afghanistan that is responsible for air defense and air warfare. Major General Abdul Wahab Wardak is the current Commander of the Afghan Air Force, replacing Mohammad Dawran. The Kabul International Airport serves as its main headquarters while the Shindand Air Base serves as the main training facility.
The Afghan Air Force was established in 1924 under the rule of King Amanullah Khan and upgraded by King Zahir Shah in the 1960s. During the 1980s, the Soviet Union built up the "Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Air Force", first in an attempt to defeat the mujahideen-led insurgency and, by the end of the decade, in hopes that a strong Afghan air power would preserve the pro-Soviet government of Najibullah. The collapse of Najibullah's government in 1992 and the continuation of a civil war throughout the 1990s reduced the number of Afghan aircraft to less than a dozen. During Operation Enduring Freedom in late 2001, in which the Taliban government was ousted from power, only a few helicopters remained of
The Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops (Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen or K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen) was the air force of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire until the empire's demise in 1918. It saw combat on both the Eastern Front and Italian Front during World War I. Despite being much smaller and usually less technologically advanced than the German or British air forces, it performed with tenacity and bravery during the war.
The Air Service began in 1893 as a balloon corps (Militär-Aeronautische Anstalt) and would later be re-organized in 1912 under the command of Major Emil Uzelac, an army engineering officer. The Air Service would remain under his command until the end of World War I in 1918. The first officers of the air force were private pilots with no prior military aviation training.
At the outbreak of war, the Air Service was composed of 10 observation balloons, 85 pilots, and 39 operable aircraft. By the end of 1914, they managed to have 147 operational aircraft deployed in 14 units. Just as Austria-Hungary fielded a joint army and navy, they also had army and naval aviation arms. The latter operated seaplanes; Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield became an ace in one.
The Chilean Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea de Chile, FACh) is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.
The first step towards the current FACh was taken by Teniente Coronel Pedro Pablo Dartnell, when he founded the Servicio de Aviación Militar de Chile (Military Aviation Service of Chile) on December 20, 1910, being trained as a pilot in France. Although a school was included, the first officers were sent to France for their training as well. One of them, Captain Manuel Ávalos Prado, took command over the Chilean military aviation school that was officially instated 11 February 1913, and remained in command until 1915. The Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School) was named in honor of him in 1944, and still carries that name today.
In those early years many aviation milestones were achieved; conquering the height of the Andes was one of the main targets as well as long distance flights. Typical aircraft of that era were Avro 504, Bleriot XI, Bristol M.1C, DH.9, and SE5a. In the following decade, the (Airmail Line of Chile) Línea Aeropostal de Chile was created on 5 March 1929 as a branch of the military aviation. This postal airline later developed
Comair was a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta Air Lines headquartered on the grounds of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport in unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States, west of Erlanger, and south of Cincinnati, Ohio. Operating under the brand name Delta Connection, Comair operated passenger services to a large number of destinations in the USA, Canada, Mexico and the Bahamas. Comair and Delta Air Lines announced on July 27, 2012 that Comair would cease operations effective September 29, 2012.
The airline was established in March 1977 and started operations in April 1977. It was founded by Patrick J. Sowers, Robert T. Tranter, David Mueller and his father Raymond in Cincinnati and began scheduled services with two Piper Navajo aircraft. Under its parent Comair Holdings, it became a public company in July 1981 to support the growth and capital requirements to upgrade their fleet. It became a Delta Connection carrier in 1984. In July 1986 Delta Air Lines acquired 20% of Comair stock. Delta Air Lines acquired full ownership on October 22, 1999 at a cost of over 2 billion dollars.
On March 26, 2001, Comair's pilots went on strike. The strike cancelled the
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (Arabic: القوات الجوية المصرية, Al-Qūwāt al-Gawwīyä al-Miṣrīyä), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The EAF is headed by an Air Marshal (Lieutenant General equivalent). Currently, the commander of the Egyptian Air Force is Air Marshal Reda Mahmoud Hafez Mohamed. The force's motto is 'Higher and higher for the sake of glory' (Arabic: إلى العلا في سبيل المجد, I‘la’ al-a‘là fī sabīl al-magd).
The Egyptian Army Air Service was formed in 1930, and became an independent air force in 1937. It had little involvement in the Second World War. From 1948 to 1973 it took part, with generally mediocre results, in four separate wars with Israel, as well as the quasi-War of Attrition. It also supported the Egyptian Army during the North Yemen Civil War and the Libyan-Egyptian War of 1977. Since 1977 it has seen virtually no combat, but has participated in numerous exercises, including Operation Bright Star from 1985.
Currently the EAF has over 885 combat aircraft and 375 armed helicopters. The Air Force's backbone are 240 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. The Egyptian Air Force is the 4th largest operator of F-16s in the world, after the United States,
The German Luftwaffe was one of the strongest, most doctrinally advanced, and most battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II started in Europe in September 1939. Officially unveiled in 1935, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, its purpose was to support Adolf Hitler's "Blitzkrieg" across Europe. The aircraft that were to serve in the Luftwaffe (lit. "air-weapon") were of a new age and technically superior to that of most other nations in the 1930s. Types like the Junkers Ju 87 Stuka and Messerschmitt Bf 109 came to symbolise German air power.
The Luftwaffe became an essential component in the German military campaigns. Operating in support of ground forces, it helped the German armies to conquer the bulk of the European continent in a series of short and decisive campaigns in the first nine months of the war. It experienced its first defeat by the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the Battle of Britain in 1940.
Despite this setback the Luftwaffe remained formidable and in June 1941 embarked on Hitler's quest for an empire in eastern Europe by invading the Soviet Union, with much initial success. However, the Luftwaffe's striking victories in the Soviet Union
The armed forces of Yemen include the Yemen Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemeni Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yamaniya; includes Air Defense Force) (2008). A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. The navy has concentration in Aden. Total armed forces manning numbers about 401,000 active personnel, including moreover especially conscripts. The Yemen Arab Republic and The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.
The number of military personnel in Yemen is relatively high; in sum, Yemen has the second largest military force on the Arabian Peninsula after Saudi Arabia. In 2012 total active troops were estimated as follows: army, 390,000; navy, 7,000; and air force, 5,000. In September 2007, the government announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service. Yemen’s defense budget, which in 2006 represented approximately 40 percent of the total government budget, is expected to remain high for the near term, as the military draft takes effect and internal security threats continue to escalate. By 2012 Yemen now has
Manchukuo (simplified Chinese: 满洲国; traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó; literally "Manchu state") or Manshū-koku (Japanese: 満州国) was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China. In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and in 1932, a sympathetic government was established, with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, installed as the nominal regent and emperor. Manchukuo's government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories formally claimed by the puppet state were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following year.
Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. There were also Koreans, Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and less numerous minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. The southern part of the
Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A. (Italian for Alitalia - Italian Air Lines), in its later stages known as Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A. in Extraordinary Administration, was the former Italian flag carrier. Based in Rome, the company had been in precarious economic conditions for many years and is currently under liquidation.
The Italian government and some other organizations have invested €4.9 billion since 1998. Several attempts to take over or merge Alitalia were made between 2005 and 2009. In 2006 the government could no longer offer support to the failing airline since it had been forbidden by the European Union to inject new capital. In August 2008 Alitalia went bankrupt. Compagnia Aerea Italiana (CAI) bought the Alitalia brand and some assets for €1.052 billion ($1.33 billion), paying €427 million in cash and taking on €625 million in Alitalia debts on December 12, 2008.
Alitalia - Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A. was established on 16 September 1946 as Aerolinee Italiane Internazionali, more commonly known as Alitalia, an Italian portmanteau of the words ali (wings) and Italia (Italy). It started operations on 5 May 1947, in which year it carried over 10,000
The Argentine Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Argentina, or simply FAA) is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. As of 2010, it had 14,600 military personnel and 6,900 civilian personnel.
The Air Force's history begins with the establishment of the Argentine Army Aviation's Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School) on 10 August 1912. Several military officers were amongst the pioneers of Argentine aviation, including Jorge Newbery, a retired Argentine Navy officer. The School began to turn out military pilots who participated in milestone events in Argentine aviation, such as the crossing of the Andes mountains.
In 1927 the Dirección General de Aeronáutica (General Directorate of Aeronautics) was created to coordinate the country's military aviation. In that same year the Fábrica Militar de Aviones (Military Aircraft Factory, FMA), which would become the heart of the country's aviation industry, was founded in Córdoba.
By 1938–39 the Argentine air force had about 3,200 staff (including about 200 officers), and maintained about 230 aircraft. About 150 of these were operated by the army and included Dewoitine D.27 and Curtiss P-36
Indian, formerly Indian Airlines (Indian Airlines Limited from 1993 and Indian Airlines Corporation from 1953 to 1993) was a major Indian airline based in Delhi and focused primarily on domestic routes, along with several international services to neighbouring countries in Asia. It was state-owned, and was administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. It was one of the two flag carriers of India, the other being Air India. The airline officially merged into Air India on 27 February 2011.
On 7 December 2005, the airline was rebranded as Indian for advertising purposes as a part of a program to revamp its image in preparation for an initial public offering (IPO). The airline operated closely with Air India, India's national carrier. Alliance Air, a fully owned subsidiary of Indian, was renamed Air India Regional.
In 2007, the Government of India announced that Indian would be merged into Air India. As part of the merger process, a new company called the National Aviation Company of India Limited (now called Air India Limited) was established, into which both Air India (along with Air India Express) and Indian (along with Alliance Air) would be merged. Once the merger was completed,
The Islamic Republic of Iran Army is the ground force of the Military of Islamic Republic of Iran. In Iran, it is also called Artesh, (ارتش) which is Persian for "army." As of 2007, the regular Iranian Army was estimated to have 465,000 personnel (65,000 conscripts and 400,000 professionals) plus around 350,000 reservists for a total of 815,000 soldiers according to the CSIS. Conscripts serve for 18 months and have professional military training.
Iran has two parallel land forces with some integration at the command level: the regular Artesh (Army), and the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, also known as the Pasdaran (IRGC).
A national army of sorts has existed in Iran since the establishment of the Persian Empire. National armies usually appeared throughout the country's points of strength, while in times of weakness mercenaries and conscript armies were recruited temporarily from fiefdoms. The original core of full time troops and imperial body guards were called the Immortals, these were established in 580 BC by Cyrus the Great. These were replaced by the Junishapur Shâhanshâh (King of Kings) in the Sassanid Dynasty after a period of disunity and chaos in the
The Romanian Air Force (Romanian: Forţele Aeriene Române) is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces. It has an air force headquarters, an operational command, four air bases and an air defense brigade. Reserve forces include two air bases and three airfields.
In 2010, the Romanian Air Force employed 9,700 personnel.
The Romanian Air Force modernized 110 MiG 21 LanceRs, in cooperation with Israel between 1993 and 2002. Today, 48 of these MiG 21 LanceRs are operational. The Romanian Air Force also operates C-130 Hercules, C-27J Spartan, An-26s transport planes and IAR-330 Puma helicopters. IAR-330 PUMA SOCAT helicopters have been modernized by the Romanian Aviation Industry in cooperation with Elbit Systems (Israel) for attack missions. The Romanian Air Force also includes native-made IAR-99 Şoim jet planes, in general only used for training of the young pilots. The remaining MiG-29s have been removed from service in 2003.
Due to the old age of the MIGs, the Romanian Air Force is considering procurement of new fighters, or possibly used fighters as an interim solution. Romanian Defense Minister Corneliu Dobritoiu said his country aims to buy an undisclosed number of
The Syrian Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian Armed Forces. It was established in 1948.
The end of World War II led to a withdrawal of the United Kingdom and France from the Middle East, and this included a withdrawal from Syria. In 1948, the Syrian Air Force was officially established after the first class of pilots graduated from flight schools in the United Kingdom. The embryonic force saw limited participation in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, conducting bombing raids against Israeli forces and settlements. One North American Harvard was lost to ground fire while attacking Ayelet Hashahar on 16 July, and another possibly shot down by Morris Mann (flying an Avia S-199) on 10 June. The Syrian Air Force claimed its sole kill of the war on 10 July when a Harvard supposedly shot down an Avia S-199 flown by Lionel Bloch.
Military governments formed after the war sought to bolster the air force, which began equipping with Fiat G.59s, ex-Egyptian Macchi C.205s and Supermarine Spitfire F.22s. In September 1952 the SAF received its first jet aircraft, the Gloster Meteor F.8. Additional Meteors,
The Department of the Air Force (DAF) is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force (USAF).
The Department of the Air Force is headed by the Secretary of the Air Force (SAF/OS), a civilian, who has the authority to conduct all of its affairs, subject to the authority, direction and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force (SAF/US). Their senior staff assistants in the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force are four Assistant Secretaries for Acquisition, Financial Management & Comptroller, Installations, Environment & Logistics, Manpower & Reserve Affairs and a General Counsel. The highest ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force who is the senior uniformed adviser to the Secretary, represents the Air Force on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, heads the Air Staff and is assisted in the latter capacity by the Vice Chief of Staff of
The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Armada of the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Armada de la República Argentina — ARA, also Armada Argentina or Argentine Navy) is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force.
The Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory achieved in 1814 in the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence.
Each ship of the Argentine Navy is designated with the prefix "ARA" before its name.
The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, which started the war for independence from Spain. The first navy was created to support Manuel Belgrano at the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, and did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second one, which captured the city. As Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish admiral William Brown, who directed the operation.
As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval
The Austrian Air Force (German: 'Österreichische Luftstreitkräfte') is a component part of the Austrian armed forces (the Bundesheer).
The Austrian Air Force was formed in May 1955 by the victorious Allied powers, subject to restrictions on its use of guided missiles. The Austrian State Treaty of 1955 committed Austria to permanent neutrality.
Pilot training started out with a few Yak 11 Moose and Yak 18 Max aircraft donated by the Soviet Union, and Austria purchased further light trainer types under the Military Assistance Program. Until 1960 Austria purchased 62 training and support aircraft under the MAP, but no modern fighter aircraft; the role of a fighter was rather inadequately filled by the already outdated, 30 SAAB 29 "Fliegende Tonne" bought second-hand from the Swedish Air Force in the early 1960s.
From 1970, Austria purchased a total of 40 Saab 105 lightweight multi-role aircraft with the intention to deploy them in trainer, reconnaissance, interception and ground attack roles. As it became clear in the 1980s that the sub-sonic aircraft were inadequate for air combat and airspace interdiction, Austria purchased 24 reconditioned J 35 Draken fighter aircraft to supersede
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier airline of the United Kingdom, based in Waterside, near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. It is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations and second largest measured by passengers carried, behind easyJet.
The British Airways Board was established in 1971 to control the two nationalised airline corporations, BOAC and BEA, and two smaller, regional airlines, Cambrian Airways, from Cardiff, and Northeast Airlines, from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After almost 13 years as a state company, that was sold in February 1987 as part of a privatisation plan by the Conservative Government. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987 and Dan-Air, Gatwick-based carrier, in 1992.
A long-time Boeing customer, British Airways ordered 59 Airbus A320 family aircraft in August 1998. In 2007, it purchased 12 Airbus A380s and 24 Boeing 787 Dreamliners, marking the start of its long-haul fleet replacement. The centrepiece of the airline's long-haul fleet is the Boeing 747-400; with 52 examples in
Cathay Pacific (SEHK: 0293) is an international flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place. The airline's operations include scheduled passenger and cargo services to 114 destinations in 36 countries worldwide, including codeshares and joint ventures, with a fleet of wide-body aircraft, consisting of Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Boeing 747 and Boeing 777 equipment. The airline also operates fifth freedom flights from Bangkok and Taipei, its focus cities. Its wholly owned subsidiary, Dragonair, operates to 36 destinations in the Asia-Pacific region from its Hong Kong base. In 2010, Cathay Pacific and Dragonair carried nearly 27 million passengers and over 1.8 million tonnes of cargo and mail.
The airline was founded on September 24, 1946 by American Roy C. Farrell and Australian Sydney H. de Kantzow, with each man putting up HK$1 to register the airline. The airline made the world's first non-stop transpolar flight flying over the North Pole in July 1998, and it also operated the maiden flight to arrive at the new Hong Kong International
Toll Aviation is an airline based in Brisbane, Australia. It operates priority air freight services on behalf of Toll Priority. Its main base is Brisbane Airport, with hubs at Sydney's Bankstown Airport, Adelaide International Airport and Mackay Airport.
The airline was established as cargo charter company Jetcraft Aviation in 1989, operating initially in Queensland with two Mitsubishi MU-2Gs and a Fairchild SA226-TC Metro II. In the next two years the Metro fleet was gradually built up and the MU-2s withdrawn. The company also operated an Aerostar 601P from Mackay, and two Beechcraft B58 Barons from Archerfield Airport in Brisbane. An IAI WW24 Westwind was leased to operate a Wards Express freight contract with jetCraft pilots between Darwin, Alice Springs and Melbourne halfway through 1992. By 1993 the fleet consisted of one Westwind, three Metro IIs and three SA227-AC Metro IIIs, an Aerostar, and two Barons. On 16 April that year Jetcraft suffered its first aircraft loss in a non-fatal landing accident to a Metro II at Mackay Airport. Later the same year it established its Bankstown hub, flying bank documents and general freight on behalf of Security Express initially with the
Maldivian Air Taxi is the largest domestic carrier in the Maldives and is also one of the largest seaplane operators in the world operating over 500 flights a week during the peak tourist season. With its humble beginnings in November 1993, with only two aircraft, MAT has grown in direct response to the opening of newly developed resorts that require seaplane transport services for their guests.
Based on the northern side of Male’ International Airport, Maldivian Air Taxi currently has a fleet of 24 Twin Otters, servicing 40 of the 90 resorts in the Maldives. In 2008 MAT has carried over half a million passengers on the distinctive red and white planes to some of the most picturesque locations in the country.
The airline was established in 1993 by Danish investors and started operations in the same year. It is wholly owned by Lars Erik Nielsen (Chairman) and has 275 employees (at March 2007).
The Maldivian Air Taxi fleet includes the following aircraft (at December 2010).
The Maldivian Air Taxi also has previously indicated plans to replace all of their DHC-6-100/-200/-300's with the new -400 Series by Viking Air.
The Maldivian Air Taxi now directly employ their employees. Before,
Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Military of the People's Republic of China has grown to include the active and reserve forces of the People's Liberation Army, the People's Liberation Army Navy, the People's Armed Police and the Militia. In terms of sheer number of troops, the 13-million-strong Chinese armed forces is currently the largest military in the world.
The PLA consists of officers and men in active service and in reserve. The active forces are made up of the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Second Artillery Corps, military schools and scientific research institutions.
The reserve service of the PLA was organized in 1983 with officers and men in the active service as the backbone and those in the reserve service as the basic elements.
The People's Armed Police Force (PAP) is a paramilitary police force primarily responsible for law enforcement within the PRC.
In contrast to public security officers, PAP guards wear olive green instead of the dark gray or blue uniforms of the People's Police. An individual policeman in the PAP was called an "armed policeman" (￦ﾭﾦ￨ﾭﾦ) until January 1, 2005. Now, the position has been renamed "internal
The Royal Thai Air Force or RTAF (Thai: กองทัพอากาศไทย) is the air force of the Kingdom of Thailand. Since its establishment in 1913, as one of the earliest air forces of Asia, the Royal Thai Air Force had engaged in many major and minor battles. During the Vietnam war era, the air force has been developed with USAF-aid equipment. As of 2011, the Commander of the Air Force is Air Chief Marshal Itthaporn Subhawong.
In February 1911 the Belgian pilot Charles Van Den Born displayed the first aircraft in Siam at the Sa Pathum Horse Racing Course. The Siamese authorities were impressed enough by the display that on 28 February 1912 they dispatched three officers to learn to fly in France, a leading aviation country.
The three officers (Major Luang Sakdi Sanlayawut (Sunee Suwanprateep), Captain Luang Arwut Sikikorn (Long Sinsuk) and First Lieutenant Tip Ketuthat) learned to fly and on 2 November 1913 returned to Siam with eight aircraft (four Breguets and four Nieuports). They are today regarded as the forefathers of the Royal Thai Air Force. In March of the next year they moved from Sa Pathum airfield to Don Muang.
The Ministry of Defence put the early air force under the control of the
The Abkhazian Air Force is a small air force operating from Abkhazia. Few details are available on its formation, but it is reported to have been established by Viyacheslav Eshba based upon several Yak-52 trainer aircraft armed with machine guns. Its first combat mission was conducted on 27 August 1992, which has come to be celebrated in Abkhazia as "Aviation Day." The Abkhaz Air Force claims to have made 400 operational flights during the 1992-1993 Abkhaz-Georgian war. Abkhaz combat losses during the civil war are uncertain, but include a Yak-52 on a reconnaissance mission near Sukhumi on 4 July 1993.
Besides the Yak-52, aircraft operated by the Abkhaz Air Force during the war reportedly included at least a pair each of Sukhoi Su-25 (NATO reporting name: "Frogfoot") and Su-27 ("Flanker") fighters and five L-39 Albatros jet trainers, as well as a few Mil Mi-8 ("Hip") helicopters and several other unidentified light aircraft. However, the Russians flew numerous sorties in support of the Abkhazians and it is unclear which of these aircraft were truly Abkhazian-operated. (There are also claims that Russian aircrew were instructed to cover up the national insignia on their aircraft and
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was the British state airline created in 1940 from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. In the Civil Aviation Act of 1946, the state-owned British European Airways (BEA) and British South American Airways (BSAA) were formed, and the full name British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) was finally applied and accepted throughout the Corporation. BOAC absorbed BSAA in 1949, but BEA operated the UK's domestic and European routes for the next quarter century. A 1971 Act of Parliament proposed the merger of BOAC and BEA, finalised in 1974, forming today's British Airways.
On 24 November 1939, BOAC was created by Act of Parliament to become the British state airline, formed from the merger of Imperial Airways and British Airways Ltd. The companies had been operating together since war was declared on 1 September 1939, when their operations were evacuated from the London area to Bristol. On 1 April 1940, BOAC started operations as a single company. Following the fall of France (22 June 1940), BOAC aircraft kept wartime Britain connected with its colonies and the free world, often under enemy fire, and initially with desperate
The Ministry of National Defence (Spanish: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional), is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the armed forces of Colombia, similar to the defense ministries in other countries. It is composed by the National Army, National Armada and Air Force and the National Police.
The Condor Legion (German: Legion Condor) was a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and from the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939. The Condor Legion developed methods of terror bombing which were used widely in the Second World War shortly afterwards. The bombing of Guernica was the most infamous operation carried out by the Condor Legion during this period. Hugo Sperrle commanded the aircraft units of the Condor Legion and Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma commanded the ground units.
Following the military coup in Spain at the start of the Spanish Civil War, the Spanish Second Republic turned to the Soviet Union and France for support, and the nationalists requested the support of Hitler's Germany and fascist Italy. The first request for German aircraft was made on 22 July, with an order for 10 transport aircraft. Hitler decided to support the nationalists on 25 or 26 July, but was wary of provoking a Europe-wide war. The Reich Air Travel Ministry concluded that nationalist forces would need at least 20 Ju 52s, flown by Luft Hansa pilots, to carry the Army of Africa from
Continental Airlines was a major American airline that operated from 1934 to 2012, when it merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. (the parent company of United Airlines) announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc. During the integration period, both airlines were running separate operations under direction of a combined leadership team of the new parent company based in Chicago.
Continental had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers. Continental was a minority owner of ExpressJet Airlines, which operated under the 'Continental Express' trade name but was a separately managed and public company. Chautauqua Airlines also flew under the Continental Express identity, and Cape Air, Colgan Air, CommutAir, and Silver Airways feed Continental's flights under the Continental Connection identity. Continental did not have any ownership interests in these companies.
The origin of Continental Airlines dates to the 1934 formation of Varney Speed Lines which operated airmail and passenger services in the American Southwest. The
The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer, Heer pronounced [ˈheːɐ̯] ( listen)) is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Heer was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr along with the Marine (Navy) and the Luftwaffe (Air Force). In the aftermath of the German reunification of 1990, the Landstreitkräfte (Land Forces) of the National People's Army of the former German Democratic Republic were partially integrated into the Heer.
A German Army, equipped, organized and trained following a single doctrine, and permanently unified under one command dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany under the leadership of Prussia. From 1871 to 1919 the title Deutsches Heer or German Army was the official name of the army. This was the title the army carried during the First World War. From 1921 to 1935 under the Weimar Republic the army's title was Reichsheer (Empire Defence). From 1935 to 1945 the title was Heer (Army), part of the Wehrmacht, the name of Germany's armed forces under the Third Reich. From 1938, the Heer was first involved in the occupation of Czechoslovakia and then the successor events that led to the Second
The Ghana Air Force (GAF) is the air force of the African nation of Ghana. The GAF, along with the Ghanaian Army and Navy, make up the armed forces of Ghana which are controlled by that nation's Ministry of Defence.
The GAF was founded in 1959 with direction from Indian and Israeli officers. Later that year a headquarters was established in Accra under the command of an Indian air commodore. In 1960 Royal Air Force personnel took up the task of training the newly established Ghana Air Force and in 1961 they were joined by a small group of Royal Canadian Air Force personnel. In September 1961 as part of President Kwame Nkrumah's Africanization program, the Royal Air Force commander was replaced by a Ghanaian Air Commodore, with the first being J.E.S. de Graft-Hayford. Although born in the U.K. he was of Ghanaian descent and became Africa's first 'Chief of the Air Staff' south of the Sahara.
The Ghana Air Force was the first sub-Saharan air force, and for a time the largest. It was equipped with a squadron of Chipmunk trainers, and squadrons of Beavers, Otters and Caribou transport aircraft. In addition a DH125 jet was bought for Kwame Nkrumah, Hughes helicopters were bought for
The Korean People's Army Air Force, (Korean: 조선인민군 공군, Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 空軍), is the name of the unified aviation forces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The KPAF is the second-largest branch of the Korean People's Army with an estimated 110,000 personnel. It possesses between 1,600 and 1,700 aircraft of different types, mostly of Soviet and Chinese origin. Its primary task is to defend North Korean airspace. When the People's Army was formed up with Soviet help, the aviation unit became its air force branch on August 20, 1947. North Korea has celebrated August 20 as Air Force Foundation Day ever since.
Kim Il-sung set up the Aviation Association branches in Pyongyang, Sinuiju, Chongjin and other parts of the country in 1945. In December 1945 he merged them into the Aviation Association of Korea. The air force became a separate service in 1948. The KPAF incorporates much of the original Soviet air tactics, as well as North Korean experience from the UN bombings during the Korean War. In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the DMZ.
Given North Korea's experience with heavy U.S. bombardments in the Korean War, its aim has been mainly to defend North
Nepal Airlines (formerly known as Royal Nepal Airlines) is the flag carrier airline of Nepal. Its head office is in the NAC Building (formerly RNAC Building) in Kathmandu, and its main base is Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu. The airline was established in July 1958 as Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC). The airline's first aircraft was a single Douglas DC-3, used to serve domestic routes and a handful of destinations in India. The airline acquired its first jet aircraft, Boeing 727s, in 1972. In 2004 the Government of Nepal decided to sell off 49% of its stake in Nepal Airlines to the private sector. Presently, the airline operates a fleet of seven aircraft and flies to 39 destinations—seven of which are international.
The airline was established in July 1958 as Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation with one Douglas DC-3. At the beginning, its services were limited to Simara, Pokhara, Biratnagar and Indian cities such as Patna, Calcutta and Delhi. In 1961 Pilatus Porter STOL aircraft joined the fleet and in 1963 12-seater Chinese Fong Shou-2 Harvester's were brought into service, opening up the Kingdom's more remote routes. In 1966 a turboprop Fokker F27 was added to
The Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service (Marinens Flyvevesen) was alongside the Norwegian Army Air Service the forerunner to the modern-day Royal Norwegian Air Force.
The RNNAS was established on 1 June 1912, with the maiden flight of the HNoMS Start, piloted by Hans Dons. The founding of the Air Service was based largely on pride. On 19 April 1912 newspapers had reported that a Swedish pilot was planning to fly over Moss and Horten. Horten was the site of the main base of the Royal Norwegian Navy. Three officers of the Norwegian submarine Kobben decided that it would be a shame if they were not able to beat him to it.
Later that year, the Maurice Farman biplanes Njaal and Gange Rolf were purchased.
In 1915 the Navy established its own aircraft factory and a flying school.
The main flight base was established in Horten. Other naval air stations were established in Kristiansand in 1918, Bergen in 1919 and in Tromsø shortly before the invasion in 1940.
In 1940 most of the planes in Norwegian service were outdated, and the 1 100 transport and figher planes of the Luftwaffe soon gained air superiority. The armed resistance in Norway was abandoned 9 June 1940, although some Norwegians
The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية الملكية السعودية, al-quwwāt al-ğawwiyyah al-malakiyyah as-suʿūdiyyah), is the aviation branch of the Saudi Arabian armed forces. The RSAF has developed from a largely defensive military force into one with an advanced offensive capability. The RSAF maintains the third largest fleet of F-15s after the USAF and the JASDF.
The backbone of the RSAF is currently the Boeing F-15 Eagle, with the Panavia Tornado also forming a major component. The Tornado and many other aircraft were delivered under the Al Yamamah contracts with British Aerospace (now BAE Systems). The RSAF ordered various weapons in the 1990s, including Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles, laser-guided bombs and gravity bombs. Al-Salam, a successor to the Al Yamamah agreement will see 72 Eurofighter Typhoons delivered by BAE.
The RSAF was formed in the mid-1920s with British assistance. It was re-organized in 1950 and began to receive American assistance from 1952 including the use of Dhahran by the United States Air Force.
The Saudi forces are equipped with mainly western hardware. Main suppliers are companies in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Both the UK
SkyAirWorld was a scheduled and charter airline based in Brisbane, Australia. It provided a range of services including charter work for the Australian military, and has also provided wet-leases for other carriers, particularly airlines in the South Pacific.
SkyAirWorld first came to the attention of the aviation industry in Australia when it issued a Press Release on 2 October 2006 announcing its intentions. The company registered its first aircraft, a second-hand ERJ 170 on lease, on 8 March 2007; it arrived at Brisbane from Hong Kong the following week. The aircraft was promptly repainted in Solomon Airlines colours after an agreement was reached between the two airlines that SkyAirWorld would operate on behalf of Solomon's and after a delay in SkyAirWorld obtaining an Air Operator Certificate (AOC), the aircraft commenced operations between Brisbane and Honiara and Honiara and Nadi International Airport in mid-May 2007.. Among its members was former Ozjet Airlines Chief Executive Officer, Mr Peter Schott an acclaimed MBA graduate from Swinburne University in Melbourne.
The relationship proved to be short-lived, being suspended in August 2007 with each party blaming the other;
The Kriegsmarine (German pronunciation: [ˈkʁiːksmaˌʁiːnə], War Navy) was the name of the German Navy from 1935 to 1945; most of the period of Nazi rule. It superseded the Kaiserliche Marine of World War I and the post-war Reichsmarine. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches of the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany.
The Kriegsmarine grew rapidly during German naval rearmament in the 1930s (the Treaty of Versailles had limited the size of the German navy previously). In January 1939 Plan Z was ordered, calling for the construction of many naval vessels. The ships of the Kriegsmarine fought during the Spanish Civil War and World War II. The Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine (as for all branches of armed forces during the period of absolute Nazi power) was Adolf Hitler, who exercised his authority through the Oberkommando der Marine.
The Kriegsmarine's most famous ships were the U-boats, most of which were constructed after Plan Z was abandoned at the beginning of World War II. Wolfpacks were rapidly assembled groups of submarines which attacked British convoys during the first half of the Battle of the Atlantic but this tactic was largely abandoned in the
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army, by artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance. This work gradually led RFC pilots into aerial battles with German pilots and later in the war included the strafing of enemy infantry and emplacements, the bombing of German military airfields and later the strategic bombing of German industrial and transportation facilities.
At the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron (RFC No 1 Squadron) and four aeroplane squadrons (RFC No 2 and No 3 Squadrons were the first fixed-wing flying squadrons in the world). These were first used for aerial spotting on 13 September 1914, but only became efficient when they perfected the use of wireless communication at Aubers Ridge on 9 May 1915. Aerial photography was attempted during 1914, but again only became effective the next year. By 1918, photographic images could be taken from
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technologies for use by the military. DARPA has been responsible for funding the development of many technologies which have had a major effect on the world, including computer networking, as well as NLS, which was both the first hypertext system, and an important precursor to the contemporary ubiquitous graphical user interface.
Its original name was simply Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), but it was renamed to "DARPA" (for Defense) in March 1972, then renamed "ARPA" again in February 1993, and then renamed "DARPA" again in March 1996.
DARPA was established during 1958 (as ARPA) in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik during 1957, with the mission of keeping U.S. military technology more sophisticated than that of the nation's potential enemies. From DARPA's own introduction,
DARPA’s original mission, established in 1958, was to prevent technological surprise like the launch of Sputnik, which signaled that the Soviets had beaten the U.S. into space. The mission statement has evolved over time. Today, DARPA’s mission is
The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) was formed by the Kuomintang after the establishment of the Aviation Ministry in 1920. As tensions mounted between the China and Imperial Japan in the 1930s, a number of smaller Chinese warlord airforce men and equipment became integrated into the ROCAF in a centralized effort to counter Imperial Japanese military ambitions.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), the ROCAF participated in attacks on Japanese warships on the eastern front and along the Yangtze river including interdiction and close-air support for the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. Initially, the Chinese frontline fighter aircraft were mainly Curtiss Hawk IIs and IIIs and Boeing P-26Cs. These engaged Japanese fighters in many major air battles beginning on14 August 1937, when Imperial Japanese Navy warplanes raided Chienchiao airbase; "814" has thus become known as "Air Force Day". Chinese Boeing P-26/281 fighters engaged Japanese Mitsubishi A5M fighters in the world's first dogfight between all-metal monoplane fighters. A unique mission in April 1938 saw two Chinese Martin B-10 bombers fly a mission over Japan, but dropping only anti-war leaflets over the Japanese
The Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), often referred to simply by the abbreviation NDH, was a World War II puppet state of Nazi Germany established on a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. The NDH was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The NDH consisted of most of modern day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with some parts of modern-day Serbia.
The state was technically a monarchy and Italian protectorate from the signing of the Rome agreements on 19 May 1941 until the Italian capitulation on 8 September 1943, but the would-be king, appointed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, refused to assume the crown in opposition to the Italian annexation of the Croat-populated Yugoslav region of Dalmatia.
The state was actually controlled by the governing fascist Ustaše movement and its Poglavnik, Ante Pavelić, which in turn were primarily under German influence. For its first two years up to 1943, the state was also a territorial condominium of Germany and Italy. Additionally, central Dalmatia was annexed directly into Italian territory as part of the irredentist agenda of
The Japan Self-Defense Forces (自衛隊, Jieitai), or JSDF, occasionally referred to as JSF or SDF, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established after the end of the post–World War II Allied occupation of Japan. For most of the post-war period the JSDF was confined to the islands of Japan and not permitted to be deployed abroad. In recent years they have been engaged in international peacekeeping operations. Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society. New military guidelines, announced in December 2010, will direct the Jieitai away from its Cold War focus on USSR (now Russian Federation) to a focus on China, especially regarding the dispute over the Senkaku Islands.
The JSDF numbered 239,430 in 2005 with 147,737 in the Ground Self-Defense Force, 44,327 in the Maritime Self-Defense Force, 45,517 in the Air Self-Defense Force, and 1,849 in the Joint Staff Office. Reserves numbered 57,899.
The Prime Minister is the commander-in-chief of the Self Defense Forces. Military authority runs from the Prime Minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense of the Japanese Ministry of
JetBlue Airways Corporation (NASDAQ: JBLU), often stylized as "jetBlue", is an American low-cost airline. The company is headquartered in the Long Island City neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens. Its main base is John F. Kennedy International Airport, also in Queens.
The airline mainly serves destinations in the United States, along with flights to the Caribbean, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Barbados, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Mexico and Puerto Rico. As of December 7, 2011 (2011 -12-07) JetBlue serves 71 destinations in 21 states, and twelve countries in the Caribbean, South America and Latin America.
JetBlue maintains a corporate office in Cottonwood Heights, Utah. JetBlue is a non-union airline.
JetBlue was incorporated in Delaware in August 1998. David Neeleman founded the company in February 1999, under the name "NewAir." Several of JetBlue's executives, including Neeleman, are former Southwest Airlines employees. JetBlue started by following Southwest's approach of offering low-cost travel, but sought to distinguish itself by its amenities, such as in-flight entertainment, TV on every seat and Satellite radio. In Neeleman's words, JetBlue
The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) is an inactive Department of Defense Unified Command. Activated on 1 June 1948, MATS was a consolidation of the United States Navy Naval Air Transport Service (NATS) and the United States Air Force Air Transport Command (ATC) into a single, joint, unified command. It was inactivated on 8 January 1966.
The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) was activated under United States Air Force Major General William H. Tunner, in order to harness interservice efforts more efficiently. It was an amalgamation of Navy and Army air transport commands, jointly placed by the Department of Defense under the control of the newly created United States Air Force (USAF) as what is known as today today as a Unified Combatant Command.
During World War II, the Army Air Force's needs were looked after by the Air Transport Command which focused on transportation of troops and supplies, also organized by Tunner. The Naval Air Transport Service focused on supporting deployed Naval and Marine personnel transporting vital cargo, specialist personnel and mail to the Fleet and ground forces, especially in advanced areas of operation.
MATS was the first Joint-Service
The Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), was a British research establishment, known by several different names during its history, that eventually came under the aegis of the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), before finally losing its identity in mergers with other institutions.
The first site was at Farnborough Airfield ("RAE Farnborough") in Hampshire to which was added a second site RAE Bedford (Bedfordshire) in 1946.
In 1988 it was renamed the Royal Aerospace Establishment before merging with other research entities to become part of the new Defence Research Agency in 1991.
In 1904–1906 the Army Balloon Factory, which was part of the Army School of Ballooning, under the command of Colonel James Templer, relocated from Aldershot to the edge of Farnborough Common in order to have enough space for experimental work. Templar retired in 1908 and his place was taken by Colonel John Capper.
In October 1908 Samuel Cody made the first aeroplane flight in Britain at Farnborough. In 1909 Capper was replaced as Superintendent of the Balloon Factory by Mervyn O'Gorman
In 1912 the Balloon Factory was renamed the Royal Aircraft Factory (RAF). Among its designers was Geoffrey de Havilland who
The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.
Britain's Royal Navy continued to support the RAN and provide additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of these paying off in 1982.
Today, the RAN consists of 54 commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel. The navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Ray Griggs.
Financially speaking, and according to the Airlines for America definitions, SkyWest Airlines is a North American major airline. SkyWest however, operates on a regional airline level and is a member of the Regional Airline Association. SkyWest Airlines, along with ExpressJet Airlines, is owned by SkyWest, Inc. and is headquartered in St. George, Utah, USA, SkyWest Airlines flies to 160 cities, in 38 States, Washington D.C., 5 Canadian Provinces and 2 cities in Mexico. The airline serves as a feeder airline, operating under contract with various major carriers. It flies as SkyWest Airlines in a partnership with United Express on behalf of United Airlines, as US Airways Express on behalf of US Airways, as Delta Connection on behalf of Delta Air Lines. SkyWest announced that it will fly in a partnership with American Eagle on behalf of American Airlines which will commence on November 15, 2012.
As of 2011, SkyWest employs over 11,000 people throughout North America. The airline averages 1,741 departures a day, with 1,085 operating as United Express, 543 operating as Delta Connection, 89 operating as US Airways Express, and 24 operating as Alaska Airlines. In total, SkyWest carried
Brit Air (short for Brittany Air International) is a regional airline based at Morlaix Airport in Ploujean, Morlaix, Brittany, France, operating scheduled services as an Air France franchise from Lyon-Saint Exupéry Airport, Paris-Orly Airport and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport.
The airline was established in 1973 and started operations in 1975. It was founded to provide services for business executives from western France, and introduced regular flights to London Gatwick in 1979. On 1 December 1995, Brit Air signed a franchising agreement with Air France Europe. It became a wholly owned subsidiary of Air France in October 2000. It employs 1,260 staff.
In March 2011, the Brit Air fleet consisted of the following aircraft with an average age of 3.9 years:
Over the years, the airline has operated various aircraft types including:
On 22 June 2003, Air France Flight 5672 (fr:Vol 5672 Air France) from Nantes to Brest, which was operated by a Brit Air CRJ100, crashed 2.3 miles short of the runway when attempting to land at Brest Bretagne Airport at 23:55 local time, resulting in the death of the captain. The aircraft involved (registered F-GRJS) subsequently caught fire (after all 21
The British Army is the land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England and Scotland and was administered by the War Office from London. It has been managed by the Ministry of Defence since 1964. The professional head of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff, currently General Sir Peter Wall KCB CBE ADC Gen.
The full-time element of the British Army is referred to as the Regular Army and has been since the creation of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908. All members of the Army swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as commander-in-chief. However the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires Parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a standing army in peacetime. Parliament therefore annually approves the continued existence of the Army. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include Royal in its title. Many of the Army's constituent Regiments and Corps have been granted the "Royal" prefix
The Czech Air Force is the air force branch of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. The Air Force, with the Land Forces, comprises the Joint Forces, the main combat power of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. It succeeded the Czechoslovak Air Force together with the Slovak Air Force in 1993.
The Air Force is responsible for securing the integrity of the Czech Republic's airspace through the NATO Integrated Air Defense System - NATINADS, close air support to the Land Forces and for transportation tasks including government and state priority flights.
The separation saw a large reduction in types, numbers and bases. 1994 saw the creation of the 3rd tactical air force corps. The newest fighter in the Czechoslovak Air Force arsenal was the MiG-29 (Izdelie 9.12). As there was only one general maintenance kit, which was given to newly created Slovak Republic, and all the material was split 1:1 with Slovakia, maintenance costs for the Czech Fulcrums would be too high. Along with the unreasonably high costs, speculative costs for spare parts imported from Russia, which were realised through third-party companies (Mil Mi-24 rotor blades acquisitions were over-priced by 400%), led to
The Polish Air Forces (Polskie Siły Powietrzne) was the name of the Polish Air Forces formed in France and the United Kingdom during World War II. The core of the Polish air units fighting alongside the Allies were experienced veterans of the 1939 Invasion of Poland. They contributed to the Allied victory in the Battle of Britain and most World War II air operations.
A total of 145 Polish fighter pilots served in the RAF during the Battle of Britain, making up the largest non-British contribution. By the end of the war, around 19,400 Poles were serving in the RAF.
After the joint German-Soviet victory in the Invasion of Poland of 1939, most of the flying personnel and technicians of the Polish Air Force were evacuated to Romania and Hungary, after which thousands found their way to France. There, in accordance with the Franco-Polish Military Alliance of 1921 and the amendments of 1939, Polish Air Force units were to be re-created. However, the French headquarters was hesitant about creating large Polish air units, and instead most Polish pilots were attached to small units, so-called keys. Only one large unit was formed, the Groupe de Chasse polonaise I/145 stationed at Mions
Silver City Airways was a private, British independent airline formed in 1946. The name Silver City was derived from the eponymous Australian mining town at Broken Hill, where the The Zinc Corporation was headquartered. Silver City's first commercial flight departed London Heathrow for Sydney via Johannesburg in late 1946. The following year, Silver City leased its first Bristol Freighter, moved its base to Blackbushe and participated in the airlift of Hindu and Muslim refugees between Pakistan and India. In 1948, control of Silver City passed from the Zinc Corporation to British Aviation Services. In July of that year, the airline inaugurated the world's first air ferry service across the English Channel between Lympne Airport and Le Touquet Airport. In 1948–49, Silver City participated in the Berlin Airlift. In 1949, it established a French sister airline.
In 1953, Silver City took delivery of its first Bristol Superfreighter. The following year, the company moved to a new permanent home at Lydd Ferryfield, Britain's first newly-constructed post-war airport. The same year, Silver City Airways came under the control of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O). By
The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service (often called the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (大日本帝國陸軍航空隊、大日本帝國陸軍航空部隊, Dainippon Teikoku Rikugun Kōkūtai,Dainippon Teikoku Rikugun Kōkūbutai) (IJAAS or IJAAF), was the land-based aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army. As with the IJA itself, the IJAAF was developed along the lines of Imperial German Army Aviation so its primary mission was to provide tactical close air support for ground troops while maintaining a limited air interdiction capability. The JAAF also provided important reconnaissance support for the Army. However, the Army Air Service usually did not control the light aircraft or balloons deployed and operated by the Imperial Japanese Army artillery battalions as spotters or observers. Although the Army Air Service engaged in limited strategic bombing of major Chinese cities such as Shanghai and Chongqing in the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was not its primary mission, and it lacked the heavy strategic bombers as were later deployed by the United States Army Air Force. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was responsible for long-range strikes and strategic air defense and it was not until the
The South African Air Force (SAAF) is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria. The South African Air Force was established on 1 February 1920. The Air Force has seen service in World War II and the Korean War. From 1966 the SAAF was involved in providing infantry support in a low intensity war ("The Border War") in Angola, South West Africa (now Namibia) and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). As the war progressed, the intensity of air operations increased until in the late 1980s, the SAAF were compelled to fly fighter missions against Angolan aircraft in order to maintain tactical air superiority. On conclusion of the Border War in 1990, aircraft numbers were severely reduced due to economic pressures as well as the cessation of hostilities with neighboring states. Today the SAAF has a limited air combat capability and has been structured towards regional peace-keeping, disaster relief and maritime patrol operations.
After a visit to observe the 1912 military manoeuvres in Europe, Brig. Gen. C.F. Beyers (who was then Commandant-General of the Defence Force) gave an extremely positive report on the future use of aircraft for military purposes to General Smuts. Smuts
The Department of Defense (also known as the Defense Department, USDOD, DOD, DoD or the Pentagon) is the Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States armed forces. The Department is also the largest employer in the world, with more than 2.13 million active duty Soldiers, Sailors, Marines, Airmen, and also civilian workers, and over 1.1 million National Guardsmen and members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Reserves. The grand total is just over 3.2 million servicemen and servicewomen, plus the civilians who support them.
The Department – headed by the Secretary of Defense – has three subordinate military departments: the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. In addition, there are many Defense Agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Missile Defense Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the National Reconnaissance Office
Air France-KLM (Euronext: AF) is a French-Dutch airline holding company incorporated under French law with its headquarters at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport in Tremblay-en-France, Paris. The group has offices in Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis, Paris, and in Amstelveen, Netherlands.
Air France-KLM is the result of the merger in 2004 between Air France and KLM.
In 2008, it was the largest airline company in the world in terms of total operating revenues, and also the largest in the world in terms of international passenger-kilometres. The company's CEO since 17 October 2011 is Jean-Cyril Spinetta.
Both Air France and KLM are members of the SkyTeam airline alliance. They offer a frequent flyer programme called Flying Blue. The company's namesake airlines rely on two major hubs: Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol.
Air France-KLM Airlines transported 71.374 million passengers in 2010.
Air France-KLM was created by the mutually agreed merger between Air France and Netherlands-based KLM on 5 May 2004.
As a result of the deal, the French government's share of Air France was reduced from 54.4% (of the former Air France) to 44% (of the combined airline). Its share
The Ecuadorian Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Ecuatoriana, FAE) is the Air arm of the Military of Ecuador and responsible for the protection of the Ecuadorian airspace.
To develop the military air wing, in order to execute institutional objectives which guarantee sovereignty and contribute towards the nation's security and development.
To be a dissuasive Air Force, respected and accepted by society, pioneering within the nation's "air-space" development.
The FAE was officially created on October 27, 1920. However, like in many other countries, military flying activity started before the formal date of birth of the Air Force. The history of Ecuador is marked by many skirmishes with its neighbour Peru. As a direct result of the 1910 Ecuador-Peru crisis the members of Club de Tiro Guayaquil decided to expand their sporting activities into aviation as well. Renamed Club de Tiro y Aviación, they started an aviation school. Cosme Rennella Barbatto, an Italian living in Guayaquil, was one of the very first members of Club de Tiro y Aviación. In 1912 Cosme Rennella was sent to his native Italy for training where he successfully graduated as a pilot. He later returned to Europe a second
The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat, Swedish: Armén) is the land forces branch of the Finnish Defence Forces. Today's Army is divided into six branches: the infantry (which includes armoured units), field artillery, anti-aircraft artillery, engineers, signals, and materiel troops.
Between 1809 and 1917 Finland was an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. Between 1881 and 1901 the Grand Duchy had its own army. Before that several other military units had also been formed while Finland belonged to Sweden.
The Grand Duchy inherited its allotment system (ruotujakolaitos) from the Swedish military organization. However, for several decades, Russian rulers did not require military service from Finland - operations and defence were mostly taken care by Russian troops based in the Grand Duchy. As a result, officer benefits of the allotment system became practically pensions, as payment was based on passive availability, not on actual service.
During Napoleonic Wars three 1200 men regiments were formed in Finland and Topographic corps in Hamina. In 1821 the Topographic corps was transformed into cadet officers school. In 1829 one of the training battalions
Hainan Airlines Company Limited (HNA) (SSE: 600221) (Chinese: 海南航空公司; pinyin: Hǎinán Hángkōnggōngsī) is an airline headquartered in Haikou, People's Republic of China. It is the largest privately owned air transport company and the fourth largest airline in terms of fleet size in the People's Republic of China. It operates scheduled domestic and international services on 500 routes from Hainan and nine locations on the mainland, as well as charter services. Its main base is Haikou Meilan International Airport, with a hub at Beijing Capital International Airport and several focus cities.
Hainan Airlines was established in October 1989 as Hainan Province Airlines in Hainan, the largest special economy zone in China. It was then renamed as Hainan Airlines and became China's first joint-stock air-transport enterprise in January 1993 and began scheduled services on 2 May 1993.
Executive-jet operations with a Bombardier Learjet 55 were added in April 1995. In 1998, Hainan Airlines became the first Chinese carrier to own shares in an airport after it purchased 25% stake of Haikou Meilan International Airport.
In 2000, HNA Group (Hainan Airlines Group, S: 海南集团, T: 海南集團, P: Hǎinán Jítuán)
The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) (Persian: نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the aviation branch of the Iranian armed forces. The present Air Force came into being in the early 1980s when the former Imperial Iranian Air Force was renamed.
The Air Force has attempted with some success to maintain in service the large number of American-built aircraft which Iran acquired during the Shah's regime. The Air Force has turned to purchases of Soviet and Chinese aircraft, as well as pressing ex-Iraqi aircraft into service, and indigenously built aircraft, in order to maintain a capable force.
The IRIAF came into being when the former Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) was renamed following the Islamic Revolution in Iran, in February 1979. The British publishing company Orbis' Warplane partwork magazine seems to indicate the renaming did not actually take place until after the Iran-Iraq War had broken out.
This "new" Iranian air force largely inherited the equipment and structure of the former IIAF, even losing most of its leading officers in the course of post-revolutionary chaos, as well as due to the prosecution of those considered as loyal to the Shah, pro-U.S. or
Lao Airlines (Lao: ການບິນລາວ) is an airline based in Vientiane, Laos. It is the national airline of Laos, operating domestic services to ten destinations and international services to Cambodia, China, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore. Its main base is Wattay International Airport, Vientiane.
The airline was established and started operations in September 1976 as Lao Aviation. Lately of 1990s, China Yunnan Airlines shared holder with Lao government. Until early of 2000s, Lao Airlines changed to be 100% owned by Lao government and the name was changed to Lao Airlines in early 2003. It is wholly owned by the government of Laos.
Flying mainly to small airfields in mountainous, tropical Laos, the airline acquired a not-too-favorable reputation for safety, several flights being lost over the years. More recently, with better aircraft and airfields, this reputation has been overcome. Since 2000, there have not been any accidents involving Lao Airlines. Reliability is now complying to international standards with ATR 72 and Chinese-made Xian MA60 aircraft. In 2007 and 2008, the company received the International Arch of Europe Award. On 8 November 2011, Lao Airlines has taken delivery of
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) (French: Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada'; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force') is both a federal and a national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal, provincial and municipal policing body. The RCMP provides policing services to all of Canada at a federal level, and also on a contract basis to the three territories, eight of Canada's provinces (the RCMP does not provide provincial or municipal policing in either Ontario or Quebec), more than 190 municipalities, 184 aboriginal communities, and three international airports.
The RCMP was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP, founded 1873) with the Dominion Police (founded 1868). The former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization's symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, and mythos as a frontier
The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force and a "specified command" of the United States Department of Defense. SAC was the operational establishment in charge of America's land-based strategic bomber aircraft and land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. SAC also controlled the infrastructure necessary to support the strategic bomber and ICBM operations, such as aerial refueling tanker aircraft to refuel the bombers in flight, strategic reconnaissance aircraft, command post aircraft, and, until 1957, fighter escorts.
Following the fall of the Soviet Union, the Air Force instituted a comprehensive reorganization of its major commands. As part of this reorganization, SAC was disestablished on 1 June 1992. As part of the reorganization, SAC's bomber aircraft, ICBMs, strategic reconnaissance aircraft, and command post aircraft were merged with USAF fighter and other tactical aircraft assets and reassigned to the newly-established Air Combat Command (ACC). This included B-52 and B-1 bomber aircraft assigned to the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard, respectively.
The Peruvian Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea del Perú, abbreviated FAP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with defending the nation and its interests through the use of air power. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations.
On May 20, 1929, the aviation divisions of the Peruvian Army and Navy were merged into the Cuerpo de Aviación del Perú (Peruvian Aviation Corps, abbreviated CAP). During the Colombia-Peru War of 1933, its Vought O2U Corsair and Curtiss F11C Hawk planes fought in the Amazon region. The CAP lost three aircraft to the Colombian Air Force . The corps was renamed Cuerpo Aeronáutico del Perú (Peruvian Aeronautical Corps, also abbreviated CAP) on March 12, 1936. In 1941, the CAP participated in the Peruvian-Ecuadorian War. At that time, the CAP were equipped with Caproni Ca.114 and North American NA.50 Torito fighters, Douglas DB-8A-3P attack aircraft, and Caproni Ca.135 Tipo Peru and Caproni Ca.310 Libeccio bombers, among others.
During the presidency of Manuel A. Odría the corps was reorganized again and on July
United Parcel Service, Inc. (NYSE: UPS), typically referred to by the acronym UPS, is an American global package delivery company headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States. It delivers more than 15 million packages a day to 6.1 million customers in more than 220 countries and territories around the world.
UPS is well known for its brown trucks, internally known as package cars (hence the company nickname "Brown"). UPS also operates its own airline (IATA: 5X, ICAO: UPS, Call sign: UPS) based in Louisville, Kentucky.
UPS's primary business is the time-definite delivery of packages and documents worldwide. In recent years, UPS has extended its service portfolio to include less than truckload transportation (primarily in the U.S.) and supply chain services. UPS reports its operations in three segments: U.S. Domestic Package operations, International Package operations, and Supply Chain & Freight operations.
U.S. Domestic Package operations include the time-definite delivery of letters, documents, and packages throughout the United States.
International Package operations include delivery to more than 220 countries and territories worldwide, including shipments wholly
Avies AS is an airline based in Tallinn, Estonia. It was established and started operations in 1991 and operates scheduled passenger transport, charter and air taxi services. Its main base is Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport.
The Avies fleet includes the following aircraft (at August 2007) :
Latest info: 6 jetstreams 2 lear 60 2 hawker 750/850
The National Army of Colombia (Spanish: Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land military force of the government of Colombia and the largest service of the Colombian Armed Forces. It has the responsibility for land-based military operations along with the Infanteria de Marina (Naval Infantry) to protect the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats.
The modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Ejército de los Comuneros or Army of the Commoners which was formed on August 7, 1819, before the establishment of the present day Colombia to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire.
That same day, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army after the triumph over the Spanish, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army. However, the Colombian Army considers itself to be an evolution of the Commoners Army, and thus dates its inception from its origins.
The Colombian Army trace its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the comuneros (Commoners) (mostly descendants of Spanish and Amerindians) decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war. The Greater Colombian Army is
The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج Pak Fouj (IPA: Pɑkʰ fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); reporting name: PA) is the uniform service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. The Pakistan Army came into existence after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. It is currently headed by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer professional fighting force. According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) it has an active force of 620,000 personnel in 2012. The Pakistani constitution contains a provision for conscription, but it has never been imposed.
Since independence, the Army has been involved in four wars with neighboring India and several border skirmishes with Afghanistan. It maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Other major operations undertaken by the Army include Operation Black Thunderstorm and Operation Rah-e-Nijat. Apart from conflicts, the Army has been an active participant in UN missions and played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia in 1993 in Operation
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force (CAF). In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and granted the royal title by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968. Prior attempts at forming an air force for Canada were the Canadian Aviation Corps that was attached to the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and a two-squadron Canadian Air Force that was attached to the Royal Air Force.
The modern Royal Canadian Air Force, formerly known as Canadian Forces Air Command, traces its ancestry to the unification of Canada's armed services in 1968, and is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces. Over the course of history, the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, and several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. The force has also maintained a presence in Europe through the second half of the 20th century.
The aviation age came to Canada on 23 February 1909, when Alexander Graham Bell's Silver Dart took off from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia with J.D. McCurdy at the controls.
South African Airways (SAA) is the national flag carrier and largest airline of South Africa, with headquarters in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. The airline flies to 38 destinations worldwide from its hub at OR Tambo International Airport, using a fleet of 54 aircraft. The airline is headed by and CFO Wolf Meyer. Siza Mzimela has resigned as CEO of the airline on 8 October 2012 due to the airline's crisis.
South African Airways was founded in 1934 after the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. The airline was initially overseen and controlled by South African Railways and Harbours Administration. It suffered imposed sanctions by African countries during apartheid, which forced it to adopt long-range aircraft and other measures to counter these restrictions. During this time, it was also known by its Afrikaans name, Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens (SAL), which has been dropped. In 1997 a major overhaul programme, which involved a change of name, image and aircraft livery, as well as the introduction of online ticketing services, was carried out by the company's board. The carrier has since joined
Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, (north of Paris). It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. As of 2011 Air France serves 35 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 156 destinations in 91 countries (including Overseas departments and territories of France) and also carried 59,513,000 passengers in 2011. The airline's global hub is at Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport, with Paris Orly Airport, Lyon-Saint Exupéry Airport, Marseille Provence Airport, Toulouse Blagnac Airport, and Nice Côte d'Azur Airport serving as secondary hubs. Air France's corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, Paris, are located on the grounds of Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris.
Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne (CIDNA), and Société Générale de Transport Aérien (SGTA).
During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, Air France was one of the three main
Air Pacific Limited is the flag carrier airline of Fiji. It operates international and domestic services around the Pacific and to North America and Hong Kong. It is also a partner with the frequent flyer programmes of Qantas, American Airlines, and Alaska Airlines (though not the larger Oneworld airline alliance to which Qantas and American are key members). It has its head office at the Air Pacific Maintenance & Administration Centre at Nadi International Airport in Nadi.
The airline was established and started operations in 1951. It was founded by Australian aviator Harold Gatty. The company previously operated as Fiji Airways .The airline was previously headquartered on the grounds of Nausori Airport in Suva.
Air Pacific began service to the USA in 1983. The airline has been profitable every year between 1995 and 2004, except in 2001. Over 500,000 passengers were carried in 2004. The airline was responsible for starting the first ever scheduled international services to the capital of Australia, Canberra. While the service operated twice weekly for a number of months it is now suspended.
Air Pacific acquired Sun Air, a domestic airline, in 2007. This formed the basis for
Croatian Air Force and Air Defence (Croatian: Hrvatsko ratno zrakoplovstvo i protuzračna obrana) is a branch of the Croatian Armed Forces.
The Croatian Air Force as it is known now was established on 12 December 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence. After 2003 almost the whole fleet was modernized or completely overhauled. Croatia is now expecting new helicopters and fighters to enter service in the near future, enabling the military to operate much needed up-to-date technology.
The primary role of Croatian Air Force and Air Defence is securing sovereignty of Croatian air space and providing air support to other services during joint operations. It is a proponent and organizer of the Croatian air defence integrated system. This double role of the Croatian Air Force and Air Defence is realized with the following main tasks:
Commanders of the Croatian Air Force since its establishment in 1991:
The core of the air force is a squadron of 10 modernized MiG-21bisD/UMD fighters (two single-seaters lost in a mid-air collision on September 23, 2010) which are scheduled to be retired by 2013. In 2003, a minor upgrade and an extensive overhaul was performed in Romania, incorporating
The Air Corps (Irish: an tAerchór) is the air component of the Defence Forces of Ireland providing support to the Army and Naval Service, together with non-military air services such as search and rescue and the Ministerial Air Transport Service. The principal airbase is Casement Aerodrome located at Baldonnel.
During the Anglo-Irish Treaty talks of 1921, a Martinsyde Type A Mark II biplane was purchased and put on 24-hour standby at Croydon airport in order to allow Michael Collins to escape back to Ireland if the talks failed. The plane was not needed for this mission, and it became the first aircraft of the new Air Service arriving in June 1922. By the end of 1922, the Air Service comprised ten aircraft (including six Bristol F2B fighters from the First World War), and about 400 men.
With the establishment of the Defence Forces in 1924 the Air Service became the new Army's Air Corps and remained part of the Army until the 1990s.
In 1938 four Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters were delivered - a further eight were ordered but were embargoed by the outbreak of the Second World War.
During World War II (or The Emergency) there are no records of Air Corps planes engaging any
The Syrian Armed Forces (Arabic: القوات المسلحة العربية السورية) are the military forces of Syria. They consist of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Air Defense Force, and several paramilitary forces. According to the Syrian Constitution, the President of Syria is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.
The military is a conscripted force; males serve in the military upon reaching the age of 18. Before the beginning of the Syrian uprising/civil war, the obligatory military service period was being decreased over time. In 2005, it was reduced from two and a half years to two years, in 2008 to 21 months and in 2011 to year and a half.
The French Mandate volunteer force, which would later become the Syrian army, was established in 1920 with the threat of Syrian−Arab nationalism in mind. Although the unit's officers were originally all French, it was, in effect, the first indigenous modern Syrian army. In 1925 this force was expanded and designated as the Special Troops of the Levant (Troupes Spéciales du Levant). In 1941 during World War II, the Army of the Levant participated in a futile resistance to the British and Free French invasion that ousted the Vichy French from Syria
RAF Martlesham Heath is a former Royal Air Force airfield in England. The field is located 1½ miles SW of Woodbridge, Suffolk.
Martlesham Heath was first used as a Royal Flying Corps airfield during World War I. In 1917 it became home to the Aeroplane Experimental Unit, RFC which moved from Upavon with the site named as the Aeroplane Experimental Station which became the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment (A&AEE) in 1924. The A&AEE carried the evaluation and testing of many of the aircraft types and much of the armament and other equipment that would later be used during World War II.
No. 22 Squadron RAF and No. 15 Squadron RAF were present during the 1920s. No. 64 arrived in the 1930s.
The A&AEE moved to RAF Boscombe Down on 9 September 1939 at the outbreak of World War Two and Martlesham then became the most northerly station of No. 11 Group RAF, Fighter Command. Squadrons of Bristol Blenheim bombers, Hawker Hurricanes, Supermarine Spitfires and Hawker Typhoons operated from this airfield, and among the many pilots based there were such famous men as Robert Stanford Tuck, and Squadron Leader Douglas Bader, there as Commanding Officer of 242 Squadron. Ian Smith, the
The Serbian Air Force and Air Defence (Serbian: Ваздухопловство и противваздушна одбрана / Vazduhoplovstvo i protivvazdušna odbrana) is the air force of Serbia and service branch of the Serbian Armed Forces. Established on 24 December 1912 in the city of Niš, it is one of the oldest air forces in the world.
The first aviation expert in Serbia was Lieutenant Kosta Miletić, selected owing to his physical and mental abilities. He got the rank of pilot of tied and free balloons at the Technical Aeronautical School near St. Petersburg (February 14, 1901 – November 12, 1902), and he was also trained for handling messenger pigeons. Meanwhile, on December 17, 1903, in the USA, the Wright brothers made the first successful flight in the world’s first motor-powered, heavier-than-the-air craft, called “aero plane” or “airplane”. According to projects of Lt. Kosta Miletić, Serbian armed forces posed messenger pigeon stations (in 1908 in Medosevac near Nis and in 1909 in Pirot), and bought two free spherical and one tied kite – balloon from the company "August Ridinger" from Augsburg. At the reception ceremony, on April 19, 1909, Kosta Miletić flew a spherical balloon called “Serbia”. One
Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA) was an American airline based in the A-Tech Center in College Park, Georgia, flying to 144 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier and, as of February 2010, commenced service as a United Express carrier. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of SkyWest, Inc. ASA operated nearly 900 flights each day. Its main hub was at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL).
In November 2011, ASA and ExpressJet received a single operating certificate from the FAA and in December 2011, all flights were branded as ExpressJet.
On March 12, 1979, the company was incorporated as Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Inc. with headquarters established in the Atlanta area. June 27 saw the start of operations with one 19-passenger Twin Otter aircraft between Atlanta and Columbus, Georgia. From 1979 to 1999 the call sign for ASA was "ACEY". In 1999 there was confusion with call sign for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)- New Mexico based fighter unit w/ call sign "ACER". The FAA insisted one change call its sign and ASA was the one to change since they had used the call sign for the least amount of time. June 27, 1999 ASA changed to call sign CAA "Candler"
The Canadian Army (French: Armée canadienne) is the branch of the Canadian Forces responsible for land warfare. As of 2012, the Army has 25,500 regular soldiers and about 16,000 reserve soldiers, for a total of around 41,500 soldiers. It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada and is also responsible for the largest component of the Primary Reserve, the Army Reserve. The Commander Canadian Army is Lieutenant-General Peter Devlin.
The term "Canadian Army" has been traditionally applied to the land forces of Canada's military from Confederation in 1867 to the present. However, the name Canadian Army was only officially used beginning in 1940. In 1965, as a precursor to the unification of the navy, army, and air force, all army units were placed under a new entity called Mobile Command. In 1968 the Canadian Army ceased to exist as a legal entity as the navy, army, and air force were merged to form a single service called the Canadian Forces. Mobile Command was renamed Land Force Command in a 1993 reorganization of the Canadian Forces. In August 2011, Land Force Command reverted to the pre-1968 title, the Canadian Army.
Prior to Confederation in 1867, the British Army,
Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline that existed from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida. There were plans to restart the airline in 2008.
Eastern Air Lines was a composite of assorted air travel corporations, including Florida Airways and Pitcairn Aviation, the latter of which was established on April 19, 1926, by Harold Frederick Pitcairn, son of Pittsburgh Plate Glass founder John Pitcairn, Jr.
In the late 1920s, Pitcairn Aviation won a government contract to fly mail between New York City and Atlanta, Georgia, using Mailwing single-engine aircraft. In 1929 Clement Keys, the owner of North American Aviation, purchased Pitcairn. In 1930, Keys changed the company's name to Eastern Air Transport, soon to be known as Eastern Air Lines after being purchased by General Motors and experiencing a change in corporate leadership brought on by the Airmail Act of 1934.
In 1938, the airline was purchased by World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker from General Motors. This very complex deal was concluded when Rickenbacker presented Alfred P. Sloan with a certified check for
Deutsche Lufthansa AG (FWB: LHA, OTCQX: DLAKY) (German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏt͡ʃə ˈlʊfthanza]) is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size. The German government had a 35.68% stake in Lufthansa until 1997, but the company is now owned by private investors (88.52%), MGL Gesellschaft für Luftverkehrswerte (10.05%), Deutsche Postbank (1.03%), and Deutsche Bank (0.4%) and has 119,084 employees (as of 2011). The name of the company is derived from Luft (the German word for "air"), and Hansa (after the Hanseatic League).
The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating services to 18 domestic destinations and 197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe. Together with its partners, Lufthansa services around 410 destinations. With over 870 aircraft it has the largest passenger airline fleet in the world when combined with its subsidiaries.
Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters is in Deutz, Cologne, Germany, with its main operations base (Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC) and primary traffic hub at Frankfurt
The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voenno-morskoj flot SSSR, literally "Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR") was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Often referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy would have played an instrumental role in a Warsaw Pact war with NATO, where it would have attempted to prevent naval convoys from bringing reinforcements across the Atlantic Ocean from North America to Western Europe.
The Soviet Navy was divided into four major fleets: the Northern, Pacific, Black Sea, and Baltic Fleets; under separate command was the Leningrad Naval Base. The Caspian Flotilla was a smaller force operating in the land-locked Caspian Sea. The 5th Operational Squadron in the Mediterranean drew its units from the Black Sea, Baltic, and Northern Fleets; the Indian Ocean Squadron primarily from the Pacific Fleet. Other components included Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry (the Soviet equivalent of marines), and Coastal Artillery.
According to a 1980 Time article citing analysts from RAND Corporation, non-Slavs were generally prohibited from joining elite or strategic positions in the armed forces like the Navy, Strategic Rocket Forces and the Soviet
The Sudanese Air Force (Arabic: القوّات الجوّيّة السودانيّة Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya As-Sudaniya) is the air force operated by the Republic of the Sudan. As such it is part of the Sudanese Armed Forces.
The Sudanese Air Force was founded immediately after Sudan gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1956. The British assisted in the Air Force's establishment, providing equipment and training. Four new Hunting Provost T Mk 53s were delivered for jet training in 1957. The following year, the Sudanese Air Force's transport wing acquired its first aircraft, a single Hunting President. In 1960 the Sudanese Air Force received an additional four re-furbished RAF Provosts and two more Hunting Presidents. Also in 1960, the transport wing's capability was increased by the addition of two Pembroke C Mk 54s.
The Air Force gained its first combat aircraft when 12 Jet Provosts with a close air support capability were delivered in 1962. In the 1960s Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and People's Republic of China started supplying the Sudanese Air Force with aircraft. This included supply of Shenyang F-5 fighters (F-5/FT-5 variants) of which 70, after being retired from the air force
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an independent civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, with responsibility for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers. Intelligence-gathering is performed by non-military commissioned civilian intelligence agents, many of whom are trained to avoid tactical situations. The CIA also oversees and sometimes engages in tactical and covert activities at the request of the President of the United States. Often, when such field operations are organized, the U.S. military or other warfare tacticians carry these tactical operations out on behalf of the agency while the CIA oversees them. Although intelligence-gathering is the agency's main agenda, tactical divisions were established in the agency to carry out emergency field operations that require immediate suppression or dismantling of a threat or weapon. The CIA is often used for intelligence-gathering instead of the U.S. military to avoid a declaration of war.
The CIA succeeded the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), formed during World
Iraqi Airways Company, operating as Iraqi Airways (Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العراقية Al-Khuṭūṭ al-Jawwiyyah al-`Irāqiyyah; also known as Air Iraq), is the national carrier of Iraq, headquartered on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad. One of the oldest airlines in the Middle East, Iraqi Airways operates domestic and regional service. Its main base is Baghdad International Airport.
Iraqi Airways is a member of the Arab Air Carriers Organization.
Iraqi Airways was founded in 1945 as a department of the Iraqi State Railways and started operating on 28 January 1946 using five De Havilland Dragon Rapides on a service to Syria. With the help of the British Overseas Airways Corporation the new airline ordered three Vickers Viking aircraft. While waiting for the Vikings to be delivered the airline leased four Douglas DC-3 aircraft from BOAC in December 1946. In 1947 it ordered the de Havilland Dove to replace the Dragon Rapides and the Doves were delivered in October 1947. The three new Vikings were delivered at the end of 1947 and the DC-3s were returned to BOAC, a fourth Viking was bought second-hand.
In 1953 the four-engined Vickers Viscount turboprop was chosen to
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd. (KRX: 003490), operating as Korean Air, is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of South Korea, with global headquarters located in Gonghang-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 130 cities in 45 countries, while its domestic division serves 20 destinations. It is among the top 20 airlines in the world in terms of passengers carried and is also the top-ranked international cargo airline. Incheon International Airport serves as Korean Air's international hub. Korean Air also maintains a satellite headquarters campus at Incheon.
Korean Air was founded by the South Korean government in 1962 as Korean Air Lines to replace Korean National Airlines, which was founded in 1946. On 1 March 1969, the Hanjin Transport Group took control of the airline. Long-haul freight operations were introduced on 26 April 1971, followed by passenger services to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) on 19 April 1972.
International flights to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Los Angeles were flown with Boeing 707s until the introduction of the Boeing 747 in 1973. In 1973, the airline
The Indian Coast Guard (Hindi: भारतीय तटरक्षक, Bhāratīya Taṭarakṣaka) (ICG) is an Armed Force of the Union Of India. Its mission is the protection of India's maritime interests and enforcement of maritime law with jurisdiction over both territorial (including contiguous zone & exclusive economic zone) and international waters.
ICG was formally established on 18 August 1978 as an armed force of the Union by the Coast Guard Act, 1978. It operates under the Department of Defence of the Union Ministry of Defence.
The Coast Guard works in close cooperation with the Indian Navy, Department of Fisheries, Department of Revenue (Customs) and the Central and State police forces.
The Indian Coast Guard's motto is वयम रक्षामः (Vayam Rakshamah), which translates from Sanskrit as We Protect. Its missions are:
The establishment of the Indian Coast Guard was first proposed by the Indian Navy to provide non-military maritime services to the nation. In the 1960s, sea-borne smuggling of goods was threatening India's domestic economy. The Indian Customs Department frequently called upon the Indian Navy for assistance with patrol and interception in the anti-smuggling effort.
The Nagchaudhuri Committee
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research. Since February 2006, NASA's mission statement has been to "pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research." On September 14, 2011, NASA announced that it had selected the design of a new Space Launch System that it said would take the agency's astronauts farther into space than ever before and provide the cornerstone for future human space exploration efforts by the U.S.
NASA was established by the National Aeronautics and Space Act on July 29, 1958, replacing its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The agency became operational on October 1, 1958. U.S. space exploration efforts have since been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the
Nazi Germany, also known as the Third Reich, is the common name for Germany when it was a totalitarian state ruled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). On 30 January 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, quickly eliminating all opposition to rule as sole leader. The state idolized Hitler as its Führer ("leader"), centralizing all power in his hands. Historians have emphasized the hypnotic effect of his rhetoric on large audiences, and of his eyes in small groups. Kessel writes, "Overwhelmingly...Germans speak with mystification of Hitler's 'hypnotic' appeal..." Under the "leader principle", the Führer's word was above all other laws. Top officials reported to Hitler and followed his policies, but they had considerable autonomy. The government was not a coordinated, cooperating body, but rather a collection of factions struggling to amass power and gain favor with the Führer. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazi government restored prosperity and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy of free-market and central-planning practices. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction
The Polish Air Force (Polish: Siły Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej – literally: Air Forces of the Republic of Poland) is a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (literally: Air-and-Air Defence Forces). In 2010 it consisted of roughly 16,000 military personnel and about 320 aircraft, distributed among 12 bases throughout Poland. The Polish Air Force is currently one of the most advanced in Central Europe, equipped with 48 F-16 jet fighter aircraft (2008) designed by Lockheed Martin specifically for Poland, including F-16 D block 52+, the most advanced in NATO.
The Polish Air Force can trace its origins to the months following the end of World War I in 1918. Following the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939, much of the Polish Air Force was destroyed, although many of its pilots were able to continue fighting throughout World War II in air squadrons in Britain and the Soviet Union. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Poland has steadily reduced its reliance upon Russian-built aircraft and by 2012 will have three squadrons of US F-16 fighter aircraft fully
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy. It was established as a service independent of the Royal Italian Army from 1923 until 1946. In 1946, the monarchy was abolished and the Kingdom of Italy became the Italian Republic, whereupon the name of the air force changed to Aeronautica Militare Italiana.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Italy was at the forefront of aerial warfare: during the colonization of Libya in 1911, it made the first reconnaissance flight in history on 23 October, and the first ever bombing raid on 1 November.
During World War I, the Italian Corpo Aeronautico Militare, then still part of the Regio Esercito (Royal Army), operated a mix of French fighters and locally-built bombers, notably the gigantic Caproni aircraft. The Regia Marina (Royal Navy) had its own air arm, operating locally-built flying boats.
The Italian air force became an independent service—the Regia Aeronautica—on March 28, 1923. Benito Mussolini's fascist regime turned it into an impressive propaganda machine, with its aircraft, featuring the Italian flag colors across the full span of the undersides of the wings,
The Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) (Malay: Tentera Udara DiRaja Malaysia (TUDM); Jawi: تنترا اودارا دراج مليسيا) was formed on 2 June 1958 as the Royal Federation of Malaya Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Persekutuan). However, its roots can be traced back to the Malayan Auxiliary Air Force formations of the British Royal Air Force in then colonial British Malaya. Today, the Royal Malaysian Air Force operates a unique mix of modern US, European and Russian-made aircraft.
The Malaysian air forces trace their lineage to the Malayan Auxiliary Air Force formations of the Royal Air Force raised in 1934. They later transformed into the Straits Settlements Volunteer Air Force and the Malaya Volunteer Air Force formed in 1940 and dissolved in 1942 during the height of the Japanese advance over Malaya. The latter was reestablished in 1950 in time for the Malayan Emergency and contributed very much to the war effort. On 2 June 1958, the MVAF finally became the Royal Federation of Malaya Air Force, this date is celebrated as RMAF Day yearly.
On 25 October 1960, after the end of the Malayan Emergency, the British Royal Air Force handed over their first base in Malaya to the RFMAF, at Simpang
The Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) is the navy of the Netherlands. During the 17th century the Dutch Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and it played an active role in the wars of the Dutch Republic and later those of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In recent times the Royal Netherlands Navy takes part in expeditionary peacekeeping and peace enforcing operations.
The main naval base is at Den Helder, Noord Holland. Secondary naval bases are at Amsterdam, Vlissingen, Texel, and Willemstad (Curaçao). Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are in Rotterdam, Doorn, Suffisant on Curaçao, and Savaneta on Aruba.
The Royal Netherlands Naval College is the service academy of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
The Dutch navy has a long history. It was involved in many wars against other European powers since the late 16th century, initially for independence against Spain in European waters, later for shipping lanes, trade and colonies in many parts of the world, notably in four Anglo-Dutch wars against the United Kingdom. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was the most powerful navy in the world. Throughout this period there were, in fact, not one
Southwest Airlines Co. (NYSE: LUV), operating as Southwest Airlines, is the largest low-cost carrier in the United States, and is headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The airline was established in 1967, adopting its current name in 1971. It is the largest airline in the United States based upon domestic passengers carried as of June 5, 2011 (2011 -06-05).
Although it operated Boeing 727 aircraft for a short time during the 1970s and 1980s, between that time and 2012 the airline operated only Boeing 737 aircraft, and as of August 2012 is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide with over 572 of these aircraft in service, each operating an average of six flights per day.
In May 2011, the airline acquired Orlando-based AirTran Airways, with full integration of the carriers expected to be complete by 2015. On March 1, 2012, the company was issued a single operating certificate meaning that from a technical standpoint, Southwest and AirTran became one airline.
Southwest has more than 46,000 employees as of August 2012 and operates more than 3,400 flights per day. As of August 2012, Southwest Airlines operates scheduled service to 77 destinations in 40 states.
The United States Navy Reserve, until 2005 known as the United States Naval Reserve, is the Reserve Component (RC) of the United States Navy. Members of the Navy Reserve, called Reservists, are enrolled in the Selected Reserve (SELRES), the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR), the Full Time Support (FTS), or the Retired Reserve program.
The largest cohort, the SELRES, have traditionally drilled one weekend a month and two weeks of annual training during the year, receiving base pay and certain special pays (i.e., flight pay, dive pay, etc.) when performing inactive duty (i.e., IDT, aka "drills") and full pay and allowances while on active duty for Annual Training (AT), Active Duty for Training (ADT), Active Duty for Operational Support (ADOS), Active Duty for Special Work (ADSW), or under Mobilization (MOB) orders or otherwise recalled to full active duty.
Every state, along with Guam and Puerto Rico, has at least one Navy Operational Support Center (NOSC) (formerly Naval Reserve Center), staffed by FTS personnel, where the SELRES Sailors come to do their weekend drills. The size of these centers varies greatly, depending on the number of SELRES assigned. They are intended mostly to
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps (styled the Commissioned Officer Corps under federal law and known informally as NOAA Corps) is one of seven federal uniformed services of the United States, which operates under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a scientific agency within the Department of Commerce. The NOAA Corps is one of two uniformed services that only consist of commissioned officers and has no enlisted or warrant officer ranks.
The NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps, established on May 22, 1917, as the Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps due to the events of World War I, and then as the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) Corps from 1965 to 1970, traces its roots back to the former U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, which dates to 1807 under President Thomas Jefferson. Coast and Geodetic Survey officers were commissioned so that under the laws of war, they could not be executed as spies if they were serving as surveyors on a battlefield. The first flag officer in the USC&GS Corps was Rear Admiral Raymond S. Patton when he was promoted from Captain to Rear Admiral in 1936. When the Coast and Geodetic Survey
Skyway Airlines was an American ramp and aircraft ground handling services and catering company based in Oak Creek, Wisconsin. Until April 5, 2008, it operated as a regional airline under the business name Midwest Connect, feeding Midwest Airlines's hub at General Mitchell International Airport with twelve 32-seat Fairchild-Dornier 328JET jet aircraft, and four 19-seat Beechcraft 1900 turboprops. Skyway Airlines, along with its parent corporation, Midwest Air Group, has ceased operations.
Skyway Airlines, The Midwest Express Connection, began flight operations on April 17, 1989.
Skyway began operations as a division of Phoenix, Arizona-based Mesa Air Group. Mesa's Skyway Airlines division operated Beechcraft 1900C 19-passenger airliners, providing regional airline feed to Midwest Express Airlines in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Rockford, Illinois.
In 1994, Midwest Express established Astral Aviation, Inc., as a wholly owned subsidiary to take over the operation of Skyway Airlines. The 1900C aircraft were replaced with 12 brand-new Beechcraft 1900D aircraft. The first flight took place from Milwaukee to Flint, Michigan, on February 15, 1994. Skyway grew to connect Milwaukee with
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko) was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992. From 1939 to 1945, the state did not de facto exist because of its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, but the Czechoslovak government-in-exile operated independently during this period. In 1945, the eastern part of Carpathian Ruthenia was taken over by the Soviet Union.
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Form of state:
The country was of generally irregular terrain. The western area was part of north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of northern reaches of Carpathian Mountains and Danube River basin lands.
The weather was predominantly continental, but varied from the moderate temperature of Western Europe in the west, to more severe weather of Eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union in the east.
The area was long a part of the Austro Hungarian Empire until the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The
The Fleet Air Arm (FAA) is the branch of the British Royal Navy responsible for the operation of naval aircraft. The Fleet Air Arm currently operates the AgustaWestland Merlin, Westland Sea King and Westland Lynx helicopters. Helicopters such as the Lynx and Westland Wasp have been deployed on smaller vessels since 1964, taking over the roles once performed by biplanes such as the Fairey Swordfish.
The Fleet Air Arm was formed in 1924 as organisational unit of the Royal Air Force which was then operating the aircraft embarked on RN ships – the Royal Naval Air Service having been merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps in 1918 – and did not come under the direct control of the Admiralty until mid-1939. During the Second World War, the Fleet Air Arm operated both aircraft on ships and land-based aircraft that defended the Royal Navy's shore establishments and facilities.
British naval flying started in 1909, with the construction of an airship for naval duties. In 1911 the Royal Navy graduated its first aeroplane pilots at the Royal Aero Club flying ground at Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey under the tutelage of pioneer aviator George Bertram Cockburn, but in May 1912 naval and
The 1st American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force in 1941–1942, famously nicknamed the Flying Tigers, was composed of pilots from the United States Army (USAAF), Navy (USN), and Marine Corps (USMC), recruited under presidential authority and commanded by Claire Lee Chennault. The ground crew and headquarters staff were likewise mostly recruited from the U.S. military, along with some civilians.
The group consisted of three fighter squadrons with about 20 aircraft each. It trained in Burma before the American entry into World War II with the mission of defending China against Japanese forces. Arguably, the group was a private military contractor, and for that reason the volunteers have sometimes been called mercenaries. The members of the group had lucrative contracts with salaries ranging from $250 a month for a mechanic to $750 for a squadron commander, roughly three times what they had been making in the U.S. forces.
The Tigers' shark-faced fighters remain among the most recognizable of any individual combat aircraft of World War II, and they demonstrated innovative tactical victories when the news in the U.S. was filled with little more than stories of defeat at
The Marine ( listen (help·info)) is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr (the German Armed Forces). It is deeply integrated into the NATO alliance. Its mission is protection of German and Allied territories as well as peace-keeping and peace enforcement operations.
The Marine traces its roots back to the Reichsflotte (Empire Fleet) of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52. The Reichsflotte was the first German Navy to sail under the black-red-gold flag. Founded on 14 June 1848 by the orders of the democratically elected Frankfurt Parliament the Reichsflottes brief existence ended with the failure of the revolution and was disbanded on 2 April 1852; thus, the modern Marine celebrates its birthday on 14 June.
From 1945 to 1956, the German Mine Sweeping Administration and its successor organizations, made up of former members of the Kriegsmarine, became something of a transition stage for the Marine, allowing the future Marine to draw on experienced personnel upon its formation. In 1956, with West Germany's accession to NATO, the Marine was formally established. With the reunification of Germany in 1990 the Marine took over the former East German Volksmarine
Ghana Airways Limited was the national airline of the Republic of Ghana with its main base of operation, and hub, at Kotoka International Airport in Accra.
The airline ceased operations in 2004, but was to be revived during 2010 as a partnership between the government of Ghana and Arik Air of Nigeria.
Ghana Airways was founded on 4 July 1958 by the government of Ghana with start up capital of ₤400,000; the government holding a sixty percent stake, with BOAC holding the remainder. When the company was founded, a seven year agreement between the airline and BOAC was also signed, which saw BOAC personnel being seconded to Accra, and Ghanaian personnel being trained in order for them to take over management and operations of the airline. Prior to the foundation of the company, BOAC and West African Airways Corporation were responsible for international services from Ghana, operating pool services from West Africa to London. For its initial operations, Ghana Airways joined the pool services, when BOAC began operating the Accra-London route on 16 July 1958 with a Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, with the aircraft being operated with the Ghanaian flag and in a livery minimally adapted from that
This article deals with the armed forces of Honduras.
During the twentieth century, Honduran military leaders frequently became presidents, either through elections or by coups d'état. General Tiburcio Carías Andino was elected in 1932, he later on called a constituent assembly that allowed him to be reelected, and his rule became more authoritarian until an election in 1948. During the following decades, the military of Honduras carried out several coups d'état, starting in October 1955. General Oswaldo López Arellano carried out the next coup in October 1963 and a second in December 1972, followed by coups in 1975 by Juan Alberto Melgar Castro and in 1978 by Policarpo Paz García.
Events during the 1980s in El Salvador and Nicaragua led Honduras — with US assistance — to expand its armed forces considerably, laying particular emphasis on its air force, which came to include a squadron of US-provided F-5s.
The military unit Battalion 316 carried out political assassinations and torture of suspected political opponents of the government during this same period. Battalion members received training and support from the United States Central Intelligence Agency both in Honduras and at
United Air Lines, Inc., operating as United Airlines, is a major U.S. airline and the world's largest airline in terms of number of destinations. United employs 86,852 people. It is a subsidiary of United Continental Holdings, Inc. formerly, UAL Corporation, with corporate headquarters in Chicago. United's largest hub is George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the largest airline alliance in the world, and offers connections to over 1,000 destinations in over 170 countries worldwide. The airline's regional service is United Express.
United Airlines originated from the Varney Air Lines air mail service of Walter Varney, who also founded Varney Speed Lines which later became Continental Airlines. Founded in Boise, Idaho in 1926, the carrier flew the first Contract Air Mail flight in the U.S. on April 5, 1926, marking the first scheduled airline service in the country's history. In 1927, airplane pioneer William Boeing founded his own airline, Boeing Air Transport, and began buying other airmail carriers including Varney Airlines. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport
US Airways is a major U.S. airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. A member of the Star Alliance Network, the airline utilizes a fleet of 338 mainline jet aircraft and 285 regional jet and turbo-prop aircraft connecting 204 destinations in North America, South America, Europe and the Middle East.
The carrier operates the US Airways Shuttle, a US Airways brand which provides hourly service between Boston, New York and Washington, D.C. Regional airline service is branded as US Airways Express, operated by contract and subsidiary airline companies.
As of July 2012, US Airways employed 32,306 people worldwide and operated 3,197 daily flights (1,268 US Airways Mainline, 1,929 US Airways Express).
US Airways traces its history to All American Aviation Inc, a company founded by du Pont family brothers Richard C. du Pont, Alexis Felix du Pont, Jr. and CEO Steven Gardner. Headquartered in Pittsburgh, the airline served the Ohio River valley in 1939. In 1949 the company was renamed All American Airways as it switched from airmail to passenger service; it became Allegheny Airlines in 1953.
Allegheny's first jet was the Douglas DC-9 in 1966; it absorbed Lake Central Airlines in 1968
Air Transat is an airline based in Saint-Laurent, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, operating scheduled and charter flights, serving 60 destinations in 25 countries. The airline is owned and operated by Transat A.T. Inc. During the summer season its main destinations are Europe and in the winter season the Caribbean, Mexico, USA and Central America. Its main Canadian gateways are Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport and Vancouver International Airport. The airline also has operations at Calgary International Airport, Québec/Jean Lesage International Airport and others.
Air Transat made its inaugural flight on November 14, 1987, travelling from Montreal to Acapulco. Six years later, Air Transat assumed defunct Nationair's maintenance base and aircraft. Today, the company books over 3.5 million passengers a year. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transat A.T. Inc. Today Air Transat is one of Canada's largest airlines, after Air Canada and WestJet. Air Transat has 2,100 (2010) employees. On February 13, 2011, Air Transat Flight TS163 operated with their first all female flight crew from Cancun to Vancouver.
Air Transat specializes in
Australian National Airways (ANA) was Australia's predominant carrier from the mid-1930s to the early 1950s.
On 19 March 1932 Flinders Island Airways began a regular aerial service using the Desoutter Mk.II VH-UEE Miss Launceston between Launceston, Tasmania and Flinders Island in Bass Strait, which competed with shipping services offered by William Holyman and Sons Ltd. Due to monopoly arrangements with other Australian shipowners, Holymans (as it was known) was only allowed to carry passengers on internal Tasmanian routes, and resented the intrusion. Brothers Captain Victor Holyman and Ivan Holyman purchased a de Havilland D.H.83 Fox Moth VH-UQM Miss Currie which entered service on the same route on 1 October 1932, and soon amalgamated with Flinders Island Airways to form Tasmanian Aerial Services Pty. Ltd. They later purchased a de Havilland D.H.84 Dragon VH-URD Miss Launceston that began a regular service between Melbourne, Flinders Island and Launceston in September 1933.
Following the Australian Government's announcement of the Empire Air Mail Scheme late in 1933, Holymans entered into a partnership with the two main shipping companies servicing Tasmania, Huddart Parker and
The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (English: Land Army), is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Just like the Armée de l'Air, the Marine Nationale and the Gendarmerie Nationale it is placed under the responsibility of the French government. The current Chief of Staff of the French Army (CEMAT) is general Bertrand Ract-Madoux.
In 1999 the Army issued the Code of the French Soldier, which includes the injunctions:
The French Army employs 126,436 military and 17,025 reservist personnel for a combined component strength of 142,148 personnel in 2012 (this figure excludes French Foreign Legion). All soldiers are considered professionals, following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997 and effective as of 2001. In addition there were 19,345 civilian staff working in conjunction with the Department of the Ministry of Defence.
The first permanent army, paid with regular wages, was established under Charles VII of France. From 1792, the French Revolutionary Army fought the allies. Under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. In August 1914, the French Armed Forces numbered 1,300,000
Royal Dutch Shell plc (LSE: RDSA, RDSB), commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's second largest company by 2011 revenues and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors". Shell is also one of the world's most valuable companies. As of September 2012, its largest shareholder is BlackRock with 5% stake, while the Qatar Investment Authority has announced a plan to raise its stake from below 3% to 7%.
Shell is vertically integrated and is active in every area of the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing, petrochemicals, power generation and trading. It also has major renewable energy activities, including in biofuels, hydrogen, solar and wind power. It has operations in over 90 countries, produces around 3.1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses.
Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. As
The Vietnam People's Air Force (Vietnamese: Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam) is the air force of Vietnam. It is the successor of the former North Vietnamese Air Force and the absorbed Republic of Vietnam Air Force following the re-unification of Vietnam in 1975. Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) is one of three main branches in Vietnam People's Army, a part of Ministry of Defence with mission for defending the airspace belongs to Vietnam's territory.
The first Vietnamese aircraft were two trainers, a de Havilland Tiger Moth and a Morane-Saulnier, which were initially the private property of the emperor Bao Dai. In 1945, Bao Dai gave the aircraft to the Vietnamese government. Until 1950, although Vietnam People's Army (VPA) has stronger attacking forces to carry forward the strategy, but Vietnam People's Army is almost powerless against the reconnaissance operation or attack from the air of French's forces. On march 9, 1949, General Vo Nguyen Giap decided to establish the Air Force Research Committee (Ban Nghiên cứu Không quân) belongs to the General Staff to study the methods of fighting back. The first Vietnamese service aircraft flight was made by the Tiger Moth on August 15, 1949.
An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or other branch. Typically, air forces are responsible for gaining control of the air, carrying out strategic and tactical bombing missions and providing support to surface forces.
The term "air force" may also refer to a tactical air force or numbered air force, which is an operational formation either within a national air force or comprising several air components from allied nations. Air forces typically consist of a combination of fighters, bombers, helicopters, transport planes and other aircraft.
Many air forces are also responsible for operations of military space, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM), and communications equipment. Some air forces may command and control other air defence assets such as antiaircraft artillery, surface-to-air missiles, or anti-ballistic missile warning networks and defensive systems. Some nations, principally Russia, the former Soviet Union and
The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces". Both air branches transferred their equipment, installations and personnel to the new force.
According to the Flight International (Flightglobal.com) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Brazilian Air Force has an active strength of 70,710 military personnel and operates around 640 manned aircraft.
The establishment of the Royal Air Force in 1918 and the creation of the Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) and the French Air Force during the 1920s drove the idea of uniting Brazilian air power under the same organization. Together with these events the Brazilian strategists were also influenced by the theories of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell and Hugh Montague Trenchard.
The first public manifest to create an integrated military air service came up in 1928 when an army Major called Lysias Rodrigues wrote an article called "An urgent need: The Ministry of the Air"
Chalk's International Airlines, formerly Chalk's Ocean Airways, was an airline with its headquarters on the grounds of Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport in unincorporated Broward County, Florida near Fort Lauderdale. It operated scheduled seaplane services to the Bahamas. Its main base was Miami Seaplane Base (MPB) until 2001, with a hub at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. On September 30, 2007 the United States Department of Transportation revoked the flying charter for the airline., and later that year, the airline ceased operations.
The airline was founded by Arthur "Pappy" Chalk, and started ad-hoc charter operations as the Red Arrow Flying Service in 1917. After "Pappy" Chalk served in the Army Air Service in World War I, he returned to Miami and commenced scheduled service between Miami and Bimini in the Bahamas in February 1919 as Chalk's Flying Service. Chalk's first base was a beach umbrella on the Miami shore of Biscayne Bay. In 1926 a landfill island, Watson Island, was created in Biscayne Bay close to Miami. Chalk's built an air terminal there, and operated from the island for the next 75 years.
During Prohibition, Chalk's was a major
The Military of Bulgaria, officially the Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian: Българска армия) represents the Armed Forces of the Republic of Bulgaria. The Commander-in-Chief is the President of Bulgaria (currently Rosen Plevneliev). The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership while military command remains in the hands of the General Staff, headed by the Chief of Staff. There are three main branches – the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.
Throughout history, the army has played a major role in defending the country's sovereignty. Only several years after its liberation (1878), Bulgaria became a regional military power and was involved in several major wars – Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), First Balkan War (1912–13), Second Balkan War (1913), First World War (1915–1918) and Second World War (1941–1944), during which the Army gained significant combat experience. During the Cold War the People's Republic of Bulgaria maintained one of the largest militaries in the Warsaw Pact, numbering an estimated 152,000 troops in 1988. Since the Fall of Communism, the country's political leadership decided to pursue a pro-NATO policy, thus reducing military personnel and weaponry. Bulgaria
The Republic of China Air Force (Chinese: 中華民國空軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Kōngjūn) is the aviation branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China (Taiwan). The ROCAF's primary mission is the defense of the airspace over and around Taiwan. Priorities of the ROCAF include the development of long range reconnaissance and surveillance networks, integrating C4ISTAR systems to increase battle effectiveness, procuring counterstrike weapons, next generation fighters, and hardening airfields and other facilities to survive a surprise attack.
In May 2005, the Ministry of National Defense indicated its intention to transfer command of all defensive missile systems to the ROCAF, while future offensive missiles would be placed under a newly formed missile command. As of 2006, all medium and long range SAM units were transferred from ROC Army's Missile Command to ROCAF, while ROCAF's airbase security units were transferred to ROC Army Military Police. But it's revealed in January 2011, 5 years long problems of integrating those long range ex-ROC Army SAM units into ROCAF has forced ROCAF high command decided to return those units back to ROC Army's Missile Command. Missile Command is now
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, tr. Suhoputnye voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii) are the land forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and required reforms to professionalize the force during the transition. While the Russian Ground Forces in their present form are only about twenty years old, Russian officers trace their antecedents' history through the Imperial Russian Army era back to the time of Kievan Rus'.
Since 1992, the Ground Forces have withdrawn many thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars, peacekeeping, and other operations in the Soviet successor states (what is known in Russia as the "near abroad"). The most recent clash was the 2008 South Ossetia war with Georgian forces.
The primary responsibilities of the Ground Forces are the protection of the state borders, combat on land, the security of occupied territories, and the defeat of enemy troops. The Ground Forces must be
The Spanish army (Spanish: Ejército de Tierra; lit, "ground army") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the 15th century.
The Spanish army has existed continuously since the reign of King Fernando and Queen Isabel (late 15th century). The oldest and largest of the three services, its mission was the defense of peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Melilla, Ceuta and the Spanish islands and rocks off the northern coast of Africa.
The army is completing a major reorganization. It had previously been organized into nine regional operational commands. These were reduced to six commands in conjunction with a revised deployment of forces: Central Command, Southern Command, Levante Command, Eastern Pyrenees Command, Northwestern Command, and Western Pyrenees Command. In addition there were the two military zones of the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands. Ceuta and Melilla fell within the Southern Command. At the head of each regional and zonal command was an officer of three-star rank. Although his authority had been reduced, the regional
TAM Airlines (Portuguese: TAM Linhas Aéreas is the Brazilian brand of LATAM Airlines Group. The merger of TAM with LAN Airlines was completed on June 22, 2012. The company is currently the largest Brazilian airline.
Before the takeover, TAM was Brazil's and Latin America's largest airline. Its headquarters are in São Paulo, operating scheduled services to destinations within Brazil, as well as international flights to Europe and other parts of North and South America. Shares in the company was traded on the São Paulo Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) and New York Stock Exchange as "TAM S.A.". Prior to the merger with LAN, the company closed its capital, transferring its shares to Latam Airlines Group.
According to the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil (ANAC) in December 2011 TAM had 40.45% of the domestic and 88.94% of the international market shares in terms of passengers per kilometre flown. Starting September 2010 statistics refer to the totality of TAM Group, which comprises TAM Airlines and Pantanal Linhas Aéreas.
TAM – Táxi Aéreo Marília and TAM – Transportes Aéreos Regionais were two different entities, although both belonged to the TAM Group. TAM – Marília, an air taxi company
Vladivostok Air (also Vladivostok Avia; Russian: Владивосток Авиа) (IATA: XF, ICAO: VLK) is an airline based in Vladivostok, Russia.
As the largest carrier in the Russian Far East and Siberia, Vladivostok Air operates scheduled domestic flights within Russia and international flights to Africa, Asia, and Europe, as well as charter flights and a well established helicopter service. The main hub of operations is Vladivostok International Airport, with secondary hubs at Moscow Sheremetyevo International Airport and Khabarovsk Novy International Airport and a focus city in Ekaterinburg Koltsovo Airport.
Prior to late September 2008, only a few flights between the cities of Vladivostok and Khabarovsk were available on Vladivostok Air, but when the Russian government decided to close Dalavia, due to high debt levels, Vladivostok Air soon announced the start of 7 additional domestic routes and 4 new international routes from Khabarovsk.
The 1930s saw active construction of airports in the Soviet republics throughout the USSR. The Primorye region gaining its first airport in 1931. Construction also began on two airfields; a hydro-airport (seaplane port) in Vladivostok's Second River region
The Saudi Arabian Army (Arabic: الجيش العربي السعودي), also called Royal Saudi Land Force (Arabic: القوات البرية الملكية السعودية). Is a branch of the Saudi Armed Forces. The total number of active troops is estimated to be 150,000 The current Chief of the Saudi General Staff is Field Marshal Saleh Al-Muhaya.
1923 is considered to be the birth year of the Saudi Army, as the modern Saudi Arabia have been Unified and founded as a single state. After the discovery of oil and the meeting between King Abdulaziz and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 14, 1945, the Americans became the new major ally of Saudi Arabia.
Other events that led to an expansion of the Saudi Army were the Arab-Israeli conflict in 1948, the fall of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the subsequent fears of possible Shia's actions and in the last years the first Gulf War in 1990. In the year 2000, Saudi Arabia's government spent billions of dollars to expand the Saudi Forces including the Saudi Army.
Wars involving Saudi Army:
The combat strength of the Saudi Army consists of 4 armoured brigades, 17 mechanized infantry brigades, three light motorized rifle
Air Cairo is a low fare airline based in Cairo, Egypt. The airline is the low fare subsidiary of EgyptAir which operates scheduled flights to to the middle east, and inclusive tour flights to Egypt from Europe, Africa and Asia.
Its main base is Cairo International Airport with the company head office in the Sheraton Heliopolis Zone.
The airline was established by Dr Ibrahim Kamel's Kato Group, in conjunction with a consortium of Egyptian travel agents. It started operations in 1997. In 2003 EgyptAir acquired 40% (later increased to 60%) of the airline and the existing Tupolev fleet and operations were transferred to a new company, Cairo Aviation. Air Cairo was then re-positioned as a new charter airline and EgyptAir subsidiary operating domestic and international charter services.
Recently, the company is re-modeling towards the low fare model which is planned to be the strongest low fare airline in Egypt. On 1 June 2012 Air Cairo launched its first ever scheduled flight from Borg El Arab Airport Alexandria to Kuwait International Airport.
The airline is owned by:
The Air Cairo fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of January 2011):
AirTran Airways is an American low-cost airline headquartered in Dallas, Texas and is a subsidiary of Southwest Airlines. AirTran operates nearly 700 daily flights, primarily in the eastern and midwestern United States, with its principal hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport where it operates nearly 200 daily departures. AirTran's fleet consists of Boeing 717 aircraft, of which it was the largest operator, and Boeing 737-700 aircraft.
The original AirTran Airways, a Boeing 737 operator with service to/from Orlando, was founded by AirTran Corporation, the holding company of Mesaba Airlines of Minneapolis, Minnesota, operating as a Northwest Airlink carrier with hubs in Minneapolis and Detroit. In 1994, AirTran Holdings purchased a start up 737 operator named Conquest Sun and renamed the airline AirTran Airways. Conquest Sun, similar to ValuJet, was an airline started by former Eastern Air Lines employees. The original AirTran Airways moved its headquarters to Orlando, Florida, and grew to 11 Boeing 737 aircraft serving 24 cities in the East and Midwest providing low-fare leisure travel to Orlando. In 1995, AirTran Airways was spun off by Mesaba and formed its own
Cambodia Angkor Air is the national flag carrier airline of Cambodia, headquartered in Phnom Penh. It commenced operations on 28 July 2009. The airline is owned by the Cambodian government (51%) and Vietnam Airlines (49%), the latter allowing for codeshare flights.
Cambodia Angkor Air was founded on 27 July 2009, replacing national airline Royal Air Cambodge, which had gone bankrupt in 2001, concentrating on serving tourist routes within Cambodia, most notably catering for visitors of Angkor Wat.
Cambodia Angkor Air serves the following destinations.
Cambodia Angkor Air's aircraft are loaned from Vietnam Airlines and as of August 2012, the Cambodia Angkor Air fleet consists of the following leased aircraft with an average age of 3.8 years, which are all operated on behalf of Vietnam Airlines:
Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is a Congressionally chartered, federally supported, non-profit corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). CAP is a volunteer organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds, lifestyles, and occupations. It performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency services, which includes search and rescue (by air and ground) and disaster relief operations; aerospace education for youth and the general public; and cadet programs for teenage youth. In addition, CAP has recently been tasked with homeland security and courier service missions. CAP also performs non-auxiliary missions for various governmental and private agencies, such as local law enforcement and the American Red Cross. The program is established as an organization by Title 10 of the United States Code and its purposes defined by Title 36. While CAP is sponsored by the USAF, it is not an operating reserve component under the United States Air Force or the federal government. Since CAP is not a reserve component of a uniformed service of the military and its membership is made up of volunteer
The Free French Forces were individuals or military units who joined "Free France", the resistance organization founded by Charles de Gaulle in 1940 in London in order to continue the struggle against the Axis powers.
De Gaulle, a French government minister who rejected the armistice concluded by Maréchal Philippe Pétain and who had escaped to Britain, exhorted the French to resist in his BBC broadcast "Appeal of 18 June" (Appel du 18 juin), which had a stirring effect on morale throughout France and its colonies, though initially relatively few French forces responded to De Gaulle's call.
The Free French fought Axis and Vichy troops, and served on battlefronts everywhere from the Middle East to Indochina and North Africa. The Free French Navy operated as an auxiliary force to the Royal Navy, and there were Free French units in the Royal Air Force, Soviet Air Force, and British SAS.
In November 1942, the Allies invaded Vichy-controlled French North Africa, and many Vichy troops joined the Free French, with General Henri Giraud at their head. This caused the Germans to occupy Vichy France, and in retaliation a Vichy force of 60,000 in North Africa joined the Allies.
By mid-1944, the
The Libyan Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية الليبية) was the branch of the Libyan armed forces responsible for aerial warfare. In 2010, before the Libyan civil war, the Libyan Air Force personnel strength was estimated at 18,000, with an inventory of 374 combat capable aircraft operating from 13 military airbases in Libya.
The air force was first established as the Royal Libyan Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Malakiya al Libiyya) in 1951. It was originally equipped with a small number of transports and trainers: Douglas C-47s and Lockheed T-33s. However, F-5 Freedom Fighters were delivered from 1967. In 1970 it changed its name to the Libyan Arab Republic Air Force. After U.S. forces left Libya in 1970, Wheelus Air Base, a previous U.S. facility about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Tripoli, became a LAR Air Force installation and was renamed Okba Ben Nafi Air Base. The base housed the LARAF's headquarters and a large share of its major training facilities. From 1970 a very large expansion of the air force took place, with a grand number of Soviet and some French combat aircraft being purchased.
During May 1967 the Kingdom of Libya reached an agreement with the United States to
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстанның Қарулы күштері / Qazaqstannyñ Qarūly küshteri), is the name of the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstani military is a defence force consisting of the Ground Forces, Air and Air Defence Forces, Naval Forces, Republican Guard. The national defence policy aims which are based on the Constitution of Kazakhstan are to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state and the integrity of its land area, territorial waters and airspace and its constitutional order. The armed forces of Kazakhstan are performed under the authority of the Kazakhstan Ministry of Defense.
On May 7, 1992, the President of Kazakhstan took a number of actions regarding defence. He signed a decree on the 'establishment of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan', the transformation of the State Committee of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the Ministry of Defence, on the attribution of Sagadat Nurmagambetov the military rank of Colonel General, and the appointment of General-Colonel Sagadat Nurmagambetov as Defence Minister of Kazakhstan. Mukhtar Altynbayev served as the Minister of
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, Jr., USN (25 October 1888 – 11 March 1957) was a naval officer who specialized in feats of exploration. He was a pioneering American aviator, polar explorer, and organizer of polar logistics. Aircraft flights, in which he served as a navigator and expedition leader, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a segment of the Arctic Ocean, and a segment of the Antarctic Plateau. Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach the North Pole and the South Pole by air. His South Pole claim is generally supported by a consensus of those who have examined the evidence. Byrd was a recipient of the Medal of Honor, the highest honor for heroism given by the United States.
He was the son of Esther Bolling (Flood) and Richard Evelyn Byrd, Sr. He was a descendant of one of the First Families of Virginia. His ancestors include planter John Rolfe and his wife Pocahontas, William Byrd II of Westover Plantation, who established Richmond, and Robert "King" Carter, a colonial governor. He was the brother of Virginia Governor and U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, a dominant figure in Virginia Democratic Party between the 1920s and 1960s; their father served as Speaker of
The Soviet Air Force, officially known in Russian as Военно-воздушные силы or (in the Latin alphabet) Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily (literally, "Military Air Forces") and often abbreviated VVS (ВВС in Cyrillic) was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Force in 1917, faced their greatest test during World War II, were involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991-92.
The All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army (translation is uncertain) was formed on 20 December 1917. This was a Bolshevik aerial headquarters initially led by Konstantin Akashev. Along with a general postwar military reorganisation, the collegium was reconstituted as the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Fleet" (Glavvozduhflot), established on 24 May 1918 and given the top-level departmental status of "Main Directorate".
It became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, and then the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925. Gradually its influence on aircraft
This article is about the air force of Switzerland. For other uses, see Luftwaffe (disambiguation).
The Swiss Air Force (German: Schweizer Luftwaffe; French: Forces aériennes suisses; Italian: Forze aeree svizzere; Romansh: Aviatica militara svizra) is the air component of the Swiss Armed Forces, established on July 31, 1914, as part of the army and as of January 1966 an independent service.
In peacetime, Dübendorf is the operational air force headquarters. The Swiss Air Force operates from several fixed bases (see current status) but its personnel are also trained to carry out air operations from temporary highway airstrips. In case of crisis or war, several stretches of road are specially prepared for this option.
The first military aviation in Switzerland took the form of balloon transport, pioneered by Swiss balloonist Eduard Spelterini, but by 1914 there was still little official support for an air corps. The outbreak of World War I changed opinions drastically and cavalry officer Theodor Real was charged with forming a flying corps. He commandeered three civilian aircraft at Bern's airfield and set about training the initial nine pilots at a makeshift airfield close to
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force.
The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the AAF. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. The AAF controlled all parts of military aviation formerly distributed among the Army Air Corps, General Headquarters Air Force, and ground forces corps area commanders, and thus became the first air organization of the U.S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel.
The peak size of the AAF was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft in 1944, and 783 domestic bases in December 1943. By VE Day it had 1.25 million men stationed overseas and operated from more than 1,600 airfields worldwide.
The Air Corps became the Army Air Forces in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater
The Algerian Air Force (QJJ) is the aerial arm of the Algerian People's Military.
The creation of the Algerian military aviation was neither the result of a particular circumstance nor the initiative of a single person but the outcome of a global strategy having for a goal to develop and diversify the means of fight of the People National Army against the French occupying forces. It came in application of the decisions of the Soummam congress held on August 20th, 1956 which recommended the working out of a long term plan to form a modern army
Inside the revolution command, a structure was created to receive the Algerian student of the People National Army, among which some were sent to sister and friendly countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Syria, USSR and China, to follow a training of aircraft pilots and aeronautics technicians .
During this period, the French colonial army had started the lines of Challe and Morrice used to isolate the ALN fighters inside the country and to stop supplies coming from Tunisia and Morocco. Then, came the idea to train transport and helicopter pilots to ensure the supplying of the national liberation army and to prepare the first core of the military
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍, Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or literally "army of the greater Japanese empire" was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1871 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of War, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Military (Army) Aviation, became the third agency with oversight over the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the minister of war, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the inspector general of military aviation, and the inspector general of military training.
During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū. After the successful overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) and establishment of the new
The Indian Air Force (IAF; Devanāgarī: भारतीय वायु सेना, Bharatiya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces. Its primary responsibility is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during a conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Raj and the prefix Royal was added in 1945 in recognition of its services during World War II. After India achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the Royal Indian Air Force served the Dominion of India, with the prefix being dropped when India became a republic in 1950.
Since independence, the IAF has been involved in four wars with neighbouring Pakistan and one with the People's Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the IAF include Operation Vijay – the invasion of Goa, Operation Meghdoot, Operation Cactus and Operation Poomalai. Apart from conflicts, the IAF has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions.
The President of India Pranab Mukherjee serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the IAF. The Chief of Air Staff, an Air Chief Marshal (ACM), is a four-star commander and commands the Air Force. There is never more
Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej ("Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland", abbreviated SZ RP; popularly, Wojsko Polskie, abbreviated WP—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national defense forces of Poland. The name has been used since the early nineteenth century, but can also be applied to earlier periods.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland are the Army (Wojska Lądowe RP), Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP), Air Force (Siły Powietrzne RP) and Special Forces (Wojska Specjalne RP) and are under the command of the Ministry of National Defense (Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej). As of 2009, Poland has the world's twenty-first highest level of military expenditure, according to SIPRI. Polish soldiers have been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, and 23 Polish soldiers were killed in Iraq between the invasion of 2003 and Poland's withdrawal in 2008.
Pursuant to the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland, the supreme strategic goal of the Republic of Poland is to ensure favourable and secure conditions for the realization of national interests by eliminating external and internal threats, reducing risks and rightly assessing undertaken challenges and ably using
The Royal Bahraini Air Force (abbreviated as RBAF, formerly known as Bahrain Amiri Air Force) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bahrain Defense Force. The air force had 650 personnel in 1992 and 1,500 in 2009.
The air branch of the Bahrain Defence Force was organized in 1977 and began flying helicopters. In 1986, F5 fighter jets were acquired from the United States.
In 1987, the Bahrain Defense Force was reorganized into separate Army, Navy and Air force branches with the Air Wing becoming the Bahrain Amiri Air Force (BAAF). The delivery of a squadron of F-16s from 1990 marked a further increase in the capabilities of the air arm. The new F-16 unit was based at Sheik Isa Air Base alongside the F-5s. On 2 August 1990 several aircraft from the Kuwait Air Force were evacuated to Bahrain during the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. During the subsequent Gulf War, BAAF carried out the first F-5s and F-16s defensive missions on 25 January 1991 and began offensive operations the following day. The Gulf War ended on 28 February 1991.
A second batch of F-16s commenced delivery in 2000. The new aircraft were equipped to carry the AMRAAM missile, first used by the USAF in 1992. In July 2000,
The Russian Air Force (Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России, tr. Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. It is currently under the command of Colonel General Aleksandr Zelin. The Russian Navy has its own air arm, the Russian Naval Aviation, which is the former Soviet Aviatsiya Voyenno Morskogo Flota ("Naval Aviation"), or AV-MF).
The Air Force was formed from parts of the former Soviet Air Forces after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991–92. Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation on 7 May 1992, can be taken as a convenient formation date for the new Air Force. Since that time, the Air Force has suffered severe setbacks due to lack of resources, and has constantly shrunk in size. Since Vladimir Putin became President of the Russian Federation however, much more money has been allocated to the Armed Forces as a whole.
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union into its fifteen constituent republics in December 1991, the aircraft and personnel of the Soviet Air Forces – the VVS were divided among the newly independent states. General Pyotr Deynekin, the former
Scandinavian Airlines or SAS, previously Scandinavian Airlines System, is the flag carrier of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and the largest airline in Scandinavia.
Part of the SAS Group and headquartered at Stockholm Arlanda Airport (ARN) in Sigtuna, Sweden, the airline operates 182 aircraft to 90 destinations. The airline's main hub is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport, which is the main European and intercontinental hub. Somewhat smaller hubs also exist at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen and Stockholm-Arlanda Airport.
In 2011, SAS carried 22.9 million passengers, achieving revenues of SEK 38 billion. This makes it the eight-largest airline in Europe. SAS' fleet consists of Airbus A319, A320 (To be delivered soon), A321, A330 and A340, Boeing 737 Classic and Next Generation, Bombardier CRJ900 and McDonnell Douglas MD-82 (To be phased out). It is a founding member of the Star Alliance.
The airline was founded in 1946 as a consortium to pool Det Danske Luftfartselskab's, Svensk Interkontinental Lufttrafik's and Det Norske Luftfartselskap's transatlantic services. European and domestic cooperation started two years later and, in 1951, the airlines merged to create SAS.
The airline was founded on
The Spanish Navy (Spanish: Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Armada is responsible for notable achievements in world history such as the discovery of Americas, the first world circumnavigation, and the discovery of a maritime path from the East Asia to America across the Pacific Ocean.
For three centuries the Spanish Navy played a crucial defensive and logistical role within the Spanish Empire. It formed part of a vast trade network that sailed the Pacific from Asia to America and the Atlantic from America to Europe escorting the galleon convoys. The Spanish Navy was the most powerful maritime force in the world in the 16th and early 17th centuries, but the political and economic decline of Habsburg Spain caused it to be eclipsed by the rising Dutch, English, and French navies. Wide-ranging reforms under the new Bourbon dynasty reversed this decline in the 18th century, for much of which Spain possessed the world's third-largest navy and, by combining with the allied Marine royale, rivaled Britain for naval supremacy until Trafalgar.
As of 2010, the Armada has 25,000 personnel, and the
The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (Sinhala: Sri Lanka Guwan Hamudawa) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces. It was founded in 1951 as the Royal Ceylon Air Force (RCyAF) with the assistance of the Royal Air Force (RAF). The SLAF played a major role throughout the Sri Lankan Civil War. The SLAF operates more than 160 aircraft and has a projected trained strength of 27,400 airmen and 1,300 officers, who are from both regular and reserve service. The Sri Lanka Air Force has expanded to specialize mainly in providing air-support to ground forces, troop landing, and carrying out air strikes on rebel-held areas in the Northern and Eastern theatres, but is also capable of high- and low-level air defence.
The Commander of the Air Force is the professional head of the Sri Lanka Air Force.
The mission statement of the Sri Lanka Air Force is
The Vision of the Sri Lanka Air Force is
In its early years, the air force was engaged primarily in immigration patrol, with occasional assistance in emergency relief. During the insurgency of 1971, the air force played a major role in restoring internal order; in addition to providing transport of supplies and troops, it participated
Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA) (Malay: Syarikat Penerbangan Singapura; Chinese: 新加坡航空公司; pinyin: Xīnjiāpō Hángkōng Gōngsī, abbreviated 新航; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் வான்வழி) (SGX: C6L) is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets. The company also operates trans-Pacific flights, including the world's two longest non-stop commercial flights from Singapore to Newark and Los Angeles on the Airbus A340-500.
Singapore Airlines was the launch customer of Airbus A380, currently the world's largest passenger aircraft. SIA has diversified airline-related businesses, such as aircraft handling and engineering. Its wholly owned subsidiary, SilkAir, manages regional flights to secondary cities with smaller capacity requirements. Subsidiary Singapore Airlines Cargo operates SIA's dedicated freighter fleet, and manages the cargo-hold capacity in SIA's passenger aircraft. SIA has a 49% shareholding in Virgin Atlantic and engages the low-cost carrier sector through its stake in Tiger Airways. It ranks amongst the top 15 carriers worldwide in terms of
Air Vanuatu is an airline with its head office in the Air Vanuatu House, Port Vila, Vanuatu. It is Vanuatu's national flag carrier, operating to Australia, New Zealand and points in the South Pacific. Its main base is Bauerfield International Airport, Port Vila.
Air Vanuatu was established in early 1981 after Vanuatu gained independence from the United Kingdom and France the previous year. The assistance of Ansett Airlines was sought and a five year agreement put in place for Ansett to provide aircraft and operating staff. Ansett also took a 40% stake in the new airline, the government of Vanuatu holding the other 60%. The first Air Vanuatu flight, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31 owned and operated by Ansett, departed Sydney for Port Vila on 5 September 1981. In May 1982 a Boeing 737-200 of Polynesian Airlines replaced the DC-9; this was replaced in turn by an Ansett 737-200 in October 1985. In March 1986 the agreement with Ansett expired and was not renewed, this had the effect of grounding the airline.
In 1987 the company was re-established with 100% ownership by the government of Vanuatu, after a new commercial agreement was signed with Australian Airlines; weekly Sydney - Port Vila
Air India Express is a low-cost airline subsidiary of Air India, operating mainly from Indian state of Kerala. It operates services mainly to the Middle East and Southeast Asia. The airline belongs to Air India Charters Limited, a whole owned subsidiary of Air India Limited, which was formed in order to facilitate the seamless merger of Air India and Indian. Today Air India Express operates nearly 100 flights per week, mainly from southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India.
Air India Charters Limited (AICL) is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) of the Government of India. Headquartered in Mumbai, India, this subsidiary of Air India operates low cost carrier Air India Express from India to the Gulf and Southeast Asia.
AICL operates flights from airports in Kerala, Punjab and Mangalore to Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Muscat and Salalah in the Middle East and Singapore in the east. Air India Charters has charters flying throughout India. It works with other charter companies including Vibha Lifesavers for air ambulance and Hi Flying aviation for its general charters in India. Parent company Air India is the flagship national airline of India.
The airline was established in May
The Army of the Republic of Viet Nam - ARVN (Vietnamese: Quân Lực Việt Nam Cộng Hòa - QLVNCH), sometimes referred to as the South Vietnamese Army (SVA), was the Ground Forces branch of the Republic of Vietnam’s Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) which existed from 1955 until the fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties (killed and wounded) during the Vietnam War.
After the fall of Saigon to the invading North Vietnamese Army (NVA), the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government of the new, unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
On March 8, 1949, after the Elysee accords the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, and the Vietnamese National Army (VNA) was soon created. The VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including
Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish formerly for Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. (National Airways of Colombia), currently Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A. (Airways of the American Continent)) is the flag carrier airline of Colombia since December 5, 1919 when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its hub at the El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and a major one in Latin America: Avianca together with its subsidiaries has the most extended network of (both passenger and cargo) destinations in the Americas and one of the largest and most modern aircraft fleet in the continent. It is wholly owned by AviancaTaca Holding S.A., a Latin American holding company established in Panamá and specializing in air transport. The company is part of the Synergy Group and is listed in the Colombia Stock Exchange.
On October 7, 2009, it was announced that Avianca would merge with TACA but both airlines have stated that each will maintain their own identity and operate separately for the moment. In 2009 Avianca turned 90 (years) making it the second world's oldest airline still in operation; It is
MexicanaClick, formerly Click Mexicana, was Mexicana's regional operator, serving most of Mexicana's domestic routes between more than 25 Mexican cities. It was founded as a low-cost carrier, but changed its market to regional operations after its acquisition by Mexicana. Its main base was Mexico City International Airport.
The airline was founded in 1975 and started operations on 12 July 1975 as Aerocaribe. It was formed by Yucatán private investors but was bought by Corporación Mexicana de Aviación on 23 August 1990. It operated regional services under the Mexicana Inter banner using Fairchild FH-227 and Douglas DC-9-30 aircraft (as of January 2005). Mexicana decided to transfer its fleet of Fokker 100 aircraft to Aerocaribe and rebrand the airline, with Click Mexicana starting operations in July 2005. Some services previously operated by Mexicana de Aviación, such as Ciudad del Carmen, Cozumel, and Saltillo, were shifted to Click Mexicana. In December 2005 the Mexicana group, including Click Mexicana, was reprivatised and sold by the Mexican government to Grupo Posadas, a hotel chain.
As part of a restructuring of Mexicana in 2008, it was announced that Click would stop service
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun (help·info) or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, literally "navy of the greater Japanese empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.
The Japanese Navy was the third largest navy in the world by 1920, behind the Royal Navy and United States Navy. It was supported by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet. It was the primary opponent of the Western Allies in the Pacific War.
The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy go back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shoguns of the Edo period, Japan's navy was
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent Armed Forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México. The Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, who is both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer.
The Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, and to help with internal order". The Navy consists of about 56,000 men and women plus reserves, over 189 ships, and about 130 aircraft. The Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program in order to upgrade its response capability.
Given Mexico's large area of water (3,149,920 km) and extensive coastline (11,122 km), the Navy's duties are of great importance. Perhaps its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.
The Mexican Navy has its origins in the creation of the Ministry of War in 1821.
The Normandie-Niemen Regiment (Russian: Нормандия-Неман) was a fighter squadron, later regiment (of three squadrons) of the French Air Force. It served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army. The regiment is notable for being one of only two air combat units from an Allied western European country to participate on the Eastern Front during World War II, the other being the British No. 151 Wing RAF, and the only one to fight together with the Soviets until the end of the war in Europe.
The unit originated in mid-1943 during World War II. Initially the groupe comprised a group of French fighter pilots sent to aid Soviet forces on the Eastern Front at the suggestion of Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces, who felt it important that French servicemen serve on all fronts in the war.
The unit was the GC3 (Groupe de Chasse 3 or 3rd Fighter Group) in the Free French Air Force, first commanded by Jean Tulasne. It fought in three campaigns on behalf of the Soviet Union between 22 March 1943, and 9 May 1945, during which time it destroyed 273 enemy aircraft and received numerous orders, citations and decorations from both France and
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) abbreviated to USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR) or the Soviet Union (Russian: Советский Союз, tr. Sovetsky Soyuz), was a constitutionally socialist state that existed between 1922 and 1991, ruled as a single-party state by the Communist Party with its capital as Moscow. A union of 15 subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralised.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which deposed Nicholas II, ending three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd and overthrew the Provisional Government. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was established and a civil war began. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire and helped local communists seize power. In 1922, the Bolsheviks were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika collective leadership
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies, and now modern Indonesia). The KNIL's air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were also stationed in the Netherlands East Indies.
The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.
In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people. Bali was finally taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) and the final Dutch intervention in Bali (1908). The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the
The South Lebanon Army or South Lebanese Army (SLA) (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي, transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-Janūbi; Hebrew: צבא דרום לבנון, צד"ל, transliterated: Tzvá Dróm Levanón, Tzadál) was a Lebanese militia during the Lebanese Civil War which split from the Army of Free Lebanon. After 1979, the militia operated in southern Lebanon under the authority of Saad Haddad's Government of Free Lebanon. It was supported by Israel during the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict to fight against the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and Hezbollah.
In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA was initially based in the towns of Marjayoun and Qlayaa in southern Lebanon. The SLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. While the group was no longer under the direct control of the Lebanese army, from 1976 to 1979 its members were
CHC Helicopter is one of the world’s largest helicopter services companies, specializing in the following services:
CHC Helicopter is headquartered in Richmond, BC and operates more than 250 aircraft in 30 countries around the world. CHC's major international operating units are based in the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands, Brazil, and Australia.
CHC Helicopter is one of several global providers of helicopter transportation services to the offshore oil and gas industry (the others including Bristow Helicopters) and claims to be the most experienced helicopter operator in the world. CHC has capabilities in precision flying techniques and technical support.
CHC has long-term working relationships with most of the major oil and gas companies. CHC operates the marine search and rescue service for the Irish Coast Guard at Shannon, Waterford, Sligo and Dublin airports and provides commercial Search and Rescue helicopter services for the United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency. CHC provides helicopter services in Australia for the Fire and Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia, the Victoria Police Force and Ambulance Service of New South Wales.
Aero Spacelines, Inc. was a United States aircraft manufacturer which made a name for itself by converting Boeing 377 Stratocruisers into the famous Guppy line of airplanes re-engineered solely for transporting oversized cargo.
Aero Spacelines was formed with only one customer in mind. NASA required a way to transport their out-sized cargo from their manufacturing plants to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Their freight shipments were too large to be safely transported by rail or truck. Shipping by sea was time consuming, expensive, and fraught with the danger of damaging the shipments if on turbulent seas. The only viable means of transporting NASA's cargo was by air. However, due to the immense diameter of the componets, no existing aircraft was capable of accomplishing the task.
John M. Conroy, aka Jack, an ex-United States Air Force pilot, and Lee Mansdorf, an aircraft salesman and entrepreneur, formulated the Guppy concept one evening over dinner. It was decided a company needed to be established to manufacture outsized aircraft. Conroy was successful in hiring Robert W. Lillibridge for the position of Vice President Manufacturing and Engineering, and assembled a team of talented
French Naval Aviation (French: Aéronavale) is the naval air arm of the French Navy. Born as a fusion of carrier squadrons and naval patrol air force, the Aviation navale was created on the 19 June 1998. The headquarters is under command of an admiral (ALAVIA) in Toulon naval base.
The French Naval Aviation has a strength of around 6,800 civilian and military personnel. They operate from four airbases in Metropolitan France and several detachments in foreign countries or French overseas territories.
Carrier-borne pilots of the French navy do their initial training at Salon-de-Provence Air Base, then with the US Navy.
Complete and correct as of 8 February 2011.
Operational squadrons are known as Flotilles and normal consist of 12 aircraft:
Shore-based training and transport squadrons are known as Escadrilles de Servitude:
The French Naval Aviation has four components:
British European Airways (BEA) — formally British European Airways Corporation — was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974.
BEA operated to Europe, North Africa and the Middle East from airports around the United Kingdom. The airline was also the largest UK domestic operator, serving major British cities, including London, Manchester, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Belfast, as well as remote areas of the British Isles such as the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. From 1946 until 1974, BEA operated a network of internal German routes between West Berlin and West Germany as well.
Formed as the British European Airways division of British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) on 1 January 1946, BEA became a crown corporation in its own right on 1 August 1946.
Operations commenced from Croydon and Northolt airports, with DH89A Dragon Rapides and Douglas DC-3s.
Having established its main operating base at Northolt, BEA operated its first service from Heathrow in April 1950; by late-1954, all Northolt operations had moved to Heathrow, which remained the airline's main operating base until the merger with BOAC in 1974.
During 1952, BEA
Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A., commonly known as Iberia, is the flag carrier airline of Spain. Based in Madrid, it operates an international network of services from its main bases of Madrid-Barajas Airport and Barcelona El Prat Airport.
Iberia, with Iberia Regional (operated by an independent carrier Air Nostrum), is a part of Iberia Group. In addition to transporting passengers and freight, Iberia Group carries out related activities, such as aircraft maintenance, handling in airports, IT systems and in-flight catering. Iberia Group airlines fly to over 102 destinations in 39 countries. Via code-sharing arrangements with other companies, it offers flights to another 90 destinations.
On 8 April 2010, it was confirmed that British Airways and Iberia had signed an agreement to merge, making the combined operation the third largest commercial airline in the world by revenue. Shareholders of both carriers approved the deal on 29 November 2010. The newly merged company, known as International Airlines Group, was established in January 2011, although both airlines will continue to operate under their current brands.
Iberia, Compañía Aérea de Transportes was incorporated on 28
Iran Air (Persian: ایران ایر), formally Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: هواپیمائی جمهوری اسلامی ایران Havapeyma'i-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān) is the flag carrier airline of Iran, operating services to 60 destinations, 35 international and 25 domestic. The cargo fleet operates services to 20 scheduled and 5 charter destinations. Its main bases are the Tehran Imam Khomeini International Airport for international flights and Tehran Mehrabad Airport for domestic flights . It is headquartered on the grounds of Mehrabad Airport in Tehran.
Its acronym, Homa (Persian: هما), is derived from two sources: the initial letters of Iran Air's pre-Revolutionary Persian name, Havapeyma'i-ye Melli-ye Iran (Persian: هواپیمایی ملی ایران); and from Homa, a griffin of Persian mythology.
Recent news reports by Press TV claim that the Iranian government plans to privatize Iran Air with its subsidiary carrier Iran Air Tours along with the Homa Hotel Group.
In 1946, a group of businessmen founded Iran's first flag carrier under the name of Iranian Airways. Operations covered domestic and regional passenger and freight services plus a weekly freight service to Europe. The fleet
Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. (Arabic: القطرية, Al Qatariyah), operating as Qatar Airways, is the state-owned flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, it operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 100 international destinations from its base in Doha, using a fleet of 110 aircraft.
Qatar Airways operates services across Africa, Central Asia, Europe, Far East, South Asia, Middle East, North America, South America and Oceania, and was named Airline of the Year 2012 at the Skytrax World Airline Awards.
The airline has more than 20,000 staff, with 14,000 people employed directly and a further 6,000 in its subsidiaries.
Qatar Airways will join the oneworld Alliance late 2013 or during 2014, according to announcements by CEO Akbar Al Baker and oneworld 8 October 2012.
Qatar Airways was established on 22 November 1993. The airline started its operations on January 20, 1994 using a wet-leased Boeing 767-200ER from Kuwait Airways. It was originally owned privately by members of the royal family of Qatar. Then it was re-launched in 1997, under a new management team. Currently, the government of Qatar holds 50% stake in the airline with the rest held by
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC), which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts including World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. More recently the RAAF participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and is still involved with the War in Afghanistan (2001–present). The motto on the RAAF's coat of arms is the Latin phrase Per ardua ad astra, which means "Through Struggle to the Stars".
The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the only country to do so, by approving the establishment of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, Victoria on 22 October 1912. The RAAF was the second air force to be officially formed.
Soon after the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea. These
The Ukrainian Air Force (Ukrainian: Повітряні Сили України, Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Ukrainian Air Force Command and headquarters are located in the city of Vinnytsia. When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, a large number of aircraft were left on Ukrainian territory. Ever since, the Ukrainian air force has been downsizing and upgrading its forces. But in spite of these efforts, the main inventory of the air force consists of Soviet-made aircraft. Currently 49,000 personnel and 247 aircraft are in service in the Ukrainian air force and air defense forces. All ICBMs and strategic bombers have been taken out of service (some however were given to Russia).
The primary tasks of the Air Force of Ukraine are: winning operational air superiority, delivering air strikes against enemy units and facilities, covering troops against enemy air strikes, providing air support to the Land Force and the Navy, disrupting enemy military and state management, damaging and destroying enemy communication, and providing support by air in the form of reconnaissance, air drops, troops and cargo transportation.
The major mission of the Air Force is to protect the
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest navy in the world, with a battle fleet tonnage that is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S. Navy also has the world's largest carrier fleet, with 11 in service, one under construction (two planned), and one in reserve. The service has 321,053 personnel on active duty and 106,188 in the Navy Reserve. It operates 286 ships in active service and more than 3,700 aircraft.
The Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was essentially disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. The United States Constitution provided the legal basis for a military force by giving Congress the power "to provide and maintain a navy".
Depredations against U.S. shipping by Barbary Coast pirates in the Mediterranean Sea spurred Congress to employ this power by passing the Naval Act of 1794 ordering the construction and manning of six frigates. These ships were used to end most pirate activity off the Barbary Coast. In the 20th
The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army, first formed in 1942. There are eight regiments (5 Regular Army, 2 Territorial Army, 1 training) of the AAC as well as five Independent Flights and two Independent Squadrons deployed in support of British Army operations across the world. They are located in Britain, Belize, Brunei, Canada, and Germany. The AAC provides the offensive air elements of 16th Air Assault Brigade.
The British People first took to the sky during the 17th century with the use of observation balloons. In 1911 the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers was the first heavier-than-air British military aviation unit. The following year, the Battalion was expanded into the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps which saw action throughout most of the First World War until 1 April 1918, when it was merged with the Royal Naval Air Service to form the Royal Air Force.
Between the wars, the Army used RAF co-operation squadrons, though a true army presence did not occur until the Second World War.
At the beginning of the Second World War, Royal Artillery officers, with the assistance of RAF technicians, flew Auster observation aircraft under RAF-owned Air
The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte ("German Air Force"), known before October 1916 as Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches ("Imperial German Flying Corps"), or simply Die Fliegertruppen, was the air arm of the Imperial German Army (of which it remained an integral part) during World War I (1914–1918). In English language sources it is usually referred to as the "Imperial German Air Service", although that is not a literal translation of either name. German naval aviators remained an integral part of the Kaiserliche Marine. Both military branches, the army and navy, operated conventional aircraft, balloons and Zeppelins.
The first military aircraft to be acquired by the German Army entered service in 1910 - forming the nucleus of what was to become the Luftstreitkräfte in October 1916. The duties of such aircraft were initially intended to be reconnaissance and artillery spotting in support of armies on the ground, just as balloons had been used during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and even as far back as the Napoleonic Wars. For comparison, France's embryonic army air service (Aviation Militaire), which eventually became the Armée de l'Air, was instituted later in 1910
The Spanish Air Force (SPAF) (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, "Army of the Air") is the aerial branch of the Spanish Armed Forces.
Hot air balloons had been used with military purposes in Spain as far back as 1896. In 1905, with the help of Alfredo Kindelán, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo directed the construction of the first Spanish dirigible in the Army Military Aerostatics Service, created in 1896 and located in Guadalajara. The new airship was completed successfully and, named 'España', made numerous test and exhibition flights.
The Spanish Army air arm, however, took off formally in 1909 when Colonel Pedro Vives and Captain Alfredo Kindelán made an official trip to different European cities to check the potential of introducing airships and airplanes in the Spanish Armed Forces. One year later a Royal decree established the National Aviation School, Escuela Nacional de Aviación (civil) in Getafe, near Madrid, under the Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Ministerio de Fomento. The established institution became militarized under the name Aeronáutica Española when Colonel Pedro Vives was chosen to lead it as director of the Aeronáutica Militar, Military Aeronautics, the
The Armenian Air Force (Armenian: Հայաստանի Ռազմաօդային Ուժեր) is the air arm formed by independent Armenia in 1992 in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It is organized and equipped principally to provide Armenian ground forces with tactical air support in the form of ground attack and airlift in mountainous terrain. It provided effective support during the battles with Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh region from 1992–1994, albeit without much fanfare. It currently lacks air superiority fighters, but air defense is provided by MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force under a military cooperation treaty. Since 2003, the Armenian government has been funding a modernization and enlargement of the air fleet.
Although Armenia began working to establish an independent Armenian armed forces as early as 1989, due to a lack of resources, suitably trained personnel and useful infrastructure, the government delayed formally creating an air force until August 1992, and commenced combat operations in October. However, this may not represent the first use of armed aircraft by the Armenians; an Azeri report states that the Armenians allegedly used modified civilian Mi-8 helicopters for
The Moldovan Air Force is the national air force of Moldova. It was formed following Moldova's independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991 and is part of the Military of Moldova.
In 1994 the Air Force consisted of 1,300 men organized into one fighter regiment, 1 helicopter squadron, and 1 missile brigade. They had 31 MiG-29 aircraft, 8 Mi-8 helicopters, 5 transport aircraft (including an Antonov An-72), and 25 SA-3/SA-5 Gammon surface-to-air missiles.
In 2002 the Air Force consisted of 1,400 men.
In 2007 the Air Force had been reduced to a strength of 1,040 men organized into one helicopter squadron, and one missile battalion. They had 6 MiG-29S aircraft, upgraded in Ukraine and stationed in Mărculeşti Air Base, 8 Mi-8 helicopters, 5 transport aircraft (including an Antonov An-72), and 12 SA-3 surface-to-air missile.
In March 2010, the Moldovan Air Force signed an agreement with the Romanian Air Force regarding the exchange of information about military aircraft flights near the border, the exchange of radar data, the obligation to provide mutual support to military aircraft in distress and future joint operations.
Under an agreement finalized on 10 October 1997, the United
Snowflake was a low-cost airline subsidiary of Scandinavian Airlines System, operating on the concept of low fares in return for a basic product (similar to Ryanair or EasyJet). Its route network was composed of flights from Scandinavian destinations to southern Europe. Meals and drinks on board were available for purchase.
Snowflake only operated from Denmark and Sweden and ceased separate operations in 2004 when its parent company SAS decided to offer a "no-frills" Snowflake service in a section of the economy class cabin on its existing short-haul routes from Copenhagen.
Short Brothers plc is an aerospace company, usually referred to as Shorts, now based at Belfast, Northern Ireland. Shorts was founded in 1908 in London, and was the first company in the world to make production aircraft. It was particularly notable for its flying boat designs manufactured into the 1950s.
In 1943, Shorts was nationalised, later denationalised, and in 1948 moved from its main base at Rochester, Kent to Belfast. In the 1960s, Shorts mainly produced turboprop airliners, major components for aerospace primary manufacturers, and missiles for the British armed forces.
In 1989, Shorts was bought by Bombardier, and is the largest manufacturing concern in Northern Ireland. Today, the company's products include aircraft components, engine nacelles and aircraft flight control systems for its parent company Bombardier Aerospace, and for Boeing, Rolls-Royce Deutschland, General Electric and Pratt & Whitney.
In 1897, the Short Brothers business started when Eustace Short (June 1875–1932) bought a second-hand coal gas filled balloon, and he joined with his brother Oswald Short to develop and manufacture balloons. In 1900, the two brothers visited the 1900 Paris Exposition
British South American Airways (BSAA) or British South American Airways Corporation was a state-run airline in Britain in the 1940s. It was originally called British Latin American Air Lines Ltd.(BLAA). It began as part of British Overseas Airways Corporation and returned to BOAC in 1949.
Most of BSAA's aircraft were given individual aircraft names beginning with "Star", the heavenly bodies used in long-range celestial navigation.
British Latin American Air Lines split from British Overseas Airways Corporation to operate the United Kingdom's Caribbean and South Atlantic routes. It used Langley Airfield for maintenance before transferring all operations to London Heathrow Airport. It began transatlantic scheduled services in March 1946, the BSAA Lancastrian G-AGWG Star Light making the first ever operational flight from the newly-opened London Heathrow Airport. BSAA operated mostly Avro aircraft: Yorks, Lancastrians and Tudors. It flew to Bermuda, the West Indies and the western coast of South America. BSAA was planning to introduce de Havilland Comets when in 1949 it merged back into BOAC.
BSAA had several mysterious accidents. The loss without trace of the Tudors G-AHNP Star Tiger
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is a member of the Intelligence Community of the United States, and is the central producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 U.S. military and civilian employees worldwide. The Defense Intelligence Community is headed by the DIA, through its Director (who chairs the Military Intelligence Board), and it coordinates the activities of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force intelligence components. The DIA and Defense Intelligence Community provide military intelligence to warfighters, defense policymakers and force planners within the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community, in support of U.S. military planning and operations and weapon systems acquisition. The DIA, designated in 1986 as a Defense Department combat support agency, was established in 1961 as a result of a decision by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, under President John F. Kennedy. The Department of Defense created the DIA with the publication of Directive 5105.21, "Defense Intelligence Agency" on August 1, 1961, effective October 1, 1961.
DIA's Director is a three-star
The Kuwait Air Force (Arabic: القوات الجوية الكويتية Trans: al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Kuwaitiya) is the air arm of the State of Kuwait. The Air Force headquarters is located at Al Mubarak Air Base, with the remaining forces stationed at Air Defence Brigade, Ali Al Salem Air Base and Ahmed Al Jaber Air Base. The Kuwait Air Force numbers approximately 2,500 officer and enlisted personnel.
The current air force started as the Security Department of Kuwait which operated a number of Austers in different configurations and two de Havilland DH.104 Doves. The Kuwait Air Force and Air Defence was formed in the course of 1961 following an intervention by the British that avoided Iraq to claim Kuwait as one of its provinces. The first aircraft to enter KAF service were four Whirlwind helicopters and six BAC/Hunting Jet Provost T.51s. This support from the UK would remain in place for a long time and 1964 was known for the arrival of the first Hawker Hunters. These would later be amended by more examples in 1969. The first DeHavilland Canada type to enter KAF service was the DHC-4 Caribou from which two arrived in 1963. The transport capacity would later be improved by the acquisition of an
Ryanair Ltd. (ISEQ: RYA, LSE: RYA, NASDAQ: RYAAY) is an Irish low-cost airline. Its headquarters is located at Dublin Airport with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted Airports.
Ryanair operates over 290 Boeing 737-800 aircraft. The airline has been characterised by rapid expansion, a result of the deregulation of the aviation industry in Europe in 1997 and the success of its low-cost business model.
Since its establishment in 1984, Ryanair has grown from a small airline flying a short hop from Waterford to London into one of Europe's largest carriers. Ryanair now employs over 8500 members of staff (as of 2012) including over 1200 pilots. After the rapidly growing airline went public in 1997, the money raised was used to expand the airline into a pan-European carrier. Revenues have risen from €231 million in 1998, to €1843 million in 2003 and €3013 million in 2010. Similarly net profits have increased from €48 million to €339 million over the same period.
Ryanair was founded in 1985 by Christopher Ryan, Liam Lonergan (owner of Irish travel agent Club Travel) and Irish businessman Tony Ryan (after whom the company is named), founder of Guinness Peat Aviation.
The South African Army is the army of South Africa, first formed after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910. The current commander of the South African Army is Lt. General Solly Shoke.
The South African military evolved within the tradition of frontier warfare fought by commando forces, reinforced by the Afrikaners' historical distrust of large standing armies. It then fought as part of the wider British effort in World War II, but afterwards was cut off from its long-standing Commonwealth ties with the introduction of apartheid in South Africa after 1948. The apartheid policy led to friction with neighbouring states that helped to spark the border wars in South West Africa, now Namibia, from 1966. The role of the Army was fundamentally changed by the upheavals of the early 1990s and after 1994 the Army became part of the new South African National Defence Force. It is now becoming increasingly involved in peacekeeping efforts in southern Africa, often as part of wider African Union operations.
After the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, General Jan Smuts, the Union's first Minister of Defence, placed a high priority on creating a unified military out of the
Trans-Canada Air Lines (also known as TCA in English, and Air Canada in French) was a Canadian airline and operated as the country's flag carrier. Its corporate headquarters were in Montreal, Quebec. Its first president was Gordon Roy McGregor.
The airline operated under its original name from 1937 to 1965, when it was officially renamed Air Canada.
With heavy involvement from C. D. Howe, a senior minister in the Mackenzie King cabinet, TCA was created by the Crown Corporation Canadian National Railways (CNR), and launched its first flight on September 1, 1937, on a flight between Vancouver and Seattle.
The creation of TCA was partly by CNR management who wanted to expand the company into the new field of passenger aviation, and was partly by government direction. Prior to TCA, no large national airline existed in Canada. With war looming, and other nations (primarily the U.S.) experiencing major increases in the creation of passenger airlines, it was necessary to have a presence. The CNR was the country's largest corporation at the time and proved an effective vehicle for the government to create a national airline.
TCA was also in direct competition with passenger trains operated
American Airlines, Inc., operating as American Airlines (AA), is a major U.S. airline and a subsidiary of AMR Corporation. It is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. American Airlines operates an extensive international and domestic network, with scheduled flights throughout North America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe, and Asia/Pacific. On November 29, 2011, AMR Corporation filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Chairman and CEO Gerard Arpey stepped down and was replaced by company president Thomas W. Horton.
Dallas/Fort Worth is the airline's largest hub, with AA and American Eagle, AMR's regional carrier, accounting for about 85% of the traffic and 83% of the landing fees at the airport and traveling to more destinations than from its other hubs. American currently operates maintenance bases at Tulsa (TUL) and Fort Worth Alliance (AFW). American announced that it will close its maintenance base at Fort Worth Alliance Airport by December 2012.
American Airlines has two affiliates: American Eagle, which is a 100% regional subsidiary, and AmericanConnection, which is the code-share regional
The National Police of Colombia (Spanish: Policía Nacional de Colombia) is the national police force of Colombia. Although the National Police is not part of the Military of Colombia (Army, Navy, and Air Force), it constitutes along with them the "Public Force" and is also controlled by the Ministry of Defense. They are the largest police force in Colombia. The force's official functions are to protect the Colombian nation, enforce the law by constitutional mandate, maintain and guarantee the necessary conditions for public freedoms and rights and to ensure peaceful cohabitation among the population.
Colombians can communicate with the Police calling toll free: 112 (nationwide) or 123 (from Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cucuta, Pereira, Cali y Medellin). If is regarding a kidnapping, the GAULA group can be reached at 165. They also can contact via web to record congratulations, suggestions, requests, questions or complaints using the "Sistema de Peticiones, Quejas, Reclamos y Sugerencias (PQRS)"
During the second half of the 19th century Colombia went through many political changes and struggles to define itself as a nation. Tensions between the two main political parties, the Colombian
Northwest Airlines Corp. (often abbreviated NWA) was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines Inc. by a merger approved on October 29, 2008, making Delta the largest airline in the world. Northwest continued to operate under its own name and brand until the integration of the carriers was completed on January 31, 2010.
Northwest was headquartered in Eagan, Minnesota, near Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport. After World War II it became dominant in the trans-Pacific market with a hub in Tokyo, Japan (initially Haneda Airport, later Narita International Airport). After acquiring Republic Airlines in 1986, Northwest also established major hubs at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and Memphis International Airport. In 1993 it began a strategic alliance with KLM and a jointly-coordinated European hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. These hubs were all retained as Delta hubs.
Prior to its merger with Delta, Northwest was the world's sixth largest airline in terms of domestic and international scheduled passenger miles flown and the U.S.'s sixth largest airline in terms of domestic passenger miles flown. In addition to operating one of
The United Arab Emirates Air Force (UAEAF) is the air force of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its predecessor was established in 1968, when the Emirates were still under British rule. Since then, it has undergone a continual reorganization and expansion in terms of both capability and numbers of aircraft. Currently, the UAEAF has around 4,000 personnel and operates approximately 368 fixed and rotary wing aircraft.
The UAEAF's history starts in 1968, when the Abu Dhabi Army Air Force was formed under British rule. After becoming the Abu Dhabi Air Force in 1972, major investment assured an expansion in terms of capabilities, quality and quantity of aircraft. Training and instruction was provided by the Pakistan Air Force. Neighbour Emirate of Dubai maintained its own air component, the Dubai Defence Force Air Wing, until 1999, when the two were effectively merged to become what is now the United Arab Emirates Air Force. Although the integration of the two independent forces has been complete, a small degree of autonomy exists at the operational command level, with the Western Air Command being headquartered in Abu Dhabi and the Central Air Command in Dubai.
Since the 1980s, a
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and the Czechoslovak legions were minor members of the Entente.
The United States declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Great Britain, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements". Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.
Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as
The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) (Norwegian: Luftforsvaret) is the air force of Norway. It was established as a separate arm of the Norwegian armed forces on 10 November 1944. The RNoAF's peace force is approximately 1,430 employees (officers, enlisted staff and civilians). 600 personnel also serve their draft period in the RNoAF. After mobilization the RNoAF would consist of approximately 5,500 personnel.
The infrastructure of the RNoAF includes seven airbases (at Andøya, Bardufoss, Bodø, Gardermoen, Rygge, Sola and Ørland), two control and reporting centres (at Sørreisa and Mågerø) and three training centres (at Kjevik in Kristiansand and Persaunet in Trondheim)and at KNM HH/Madlaleiren (Stavanger).
Military flights started on 1 June 1912. The first plane, HNoMS Start, was bought with money donated by the public and piloted by Hans Dons, second in command of the submarine HNoMS Kobben (A-1). Up until 1940 most of the aircraft belonging to the Navy and Army air forces were domestic designs or built under license agreements, the main bomber/scout aircraft of the Army air force being the Dutch-origined Fokker C.V.
Before 1944 the Air Force were divided into the Norwegian Army
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It is divided into nine provinces and has 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline. To the north lie the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory. South Africa is the 25th largest country in the world by area and the 24th most populous country with over 48 million people.
South Africa is a multi-ethnic nation and has diverse cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution. Two of these languages are of European origin: South African English and Afrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and Coloured South Africans. Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fifth most-spoken home language. All ethnic and language groups have political representation in the country's constitutional democracy comprising a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of state and head of government are merged in
The Bolivarian National Air Force of Venezuela/Venezuelan National Bolivarian Military Aviation, since end of 2008: (Spanish) Aviación Militar Bolivariana Venezolana (previously Fuerza Aérea Venezolana, FAV) is a professional armed body designed to defend Venezuela's sovereignty and airspace. It is a component of the Venezuelan armed forces.
In the aftermath of the first plane flight in Venezuela on 22 September 1912, a council was formed to search for a suitable aircraft for the growing Venezuelan Army in 1913.
The birth of the FAV goes back to 10 December 1920 when the Military Aviation School of Venezuela was formed with COL David López Henríquez as its first commandant in Maracay. Early aircraft included Farman and Caudron G-3 as well as the amphibian Caudron G-4. The first decades of the FAV saw mainly French, German and Italian influence. After the Second World War, the air force was reorganized with American aid, eventually leading to the formal inception of the Fuerza Aérea Venezolana on 22 June 1946.
Most current airbases were built in the 1960s. The main fighter types in those years were Venom, Vampire, and F-86. Bomber squadrons typically operated B-25 Mitchell aircraft.
Air Inter (Lignes Aériennes Intérieures) was a semi-public French domestic airline. Before its merger with Air France, the airline was headquartered in Paray-Vieille-Poste, Essonne. Earlier in its life, it was headquartered in the 1st arrondissement of Paris.
Air Inter was incorporated on 12 November 1954. It operated its first commercial flight between Paris and Strasbourg on 16 March 1958. However, it was 1960 when the airline started regular commercial services.
The company established its operational and engineering base at Paris-Orly Airport, where its flights were concentrated at Orly Ouest, Orly Airport's West Terminal.
Air Inter was founded as a semi-public entity to provide efficient domestic air transport at the lowest cost. Its financial backers included French public and private sector transport businesses in road, rail and air transport, as well as banks.
Air France and Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF), the state railway company, were Air Inter's two largest public sector shareholders, each holding 25% in the airline. Union des Transports Aériens (UTA) was its largest private sector investor. UTA initially held a 15% minority stake in Air Inter. UTA
The Air National Guard (ANG), often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States.
Established under Title 10 and Title 32 of the U.S. Code, the Air National Guard is part of the state National Guard and is divided up into units stationed in each of the 50 states and U.S. territories and operates under their respective state governor or territorial government. The Air National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state governors or territorial commanding generals to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, fires, and earthquakes.
With the consent of state governors, members or units of the Air National Guard may be appointed, temporarily or indefinitely, to be federally recognized members of the armed forces, in the active or inactive service of the United States. If federally recognized, the member or unit becomes part of the Air National Guard of the United States, which is one of two reserve components of the United States Air
Sir Charles Edward Kingsford Smith MC, AFC (9 February 1897 – 8 November 1935), often called by his nickname Smithy, was an early Australian aviator. In 1928, he earned global fame when he made the first trans-Pacific flight from the United States to Australia. He also made the first non-stop crossing of the Australian mainland, the first flights between Australia and New Zealand, and the first eastward Pacific crossing from Australia to the United States. He also made a flight from Australia to London, setting a new record of 10.5 days.
Charles Edward Kingsford Smith was born on 9 February 1897 in Hamilton (a suburb of Brisbane), Queensland, Australia, and was the youngest of seven children of William Charles Smith (1852–1930), a bank manager, and Catherine Mary Kingsford (1857–1938), daughter of Richard Ash Kingsford, a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Like his siblings, Charles's birth was registered with the surname Smith. However, his parents found having such a common name as Smith too confusing and so adopted the use of "Kingsford Smith" as the family surname.
From 1903 to 1907, he and his family lived in Vancouver, Canada.
Upon returning to Australia, he
East African Airways Corporation, more commonly known as East African Airways, was an airline jointly run by Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. It was set up on 1 January 1946, starting operations the same year. The airline was headquartered in the Sadler House in Nairobi, Kenya. The corporation was dissolved in 1977 amid deteriorated relations among the three countries.
The East African Airways Corporation (EAA) was set up on 1 January 1946 by four East African governments, namely Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar, all of which were under the rule of the British Empire at the time the airline was created.
In early 1957, services to the United Kingdom were launched on a once-weekly basis, at first operated by BOAC on EAA's behalf, and then in EAA's own right with ex-BOAC Argonauts. This tourist-class service had low load factors when it was started, as it competed with same-fare BOAC Britannias and Viscounts. Also in early 1957, the Nairobi–Aden route was started; in mid-September the same year the route was extended farther east, from Aden to Bombay via Karachi, and Argonauts were also deployed on it.
Following the opening of Embakasi Airport on 9 March 1958, EAA started
Francoist Spain refers to a period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975 when Spain was under the authoritarian dictatorship of Francisco Franco. During that time the country was known as the Spanish State (Spanish: Estado Español).
The regime was formed on 1 October 1936 by Francisco Franco and the National Defense Committee (a faction of the Spanish army rebelling against the Republic). The regime was entrenched upon the victory in the Spanish Civil War, which the regime called the Guerra de Liberación Nacional, of the rebel Nacionales coalition. Besides the internal support, Franco's rebellion had been backed from abroad by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, while the Second Spanish Republic was backed by the Stalinist Soviet Union and Mexico.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War, according to the calculations of the regime, there were more than 270,000 men and women held in the regime's prisons and some 500,000 fled into exile. Large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen. It has been estimated that more than 200,000 Spaniards died in the
The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ("National Navy") and often called La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French military. Tracing its roots back from 1624 it is one of the world's oldest naval forces and historically played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire. Its roles include the protection of French interests abroad and the maintenance of global stability.
The Marine nationale consists of five branches, the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines, the Aeronavale, the Fusiliers Marins (including Commandos de Marine) and the Gendarmerie maritime.
As a blue-water navy the Marine nationale operates a wide range of fighting vessels, including a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, nuclear-powered submarines, frigates, patrol boats and support ships.
Its motto is Honneur, Patrie, Valeur, Discipline ("Honour, Fatherland, Valour, Discipline") and these words are found on the deck of every ship in the fleet.
The French Navy is affectionately known as La Royale ("the Royal"). The reason is not well known; some theorise that it is for its traditional attachment to the French monarchy, some others said that before being named "nationale" the Navy had
The Indonesian Air Force (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara, TNI–AU) is the air force branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
The Indonesian Air Force has 34,930 personnel equipped with 110 combat aircraft including Su-27 and Su-30.
After World War II ended, Indonesia became the second country (after Thailand) in South East Asia to acquire an air force. Indonesian pilots fought against the colonial forces of the Netherlands during 1945–1949 with former Japanese aircraft abandoned at the end of World War II, as well as aircraft of the Netherlands East Indies Air Force (including Curtiss P-36 Hawk (P-36 Mohawk), Brewster F2A Buffalo and Fokker D.XXI fighters; Martin B-10 bombers; Fokker C.X reconnaissance floatplanes) left before the occupation by Japan in 1941.
After the Japanese announced their surrender at the end of WW II, Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno declared Indonesian Independence on August 17, 1945. Several days later, a People's Security Force (Badan Keamanan Rakyat) was formed to undertake security duties. The Air Division of this force was also formed, using ex-Japanese planes scattered everywhere, especially in the island of Java,
The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defence force of the Italian Armed Forces. It is an all-volunteer force of active-duty personnel, numbering 108,355 in 2010. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank, and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter, recently deployed in UN missions. The headquarters of the Army General Staff are located in Rome, opposite the Presidential Palace.
The army's history dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. The army fought in colonial engagements in China, Libya (1911-1912), northern Italy against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I, Abyssinia before World War II, and in World War II in Albania, Greece, north Africa, Russia and Italy itself. During the Cold War the army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east. Since the end of the Cold War the army has seen extensive peacekeeping service and combat in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The Italian Army originated as the Royal Army (Regio Esercito) which dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy following the seizure of the Papal States and
The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (海上自衛隊, Kaijō Jieitai), or JMSDF, is the naval branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan. It was formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) after World War II. The JMSDF has a large fleet and its main tasks are to maintain control of the nation's sea lanes and to patrol territorial waters. It has also stepped up its participation in UN-led peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIOs).
Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving the transportation of troops, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became very active in plundering the coast of the Chinese Empire.
Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time, Japan may have developed one of the world's first ironclad warships, when Oda Nobunaga (a Japanese daimyo) had six
Nepal has no separate Air Force but flies several aircraft within Nepalese Army Service, also known as the Nepal Army Air Wing. It was formed in 1960s, but finally became an air force unit in 1979. It is now again a part of the Army and has very limited combat capabilities. The main objective of this flying element is transport, flying paratroopers and assistance in case of an emergency (e.g. natural disasters). Apart from the 11th Brigade the country has established a VIP Flight from Tribhuvan Airport, mostly the aircraft are stationed at Kathmandu, Surkhet and Dipayal.
From 1996 - 2006 the country was in civil war against Maoist rebels who strove to overthrow the constitutional monarchy and establish a communist republic. Their attacks increased since the massacre of the Royal Family in 2001. This development led to the need for armed helicopters. Several types of aircraft have entered service since: MI-17s, M28 Skytruck, HAL Lancer and HAL Dhruv. The UK has delivered two Britten-Norman Islanders and two MI-17s free of charge. China decided to supply an MA-60 (an Y-7 derivative). Nepal has also purchased HAL Cheetah and HAL Chetak helicopters.
The NAAS consists of about 500
The Portuguese Air Force (PoAF) (Portuguese: Força Aérea Portuguesa, FAP) is the air force of Portugal. Formed on July 1, 1952, with the Aeronáutica Militar (Army Aviation) and Aviação Naval (Naval Aviation) united in a single independent Air Force, it is one of the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces and its origins dates back to 1912, when the military aviation began to be used in Portugal, later leading to the creation of the Army and Navy's aviation services.
Its Aerobatic display teams are the Asas de Portugal jet aircraft display team and the Rotores de Portugal helicopter display team.
The history of Portuguese military aviation dates back to 1911, when a Balloon Company was founded as part of the Army Telegraphic Service and received a handful of aircraft. During World War I in the Western Front, while the Portuguese Army had no aircraft, Portuguese airmen flew in British and French squadrons. In Mozambique, in the operations against German Eastern Africa, the Portuguese forces included an aviation squadron, one of the first uses of combat aircraft in Africa.
In 1914 the Military Aeronautic Service (Serviço Aeronáutico Militar) and the Military School of
Qantas Airways Limited ( /ˈkwɒntəs/) (ASX: QAN) is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an acronym for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, New South Wales, with its main hub at Sydney Airport. It is Australia's largest airline, the oldest continuously operated airline in the world and the second oldest in the world overall. Qantas headquarters are located in the Qantas Centre in the Mascot suburb of the City of Botany Bay.
Qantas carries a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carries 18.7% of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia.
Qantas was founded in Winton, Queensland on 16 November 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited. The airline's first aircraft was an Avro 504K. The airline flew internationally from May 1935, when it commenced service from Darwin, Northern Territory to Singapore. In June 1959 Qantas entered the jet age when the first Boeing 707-138 was delivered.
Qantas headquarters are located in the Qantas Centre in the Mascot suburb of the City of Botany Bay, Sydney, New South Wales.
In 1920 Queensland and
The Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) (Al-Quwwat al-Jawiyya al-Sultaniyya al-'Umaniyya) is the air arm of the Armed Forces of Oman
The Sultan of Oman's Air Force (SOAF) was formed with British personnel and aircraft in March 1959. The first aircraft were two Scottish Aviation Pioneers transferred from the Royal Air Force. The first armed aircraft was the Percival Provost T52.
In 1968 the SOAF received the first of 24 BAC Strikemaster jet trainer and light strike aircraft for operation against insurgents in the Dhofar region. In 1974 the SOAF was expanded with orders for the Britten Norman Defender, BAC One-Eleven, BAC VC10 and 32 Hawker Hunter ground attack aircraft. In 1977 Jaguar International joined the SOAF, followed in the 1980s by the BAe Hawk.
In 1990 the SOAF was renamed the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO). In 1993 and 1994 the RAFO replaced its Hawker hunters with four BAE Hawk Mk 103 lead in fighter-trainers and 12 single-seat Hawk Mk 203, equipped with Westinghouse APG-66H radar, as light ground attack/interceptors. In September 1997 after the evaluation of new combat aircraft the RAFO decided to upgrade and extend the service lives of its remaining 17 SEPECAT Jaguar ground
The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of the First World War, when it was merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form a new service, the Royal Air Force, the first of its kind in the world. The RNAS came under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department.
In 1908 the British government had recognised that the use of aircraft for military and naval purposes should be investigated. To this end the Prime Minister, Herbert Asquith, approved the formation of an "Advisory Committee for Aeronautics" and an "Aerial Sub-Committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence". Both committees were composed of politicians, army officers and Royal Navy officers. On 21 July 1908 Captain Reginald Bacon, who was a member of the Aerial Navigation sub-committee, submitted to the First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher that a rigid airship based on the German Zeppelin be designed and constructed by the firm of Vickers. After much discussion on the Committee of Imperial Defence the suggestion was approved on 7 May 1909. The airship, named Mayfly, never flew and broke in half on 24 September 1911. The then First Sea Lord, Sir Arthur Wilson, recommended
Sun Air of Scandinavia is an airline based in Billund, Billund Municipality, Denmark. It is a regional scheduled airline operating a franchise service in British Airways colours. It also offers charter flights, air taxi services, specialist aerial work and aircraft brokerage. Its main base is Billund Airport.
The airline was established and started operations in 1978. It initially operated solely as an air taxi and charter service, but developed into a regional airline in 1987. It became a British Airways franchisee on 1 August 1996, operating as British Airways. Sun Air is an affiliate member of the Oneworld alliance. The airline is wholly owned by Niels Sundberg and has 175 employees.
Sun Air of Scandinavia serves the following cities (as of 10 June 2012 (2012 -06-10)):
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services. The modern army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on 14 June 1775, before the establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War. The Congress of the Confederation officially created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 after the end of the Revolutionary War to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The army considers itself to be descended from the Continental Army and thus dates its inception from the origins of that force.
The primary mission of the army is "to fight and win our Nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained land dominance across the full range of military operations and spectrum of conflict in support of combatant commanders." The army is a military service within the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The army is headed by the Secretary of the Army, and the top military officer in the department is the Chief of
UPS Airlines is an American cargo airline owned by United Parcel Service Inc. (NYSE: UPS). The company is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. Its headquarters, Worldport, is based at Louisville International Airport. The pilots are represented by the Independent Pilots Association.
The origin of transporting packages by air for UPS (then United Parcel Service) dates to 1929; much like the U.S Postal Service, UPS packages were transported as baggage on commercial airline flights. Many packages were shipped by the Ford Trimotors of United Airlines. After Black Friday and the beginning of the Great Depression, the air service would be discontinued by the end of 1931. However, the air service would lead to the expansion beyond the West Coast; in 1930, the company moved operations from Oakland to New York City and established operations in other regions across the country as well.
After World War II, UPS (in the process of acquiring common carrier rights for every address in the United States) revisited the idea of shipping packages by air. Starting in 1953, 2-day delivery was offered on coast-to-coast packages; the service was called Blue Label Air. As before, volume was transported