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Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage (March 24, 1826 – March 18, 1898) was a suffragist, a Native American activist, an abolitionist, a freethinker, and a prolific author, who was "born with a hatred of oppression".
Matilda Gage spent her childhood in a house which was used as a station of the underground railroad. She faced prison for her actions under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 which criminalized assistance to escaped slaves. Even though she was beset by both financial and physical (cardiac) problems throughout her life, her work for women's rights was extensive, practical, and often brilliantly executed.
Gage became involved in the women's rights movement in 1852 when she decided to speak at the National Women's Rights Convention in Syracuse, New York. She served as president of the National Woman Suffrage Association from 1875 to 1876, and served as either Chair of the Executive Committee or Vice President for over twenty years. During the 1876 convention, she successfully argued against a group of police who claimed the association was holding an illegal assembly. They left without pressing charges.
Gage was considered to be more radical than either Susan B. Anthony or Elizabeth
The Harriet May Mills House or Harriet May Mills Residence is a historic home on the west side of Syracuse, New York. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Extensive information on the restoration of the home and its former owners is archived on the now-defunct HarrietMayMills.org website.
Charles de Berard Mills and Harriet Ann Mills were abolitionists. Harriet May Mills, their daughter, was active in women's rights. She co-founded a suffragette club, the Political Equality Club, in 1892, which grew rapidly. She was the first female to run for a major state-wide office as a candidate of a major political party, running for New York State's Secretary of State in 1920.
Jeanne Deroin (31 December 1805 – 2 April 1894) was a French socialist feminist.
Born in Paris, Deroin became a seamstress. In 1831, she joined the followers of utopian socialist Henri de Saint-Simon. For her required statement of her belief in their principles, she wrote a forty-four page essay, in part inspired by Olympe de Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, in which Deroin argued against the idea that women were inferior to men, and likened marriage to slavery. Despite this, in 1832, she married Antoine Ulysse Desroches, a fellow Saint-Simonite, but refused to take his surname and insisted on taking a vow of equality in a civil ceremony.
Later in 1832, Deroin was part of a group of working women who, in protest at the Saint-Simonites hierarchical and religious nature left the group, and became supporters of the socialist Charles Fourier. They began publishing La Femme Libre, the first newspaper for women in France, for which she wrote under the pseudonym Jeanne Victoire.
During this period, Deroin qualified as a schoolteacher. From 1834, she focussed on this work, and on bringing up her children and those of Flora Tristan.
Deroin was a prominent
Julia Lorraine Hill (known as Julia "Butterfly" Hill, born February 18, 1974) is an American activist and environmentalist. Hill is best known for living in a 180-foot (55 m)-tall, roughly 1500-year-old California Redwood tree (age based on first-hand ring count of a slightly smaller neighboring ancient redwood that had been cut down) for 738 days between December 10, 1997 and December 18, 1999. Hill lived in the tree, affectionately known as "Luna," to prevent loggers of the Pacific Lumber Company from cutting it down. She is the author of the book The Legacy of Luna and co-author of One Makes the Difference. She is a vegan.
Hill's father was a traveling preacher and went town to town, bringing his family with him. Until she was about ten years old, Hill lived in a 32-foot (9.8 m) camper with her father, Dan, mother, Kathy and two brothers, Mike and Dan. Julia is the middle child. While traveling with her family, Hill would often explore rivers by campgrounds. When Hill was seven years old, she and her family were taking a hike one day and a butterfly landed on her finger and stayed with her the entire time. From that day on, her nickname became "Butterfly." She decided to use
Flora Clift Stevenson (30 October 1839 – 28 September 1905) was a Scottish social reformer with a special interest in education for poor or neglected children, and in education for girls. She was one of the first women in the United Kingdom to be elected to a school board.
Stevenson was born in Glasgow, the youngest daughter of James Stevenson (1786–1866), a merchant, and his wife Jane Stewart Shannan, daughter of Alexander Shannan, merchant of Greenock. Flora was one of a large family including her fellow-campaigner and sister Louisa, the architect John James Stevenson, and MP James Cochran Stevenson. The family moved to Jarrow in 1844 when James Stevenson became partner in a chemical works. After he retired in 1854 the family moved to Edinburgh shortly before Mrs Stevenson died, and in 1859 they settled in a house in Randolph Crescent where Louisa, Flora, Elisa Stevenson (1829–1904), an early suffragist, and Jane Stevenson (1828–1904) spent the rest of their lives.
Her first educational project was an evening literacy class for "messenger girls" in her own home. She was an active member of the Edinburgh Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, and a committee member
Mary Wollstonecraft ( /ˈwʊlstən.krɑːft/; 27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an eighteenth-century British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.
Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several unconventional personal relationships, received more attention than her writing. After two ill-fated affairs, with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay (by whom she had a daughter, Fanny Imlay), Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement. Wollstonecraft died at the age of thirty-eight, ten days after giving birth to her second daughter, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. Her daughter Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, later Mary
Samuel Fenton Cary (February 18, 1814 – September 29, 1900) was a congressman and significant temperance movement leader in the 19th century. Cary became well-known nationally as a prohibitionist author and lecturer.
Cary was born on February 18, 1814 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He graduated from Miami University in 1835 and at the Cincinnati Law School in 1837 being admitted to the bar the same year, practicing law out of his in office in Cincinnati. He was elected a judge in the Ohio State Supreme Court, but decided to pass the job up. Instead, he got the post of Paymaster General for the state of Ohio during the terms of Governors Mordecai Bartley and William Bebb.
He stopped working in law in 1845 to become a farmer and also to devote himself to temperance and anti-slavery groups. He gave lectures and wrote books on prohibition and slavery matters. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1864 supporting Abraham Lincoln for a second term who initially had won. Cary then became Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's first district in 1865.
In 1867, Cary was elected to the Fortieth Congress as an Independent Republican to represent Ohio's second district, taking seat
Sim Van der Ryn is acknowledged as a leader in "sustainable architecture." He is also a researcher and educator. Van der Ryn's driving professional interest has been applying principles of physical and social ecology to architecture and environmental design.
Van der Ryn distinguished himself among those designers and planners who have pioneered sustainable design at the community scale and the building-specific scale. He has designed everything from single-family and multi-family housing, to community facilities, retreat centers and resorts, to learning facilities, as well as office and commercial buildings .
Sim Van der Ryn's family left the Netherlands during World War II, settling in Kew Gardens, Queens, then eventually Great Neck, New York. Sim grew up with a sense of closeness with nature and a fascination with its details. He got his training in architecture at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and obtained state architecture licenses and national architectural registration. He has long lived in California.
In the exploratory and energetic latter part of the 20th century, Van der Ryn and other architects and designers with similar interests were able to pioneer new
John B. Cobb, Jr. (born February 9, 1925) is an American United Methodist theologian who played a crucial role in the development of process theology. He integrated Alfred North Whitehead's metaphysics into Christianity, and applied it to issues of social justice.
John Cobb was born in Kobe, Japan in 1925 to parents who were Methodist missionaries. In 1940, he moved to Georgia to go to high school. After graduation he attended a junior college, Emory College (now Oxford College of Emory University) at Oxford, Georgia. He was deeply devout and held strong moral convictions, fighting racism and prejudice among his peers. Joining the army in 1944, he met intellectuals from other religions including Judaism and Catholicism, who showed him new perspectives. It was about this time that he had a religious experience which led him to become a minister.
These experiences gave him a taste for intellectual thought. He entered an interdepartmental program at the University of Chicago, where he tested his faith by setting out to learn all the modern world's objections to Christianity, so that he could answer to them. His faith did not come out intact. Cobb became disillusioned with much of his
Henry Grew (1781–1862) was a Christian teacher and writer whose studies of the Bible led him to conclusions which were at odds with doctrines accepted by many of the mainstream churches of his time. Among other things, he rejected the Trinity, immortality of the soul, and a hell of literal eternal torment.
Henry Grew was born in Birmingham, England, but at the age of 13, moved with his parents to the United States. His family first lived in Boston. Later Grew lived in Providence, Pawtucket, Hartford, and Philadelphia.
Grew became a deacon at the First Baptist Church in Providence by age 23, and later became a pastor in Pawtucket. In 1810, he published the first of his writings, on the Book of Matthew. At 30, in 1811, after being pastor for four years at the First Baptist Church in Hartford,
In the 1820s, Grew was one of the founding shareholders of Hartford Female Seminary, and in the 1830s there is evidence a Henry Grew was involved in both the 'Hartford Peace Society' and the 'Connecticut Peace Society'. In the 1830s, Grew became involved with the New England Anti-Slavery Society and spoke on their behalf.
Grew was invited to the World Anti-Slavery Convention beginning 12 June
Mary Lee (née Walsh) (14 February 1821 – 18 September 1909) was an Irish-Australian suffragist and social reformer in South Australia.
Mary Walsh was born in Ireland at Kilknock Estate, county Monoghan. She was married in 1844 to George Lee. The couple had seven children however little more is known about her life in Ireland. Her son Ben moved to Adelaide, Australia. When he fell ill in 1879, Mary and her daughter, Evelyn, immigrated to Australia. They travelled on the maiden voyage of the steamship Orient. Her son died on 2 November 1880.
In 1883 Mary became active in the ladies' committee of the Social Purity Society. The Society advocated changes to the law relating to the social and legal status of young women, advocating an end to child labour to protect girls from abuse and preventing them from becoming prostitutes or child brides. The group's success was a passage in the 1885 Criminal Law Consolidation Amendment Act that raised the age of consent from 13 to 16.
The Social Purity Society also was concerned with the working conditions of women. After the bill was passed in 1885 the group began campaigning for workers' rights began. In December 1889 at a public meeting Mary Lee
The Right Excellent Samuel Jackman Prescod (1806 – September 26, 1871) became the first person of African descent to be elected to Barbados's Parliament in 1843. He also helped found the Liberal Party, whose following included small landowners, businessmen, and coloured clerks. The Barbadian parliament has enacted that he should be called "The Right Excellent" and that his life be celebrated on National Heroes Day (28 April) in Barbados.
Prescod was born as the son of a free coloured mother, Lidia Smith, and a wealthy white father, William Prescod. He was named Samuel Jackman Prescod for Samuel Jackman a local white planter.
Prescod was excluded from politics in Barbados. A law of 1697 required that all voters should be white, own 10 acres (40,000 m) of land and be of the Christian religion. In fact it was not until 1721 that non-whites testimony was accepted in a court in Barbados.
Prescod began his political work in 1829 and it was on 9 June 1831 a major change took place that allowed coloured people the same rights to vote as white people. The new act passed by Sir James Lyon, the Governor, removed "certain restraints and disabilities imposed by law on His Majesty's Free
Larry Kramer (born June 25, 1935) is an American playwright, author, public health advocate, and LGBT rights activist. He began his career rewriting scripts while working for Columbia Pictures, which led him to London where he worked with United Artists. There he wrote the screenplay for Women in Love in 1969, earning an Academy Award nomination for his efforts. Kramer introduced a controversial and confrontational style in his 1978 novel Faggots, which earned mixed reviews but emphatic denunciations from the gay community for his portrayal of shallow, promiscuous gay relationships in the 1970s.
Kramer witnessed the spread of the disease that became known as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among his friends in 1980, and co-founded the Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC), which has become the largest private organization to assist people living with AIDS in the world. Not content with the social services GMHC provided, Kramer expressed his frustration with bureaucratic paralysis and the apathy of gay men to the AIDS crisis by writing a play titled The Normal Heart which was produced at The Public Theatre in New York City in 1985. His political activism extended to the founding
Ken Freedman (born February 18, 1959) is the ongoing General Manager of WFMU, a freeform radio station. He also co-hosts the conceptual comedy program Seven Second Delay with Andy Breckman, as well as hosting his own freeform radio program on Wednesday mornings (9:00-noon Eastern Time).
Freedman began his radio career as DJ at Highland Park High School Radio station WVHP and later as station manager of WCBN, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor's freeform radio station, where he marked the 1980 election of Ronald Reagan by playing Lesley Gore's "It's My Party (And I'll Cry If I Want To)" for eighteen consecutive hours.
Freedman joined WFMU as a DJ in December 1983, and succeeded Bruce Longstreet as General Manager in August 1985. At the time, WFMU was licensed to and owned by Upsala College, and based in East Orange, New Jersey.
In February 1986, Freedman launched a program guide/zine called LCD (Lowest Common Denominator), featuring work by many internationally known writers and artists, including Nick Tosches, Jim Woodring, Drew Friedman, Gary Panter, Harvey Pekar, Dan Clowes, Tony Millionaire, and Chris Ware. In November 2007, The Best of LCD: The Art and Writing of WFMU, was
Elizabeth Pease Nichol (1807–1897) was an abolitionist, anti-segregationist, woman suffragist, chartist and anti-vivisectionist in 19th century Great Britain. In 1853 she married Dr. John Pringle Nichol (1804-1859), Regius Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. She was one of about six women who were in the painting of the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840.
Elizabeth Pease was born in Darlington, England to Joseph Pease and his wife Elizabeth Beaumont, who were members of the Society of Friends (Quakers). Her father started the Peace Society the year of her birth, the same year that Great Britain abolished the slave trade in its empire, while allowing slavery to continue.
By 1837, Pease was leading the Darlington Ladies Anti-Slavery Society. Charles Stuart, an Anti-Slavery abolitionist and lecturer, encouraged her to send a female delegate or attend a national society being formed by Joseph Sturge. Pease resisted more public involvement, as she did not seek the limelight but wanted to work locally for the causes she held to be important.
In 1840, Pease traveled to London to attend the World Anti-Slavery Convention beginning on 12 June. Before the conference
Tammy K. Bruce (born August 20, 1962) is an American radio host, author, and political commentator. Her nationally-syndicated talk show, The Tammy Bruce Show, airs live weekdays from 10am–12pm Pacific time online via TalkStreamLive. (A podcast of the show is also available to subscribers at her website). She is a frequent on-air contributor to Fox News Channel, and writes material for the Fox Forum blog.
Bruce's website describes her as a "gay, pro-choice, gun owning, pro-death penalty, Tea Party Independent Conservative" who "worked on a number of Democratic campaigns in 1990s, including the 1992 Boxer and Feinstein senate races and the Clinton for President campaign" and "also has a history of supporting Republicans as well, including President Reagan, both Presidents Bush and, quite reluctantly, John McCain during the 2008 presidential campaign."
In 2003, Bruce was appointed to serve on California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Transition Team after his successful recall election against then-Governor Gray Davis.
Bruce collaborated with Los Angeles professional women to create one of the first ad-hoc independent pro-choice activist groups. The group's early feminist activism
Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (January 20, 1856 – November 20, 1940) was an American writer and suffragist and the daughter of pioneering women's rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
Harriot Eaton Stanton was born in Seneca Falls, New York, to social activists Henry Brewster Stanton and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the sixth of seven children. She attended Vassar College, where she graduated with a degree in mathematics in 1878. She attended the Boston School for Oratory for a year, and then spent most of 1880-1881 in Germany as a tutor for young girls. On her return voyage to the United States, she met English businessman William Henry Blatch, Jr., who went by the name of Harry. Blatch and Harriot Stanton were married in 1882, and lived outside of London for twenty years. They had two daughters, the second of whom died at age four. Their first daughter, Nora Stanton Blatch Barney, continued the family tradition as a suffragist, was the first American woman to earn a degree in civil engineering, and was briefly married to Lee De Forest. Harry Blatch died in 1915, after being accidentally electrocuted.
In 1881, Harriot Stanton worked with her mother and Susan B. Anthony on the History
Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute. He has worked in the field of energy policy and related areas for four decades. Harvard University-educated, he was named by Time magazine one of the World's 100 most influential people in 2009.
Lovins worked professionally as an environmentalist in the 1970s and since then as an analyst of a "soft energy path" for the United States and other nations. He has promoted energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources, and the generation of energy at or near the site where the energy is actually used. Lovins has also advocated a "negawatt revolution" arguing that utility customers don’t want kilowatt-hours of electricity; they want energy services. In the 1990s, his work with Rocky Mountain Institute included the design of an ultra-efficient automobile, the Hypercar.
Lovins has received ten honorary doctorates and won many awards. He has provided expert testimony in eight countries, briefed 19 heads of state, and published 29 books. These books include Reinventing Fire, Winning the Oil Endgame, Small is Profitable,
Wes Jackson (born 1936) is the founder and current president of The Land Institute. He is also a member of the World Future Council.
Jackson was born and raised on a farm near Topeka, Kansas. After earning a BA in biology from Kansas Wesleyan University, an MA in botany from the University of Kansas, and a PhD in genetics from North Carolina State University, Wes Jackson established and served as chair of one of the United States' first environmental studies programs at California State University, Sacramento.
Jackson then chose to leave academia, returning to his native Kansas, where he founded a non-profit organization, The Land Institute, in 1976. He still heads The Land Institute, which currently describes its main goal as the development of "Natural Systems Agriculture"; it also publishes The Land Report, a newsletter about American sustainable agriculture and agrarianism.
The Land Institute explored alternatives in appropriate technology, environmental ethics, and education, but a research program in sustainable agriculture eventually became central to its work. In 1978 Jackson proposed the development of a perennial polyculture. He sought to have fields planted in
Eric Eldred, born 1943, is an American literacy advocate and the proprietor of the unincorporated Eldritch Press, a website which republished the works of others which are in the public domain (that is, no longer subject to copyright). Eldritch Press for some years ran on a Linux server from Eldred's home and is now hosted by Ibiblio and no longer maintained by him. Its principal feature was experimentation with HTML formats and inclusion of graphics (while maintaining accessibility for blind readers) for online books that earlier had mostly been in ASCII format. Since the works and Eldred's derivative works based on them are in the public domain, anyone can make use of them, host them, and create more works of their own without payment or credit.
In 1998 the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act was passed, preventing Eldred's plans to scan and publish works first published in the U.S. after 1922. Therefore he became the lead plaintiff in Eldred v. Ashcroft, a lawsuit which challenged the constitutionality of this act but lost in 2003.
Eric Eldred has been described as a former computer programmer and systems administrator, a Boston writer, and a New Hampshire-based technical
Masanobu Fukuoka (福岡 正信, Fukuoka Masanobu, 2 February 1913 – 16 August 2008) was a Japanese farmer and philosopher celebrated for his natural farming and re-vegetation of desertified lands. He was a proponent of no-till, no-herbicide grain cultivation farming methods traditional to many indigenous cultures, from which he created a particular method of farming, commonly referred to as "Natural Farming" or "Do-Nothing Farming".
He was the author of several Japanese books, scientific papers and other publications, and was featured in television documentaries and interviews from the 1970s onwards. His influences went beyond farming to inspire individuals within the natural food and lifestyle movements. He was an outspoken advocate of the value of observing nature's principles.
Fukuoka was born on 2 February 1913 in Iyo, Ehime, Japan, the second son of Kameichi Fukuoka, an educated and wealthy land owner and local leader. He attended Gifu Prefecture Agricultural College and trained as a microbiologist and agricultural scientist, beginning a career as a research scientist specialising in plant pathology. He worked at the Plant Inspection Division of the Yokohama Customs Bureau in 1934 as
Henrietta Muir Edwards' (18 December 1849 – 10 November 1931) was a Canadian women's rights activist and reformer.
She was born Henrietta Louise Muir in Montreal. As a young woman, she exposed various feminist causes, forming the Working Girls' Association in 1875 to provide vocational training for women and editing the journal Women's Work in Canada.
In 1893, with Lady Aberdeen, she founded the National Council of Women and the Victorian Order of Nurses.
Edwards was one of "The Famous Five" (also called "The Valiant Five").
Among other honours, in October 2009, the Senate voted to name Edwards and the rest of the Five Canada's first "honorary senators."
Vladimir "Vladi" Luxuria born Wladimiro Guadagno in Foggia, Apulia (June 24, 1965) is an Italian actress, writer, politician and television host. Luxuria was a Communist Refoundation Party member of the Italian parliament, belonging to Romano Prodi's L'Unione coalition. She was the first openly transgender member of Parliament in Europe, and the world's second openly transgender MP after New Zealander Georgina Beyer. She lost her seat in the election of April, 2008.
Although Luxuria lives exclusively as a female, she has not undergone sex change surgery remaining physically and legally male. She has stated on occasion that she perceives herself as neither male nor female.
In the 2006 general election, Luxuria was elected to the Chamber of Deputies by the Lazio 1 constituency in Rome. She lost her seat in the 2008 election. After the retirement of Beyer and Luxuria, there were no transgender MPs reported in the world, until 2011, when Anna Grodzka was elected to the Polish parliament.
Luxuria moved to Rome in 1985 to study foreign languages and literature. She also began to act, notably in cabaret, and through this developed her gender ambiguity as a hallmark. Her assumed surname,
Volker Beck (born 12 December 1960 in Stuttgart) is a German politician. He is a sitting member of parliament for the Green Party in the Bundestag. Beck served as the Green Party Speaker for Legal Affairs from 1994–2002, and as the Green Party whip in the Bundestag since then. He represents Cologne and was reelected as MP and whip in September 2005.
Beck is openly gay and served as spokesman of the Association of Lesbians and Gays in Germany (Lesben- und Schwulenverband in Deutschland LSVD for over ten years. He is a supporter of gay marriage and has been referred to as the Father of the German Registered Partnership Act.
He lived in a long-term partnership with Jacques Teyssier until his death from cancer in Berlin on July 25, 2009. The couple had officially registered their partnership in 2008, after 16 years.
Between 2001 and 2004 he was chief negotiator for his party on the new immigration law coming into to force 2005. He is publicly known for being a very tough negotiator.
In 2003, the German Bundestag decided on his initiative that the Federal Republic of Germany will erect a national memorial in the centre of Berlin for homosexuals persecuted by the Nazi Party.
In 2006, he
Guru Nanak pronunciation (help·info) (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ; Hindi: गुरु नानक, Urdu: گرونانک [ˈɡʊɾu ˈnɑnək] Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of the religion of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
The Sikhs believe that all subsequent Gurus possessed Guru Nanak’s divinity and religious authority, and were named "Guru" in the line of succession.
Guru Nanak was born on 15 April 1469, now celebrated as Prakash Divas of Guru Nanak Dev, into a Hindu Khatri family in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talwandī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore, Pakistan. Today, his birthplace is marked by Gurdwara Janam Asthan. His father, Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Kalu Mehta, was a patwari (accountant) for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi, employed by of a Muslim landlord of that area, Rai Bular Bhatti. Nanak’s mother was Tripta. He had one elder sister, Bibi Nanaki who became a spiritual figure in her own right.
Nanaki married Jai Ram and went to his town of Sultanpur, where he was the steward (modi) to Daulat Khan Lodi, the eventual governor of Lahore. Nanak was attached to his older sister, and, in traditional Indian fashion, he followed
Mahatma Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (Marathi: जोतिराव गोविंदराव फुले) (April 11, 1827 – November 28, 1890), also known as Mahatma Jyotiba Phule was an activist, thinker, social reformer, writer, philosopher, theologist, scholar, editor and revolutionary from Maharashtra, India in the nineteenth century. Jotiba Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule were pioneers of women's education in India. His remarkable influence was apparent in fields like education, agriculture, caste system, women and widow upliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known for his efforts to educate women and the lower castes as well as the masses. He, after educating his wife, opened first a school for girls in India in August 1848. In September, 1873, Jotirao, along with his followers, formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) with the main objective of liberating the Bahujans, Shudras and Ati-Shudras and protecting them from exploitation and atrocities. For his fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste and his contributions to the field of education, he is regarded as one of the most important figures of the Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra. Dhananjay Keer,
Raden Ayu Kartini, (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904), or sometimes known as Raden Ajeng Kartini, was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. Kartini was a pioneer in the area of women's rights for Indonesians.
Indonesia now celebrates the Kartini Day in her memory in April 21, to remind women that they should participate in "the hegemonic state discourse of perkembangan (development)".
Kartini was born into an aristocratic Javanese family when Java was part of the Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies. Kartini's father, Sosroningrat, became Regency Chief of Jepara. Kartini's father, was originally the district chief of Mayong. Her mother, Ngasirah was the daughter of Madirono and a teacher of religion in Teluwakur. She was his first wife but not the most important one. At this time, polygamy was a common practice among the nobility. She also wrote the Letters of a Javanese Princess. Colonial regulations required a Regency Chief to marry a member of the nobility. Since Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility, her father married a second time to Woerjan (Moerjam), a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. After this second marriage, Kartini's father was
Maria Deraismes (August 17, 1828 – February 6, 1894) was a French author and major pioneering force for women's rights.
Born in Paris, Maria Deraismes grew up in Pontoise in the city's northwest outskirts. From a prosperous middle-class family, she was well educated and raised in a literary environment that led to her authoring several literary works but soon developed a reputation as a very capable communicator. She became active in promoting women's rights and, in 1866, joined the Société de la revendication des droits de la femme, a feminist organization advancing the cause of education for women. In 1869, she founded L'Association pour le droit des femmes with Leon Richer.
Following the ouster of Napoleon III, she understood the new politics of the day meant a more moderate approach under the Third Republic in order for feminism to survive and not be marginalized by the new breed of male power brokers emerging at the time. Deraismes' work brought her recognition in Great Britain and an influence upon American activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton who met her in Paris in 1882.
Maria Deraismes was initiated into Freemasonry on January 14, 1882, when it was still rare for a woman to be
Susan C. Faludi (born (1959-04-18)April 18, 1959) is an American feminist, journalist and author. She won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism in 1991, for a report on the leveraged buyout of Safeway Stores, Inc., a report that the Pulitzer Prize committee thought showed the "human costs of high finance".
Faludi was born to a Jewish family in Queens, New York in 1959 and grew up in Yorktown Heights, New York. Her mother was a homemaker and journalist and is a long-time New York University student. Her father is a photographer who had emigrated from Hungary, a survivor of the Holocaust. She graduated from Harvard University in 1981, where she wrote for The Harvard Crimson, and became a journalist, writing for The New York Times, Miami Herald, Atlanta Journal Constitution, San Jose Mercury News, and The Wall Street Journal, among other publications. Throughout the eighties she wrote several articles on feminism and the apparent resistance to the movement. Seeing a pattern emerge, Faludi wrote Backlash, which was released in late 1991. In 2008-2009, Faludi was a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. She lives with fellow author Russ Rymer.
Faludi has rejected
Chaz Salvatore Bono (born Chastity Sun Bono; March 4, 1969) is an American transgender advocate, writer, and musician. He is the only child of American entertainers Sonny and Cher, though each had children from other relationships. Bono is a transgender man.
In 1995, after several years of being outed as lesbian by the tabloid press, he publicly self-identified as such in a cover story in a leading American gay monthly magazine, The Advocate. Bono went on to discuss the process of coming out to oneself and to others in two books. Family Outing: A Guide to the Coming Out Process for Gays, Lesbians, and Their Families (1998) includes his coming out account. The memoir, The End of Innocence (2003) discusses his outing, music career, and partner Joan's death from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Between 2008 and 2010, he underwent female-to-male gender transition. A two-part Entertainment Tonight feature in June 2009 explained that his transition had started a year before. In May 2010, he legally changed his gender and name. A documentary on Bono's experience, Becoming Chaz, was screened at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival and later made its television debut on OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network.
Martha Carey Thomas (January 2, 1857 - December 2, 1935) was an American educator, suffragist, and second President of Bryn Mawr College.
Carey Thomas, as she preferred to be called, was born in Baltimore, Maryland on January 2, 1857. She was the daughter of James Carey Thomas and Mary Whitall Thomas. Her family included many prominent Quakers, including her uncle and aunt Robert Pearsall Smith and Hannah Whitall Smith, and her cousins Alys Pearsall Smith (first wife of Bertrand Russell) and Mary Smith Berenson Costelloe (who married Bernard Berenson).
Growing up, Thomas was strongly influenced by the staunch feminism of her mother and her mother's sister Hannah Whitall Smith who became a prominent preacher. Her father, a physician, was not completely happy with feminist ideas, but his daughter was fiercely independent and he supported her in all of her independent endeavors. Though both her parents were orthodox members of the Society of Friends, Thomas' education and European travel led her to question those beliefs and develop a love for music and theater, both of which were forbidden to Orthodox Quakers. This religious questioning led to friction with her mother.
Medea Benjamin (born Susan Benjamin on September 10, 1952) is an American political activist, best known for co-founding Code Pink and, along with her husband, activist and author Kevin Danaher, fair trade advocacy group Global Exchange. Benjamin also was a Green Party candidate in 2000 for the United States Senate.
The Los Angeles Times has described her as "one of the high profile leaders" of the peace movement and in 1999, San Francisco Magazine included her on its "power list" of the "60 Players Who Rule the Bay Area."
Benjamin grew up in Long Island, New York, a self-described "nice Jewish girl." During her freshman year at Tufts University, she renamed herself after the Greek mythological character Medea. She received master's degrees in public health from Columbia University and in economics from The New School.
Benjamin worked for 10 years as an economist and nutritionist in Latin America and Africa for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization, the Swedish International Development Agency, and the Institute for Food and Development Policy. She spent four years in Cuba, and has authored three books on the country.
In 1988 with Kevin
Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, sex educator, and nurse. Sanger coined the term birth control, opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, and established Planned Parenthood. Sanger's efforts contributed to the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case which legalized contraception in the United States. Sanger is a frequent target of criticism by opponents of birth control and has also been criticized for supporting eugenics and racial cleansing, but remains an iconic figure in the American reproductive rights movement.
Sanger's early years were spent in New York City. In 1914, prompted by suffering she witnessed due to frequent pregnancies and self-induced abortions, she started a monthly newsletter, The Woman Rebel. Sanger's activism was influenced by the conditions of her youth—her mother had 18 pregnancies in 22 years, and died at age 50 of tuberculosis and cervical cancer.
In 1916, Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, which led to her arrest for distributing information on contraception. Her subsequent trial and appeal generated enormous support for her cause. Sanger
Starhawk (born Miriam Simos on June 17, 1951) is an American writer and activist. She is well known as a theorist of Paganism, and is one of the foremost popular voices of ecofeminism. She is a columnist for Beliefnet.com and for On Faith, the Newsweek/Washington Post online forum on religion. Starhawk's book The Spiral Dance (1979) was one of the main inspirations behind the Neopagan movement. In 2012, she was listed in Watkins' Mind Body Spirit magazine as one of the 100 Most Spiritually Influential Living People.
Starhawk was born in 1951 in Saint Paul, Minnesota. Her father, Jack Simos, died when she was 5. Her mother, Bertha Claire Goldfarb Simos, was a professor of social work at UCLA. Both her parents were the children of Jewish immigrants from Russia.
Starhawk received a BA in Fine Arts from UCLA. In 1973, while she was a graduate student in film at UCLA, she won the Samuel Goldwyn Writing Award for her novel, A Weight of Gold, a story about Venice, California, where she then lived. She received an MA in Psychology, with a concentration in feminist therapy, from Antioch University West in 1982.
Following her years at UCLA, after a failed attempt to become a fiction writer
Neal S. Dow (March 20, 1804 – October 2, 1897), nicknamed the "Napoleon of Temperance" and the "Father of Prohibition", was mayor of Portland, Maine. He sponsored the "Maine law of 1851", which prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor. Dow was widely criticized for his heavy handed tactics during the Portland Rum Riot of 1855.
Dow was born in Portland, the son of Quaker parents. Following his father Josiah's line of work, he became a tanner, and eventually became a prominent and wealthy leather manufacturer. He volunteered as a firefighter to gain exemption from militia duty because of the reputation of militia musters to be drunken bashes. He gained local notice when he persuaded his company to forgo the customary liquor at their annual celebration. In 1827 he was a founding member of the Maine Temperance Society. Before 1837 he was a leader of the splitting off of the Maine Temperance Union over the issue of whether wine should still be allowed—the Union was for total abstinence.
During the 19th century the average American consumed more than three times more alcohol than today. In his memoirs, Dow noted that in Portland (as elsewhere in the country) a significant portion of
Wolfgang Joachim Zuckermann (born 11 October 1922) is a harpsichord maker, author and environmental and social activist. He was born in Berlin, became an American citizen in 1938 and has lived in France since 1995.
He saw front line action as a Private with the U.S. Army and followed this by obtaining a BA in English and psychology from Queens College, New York, winning the title of Queens College Scholar, the highest honor conferred upon graduates at that institution.
After a stint as a child psychologist, Zuckermann, an amateur musician, became one of the first harpsichord makers in the United States and in the late 1950s invented the "do-it-yourself" harpsichord kit, sometimes called the 'Model T' harpsichord, which he sold in large quantities to institutions, professionals, and individuals around the world, thus fundamentally transforming a significant part of the world musical scene.
The harpsichord kit was produced in Zuckermann's New York workshop on Christopher Street in Greenwich Village. It was designed to maximize affordability, and therefore made extensive use of parts ordered out of stock from other manufacturers, including whole keyboards. It was also designed to be
Louise McKinney née Crummy (22 September 1868 – 10 July 1931) was a provincial politician and women's rights activist from Alberta, Canada. She was the first woman sworn in to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta and the first woman elected to a legislature in Canada and in the British Empire. She served that position from 1917 to 1921 sitting with the Non-Partisan League caucus in opposition.
McKinney ran for a seat to the Alberta Legislature in the 1917 Alberta general election. She won the electoral district of Claresholm as a candidate for the Non-Partisan League by defeating Liberal incumbent William Moffat in hotly contested race.
McKinney believed in temperance education, stronger liquor control, women's property rights and the Dower Act. She was one of two woman sworn into the Alberta Legislative Assembly on 7 June 1917, the other being Roberta MacAdams. McKinney became one of "The Famous Five" (also called "The Valiant Five"), along with Irene Parlby, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Emily Murphy and Nellie McClung
She ran for a second term in the 1921 Alberta general election, running under the United Farmers banner. She was defeated and lost her seat to Independent Farmer
Rose Scott (8 October 1847 – 20 April 1925) was an Australian women's rights activist who protested for women's suffrage and universal suffrage in New South Wales at the turn-of-the twentieth century .
Her mother's name was Molly and her father was Ross Scott. She had a brother called Bill and a sister called Grace Scott was born at Glendon, near Singleton, New South Wales, fifth of eight children of Helenus Scott (1802–1879) and his wife Sarah Ann née Rusden. Helenus Scott came to Australia in 1821, purchased land, and became a well-known breeder of horses, he later became a police magistrate. Sarah Anne Rusden was a daughter of the Rev. G. K. Rusden and sister of the historian George William Rusden. Rose Scott's cousin was David Scott Mitchell, the son of her father's sister.
Rose and her sister Augusta were educated at home by their mother while her brothers attended boarding school. When her father died in 1879 she received a yearly allowance of £500 a year and sole care of her mother, who was in poor health. In 1880 after her sister (known as Gussie) died Scott adopted her son Helenus Hope Scott Wallace, known as 'Harry', and moved to Sydney. She never married, devoting her
Li Yinhe (simplified Chinese: 李银河; traditional Chinese: 李銀河; pinyin: Lǐ Yínhé) (February 4, 1952 – ) is a sociologist, sexologist, and an activist for LGBT rights in People's Republic of China. She was married to the late writer Wang Xiaobo. Her main academic interests have been sexual norms in contemporary People's Republic of China, homosexuality, diverse sexual behaviors including sadomasochism, and women's studies.
Born in Beijing in 1952, Li attended Shanxi University from 1974 to 1977. She became an editor at the government newspaper Guangming Daily, then a researcher at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. She married Wang Xiaobo in 1980. In 1982 she went to the United States of America and obtained a Ph.D. in sociology from University of Pittsburgh (1988). Afterwards she worked as a postdoc then as an instructor at Peking University. In 1992 she became a professor at the Institute of Sociology at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Li has been active in calling for greater tolerance for nonconventional sexual activities in China. She thinks the country is undergoing a de facto sexual revolution, and encourages people to re-examine traditional attitudes towards sexual
Raj Patel (born 1972) is a British-born American academic, journalist, activist and writer who has lived and worked in Zimbabwe, South Africa and the United States for extended periods. He is best known for his 2008 book, Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System. His most recent book is The Value of Nothing which was on The New York Times best-seller list during February 2010. He has been referred to as "the rock star of social justice writing."
Born to a mother from Kenya and a father from Fiji, he grew up in Golders Green in north-west London where his family ran a corner shop. Patel received a B.A in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE), from Oxford, and a Masters Degree from the London School of Economics, and gained his PhD in Development Sociology from Cornell University in 2002. He has been a visiting scholar at Yale and the University of California, Berkeley. As part of his academic training, Patel worked at the World Bank, World Trade Organization and the United Nations. He has since become an outspoken public critic of all of these organizations, and claims to have been tear-gassed on four continents protesting against his former
Wubbo Johannes Ockels (born March 28, 1946) is a Dutch physicist and a former astronaut of the European Space Agency (ESA). In 1985 he participated in a flight on a space shuttle (STS-61-A), making him the first Dutch citizen in space. He was not the first Dutch-born astronaut, as he is preceded by the naturalized American Lodewijk van den Berg, who flew on STS-51-B. Ockels is currently professor of Aerospace for Sustainable Engineering and Technology at the Delft University of Technology.
Ockels was born in Almelo but considers Groningen to be his hometown. He obtained his MSc degree in physics and mathematics in 1973 and subsequently a PhD degree in the same subjects in 1978 from the University of Groningen. His thesis was based on experimental work at the Nuclear-physics Accelerator Institute (KVI) in Groningen.
From 1973 to 1978, Ockels performed experimental investigations at the Nuclear Physics Accelerator Institute in Groningen. His work concerned the gamma-ray decay of nuclear systems directly after formation and the development of a data-handling system involving design of electronics and programming of real-time software. He also contributed to the design and construction
Lawrence "Larry" Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic and political activist. He is best known as a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications, and he has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention.
He is a director of the Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics at Harvard University and a professor of law at Harvard Law School. Prior to rejoining Harvard, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of its Center for Internet and Society. Lessig is a founding board member of Creative Commons and Rootstrikers, and also is on the board of MapLight. He is on the advisory boards of the Sunlight Foundation and Americans Elect. He is a former board member of the Free Software Foundation, Software Freedom Law Center and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Born in Rapid City, South Dakota, Lessig grew up in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, and earned a B.A. in Economics and a B.S. in Management (Wharton School) from the University of Pennsylvania, an M.A. in philosophy from the University of
Cicely Isabel Fairfield (21 December 1892 – 15 March 1983), known by her pen name Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West, DBE was an English author, journalist, literary critic and travel writer. A prolific, protean author who wrote in many genres, West was committed to feminist and liberal principles and was one of the foremost public intellectuals of the twentieth century. She reviewed books for The Times, the New York Herald Tribune, the Sunday Telegraph, and the New Republic, and she was a correspondent for The Bookman. Her major works include Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (1941), on the history and culture of Yugoslavia; A Train of Powder (1955), her coverage of the Nuremberg trials, published originally in The New Yorker; The Meaning of Treason, later The New Meaning of Treason, a study of World War II and Communist traitors; The Return of the Soldier, a modernist World War I novel; and the "Aubrey trilogy" of autobiographical novels, The Fountain Overflows, This Real Night, and Cousin Rosamund. Time called her "indisputably the world's number one woman writer" in 1947. She was made CBE in 1949, and DBE in 1959, in recognition of her outstanding contributions to British
Annie Kenney (13 September 1879 – 9 July 1953) was an English working class suffragette who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union. She attracted the attention of the press and the public in 1905, when she, and Christabel Pankhurst, were imprisoned for several days for assault and obstruction, after heckling Sir Edward Grey at a Liberal rally in Manchester on the issue of votes for women. This incident is credited with inaugurating a new phase in the struggle for women's suffrage in the UK, with the adoption of militant tactics.
Annie was born in Springhead, in Saddleworth, Yorkshire, on 13 September 1879, the 4th daughter (of 12 children) of Nelson Horatio Kenney and Anne Wood; the family was poor and working class, and Kenney started part-time work in a local Cotton Mill at the age of 10, as well as attending school; turning full-time at 13 - which involved 12-hour shifts from 6 in the morning to 6 in the evening. She was employed as a "tenter", a weaver's assistant, part of her job being to fit the bobbins and to attend to the strands of fleece when they broke; during one such operation, one of her fingers was ripped off by a spinning bobbin. She
Judy Rebick (born 15 Aug 1945 in Reno, Nevada), arrived in Toronto at age 9, and is a Canadian journalist, political activist, and feminist.
In 1983, a man attacked Henry Morgentaler with garden shears outside of his Toronto abortion clinic. Judy blocked the attack, and Morgentaler remained unharmed. Augusto Dantas was charged with assault and with possession of a weapon dangerous to the public good.
Judy Rebick first gained national prominence as president of the National Action Committee on the Status of Women from 1990 to 1993. She was the co-host of a prime time debate show called Face Off on CBC Newsworld from 1994–1998 and then a women's discussion show Straight From the Hip, until 2000. She was a regular commentator on CBC TV's Sunday Report and CBC Radio. She was during that time also a columnist with Elm Street Magazine, London Free Press, and on CBC Online.
In 2001 she helped launch rabble.ca , a multi-media independent news and discussion site, with Mark Surman and Judy MacDonald, and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Rebick was publisher of rabble.ca from 2001 until 2005.
With Jim Stanford, Svend Robinson and Libby Davies, she helped lead the New Politics
Catherine Booth (17 January 1829 – 4 October 1890) was the wife of the founder of The Salvation Army, William Booth. Because of her influence in the formation of The Salvation Army she was known as the 'Mother of The Salvation Army'.
She was born as Catherine Mumford in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England, the daughter of John Mumford and Sarah Milward. Her father was a coach builder. Her family later moved to Boston, Lincolnshire, and later lived in Brixton, London.
From an early age, Catherine was a serious and sensitive girl. She had a strong Christian upbringing and was said to have read the Bible through eight times before the age of 12.
At age 14, she was seriously ill and spent a great deal of time in bed. She kept herself busy, however, and was especially concerned about the problems of alcohol. She wrote articles for a temperance magazine, which encouraged people not to drink.
Catherine was a member of the local Band of Hope and a supporter of the national Temperance Society.
She met William Booth, a Methodist minister, when he came to preach at her church in 1852. They soon fell in love and became engaged. During their three year engagement, Catherine constantly wrote letters
Barnett "Barney" Frank (born March 31, 1940) is the U.S. Representative for Massachusetts's 4th congressional district since January 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he is the former chairman of the House Financial Services Committee (2007–2011) and is considered the most prominent gay politician in the United States.
Born and raised in Bayonne, NJ, Frank graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Law School. He worked as a political aide before winning election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1972. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1980 with 52 percent of the vote. He has been re-elected ever since by wide margins. In 1987, he came out as gay, becoming the first member of Congress to do so voluntarily. From 2007 to 2011, Frank served as chairman of the House Financial Services Committee, where he remains the ranking Democrat.
On November 28, 2011, Frank announced that he would retire from the Congress at the conclusion of his term in 2013. On July 7, 2012, Frank married his long-time partner, James Ready, becoming the first member of Congress to marry someone of the same sex while in office.
Frank was born Barnett Frank in Bayonne, New
Timothy Shay (T.S.) Arthur (June 6, 1809 – March 6, 1885) was a popular 19th-century American author. He is most famous for his temperance novel Ten Nights in a Bar-Room and What I Saw There (1854), which helped demonize alcohol in the eyes of the American public.
He was also the author of dozens of stories for Godey's Lady's Book, the most popular American monthly magazine in the antebellum era, and he published and edited his own Arthur's Home Magazine, a periodical in the Godey's model, for many years. Virtually forgotten now, Arthur did much to articulate and disseminate the values, beliefs, and habits that defined respectable, decorous middle-class life in antebellum America.
Born just outside Newburgh, New York, Arthur lived as a child in nearby Fort Montgomery, New York By 1820, Arthur's father, a miller, had relocated to Baltimore, Maryland, where Arthur briefly attended local schools. At age fourteen, Arthur apprenticed to a tailor, but poor eyesight and a general lack of aptitude for physical labor led him to seek other work. He then found employment with a wholesale merchandiser and later as an agent for an investment concern, a job that took him briefly to Louisville,
Ernest Thompson Seton (August 14, 1860 – October 23, 1946) was a Scots-Canadian (and naturalized U.S. citizen) who became a noted author, wildlife artist, founder of the Woodcraft Indians, and one of the founding pioneers of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). Seton also influenced Lord Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting. His notable books related to Scouting include The Birch Bark Roll and The Boy Scout Handbook. He is responsible for the appropriation and incorporation of what he believed to be American Indian elements into the traditions of the BSA.
Born Ernest Evan Thompson in South Shields, County Durham (now part of South Tyneside, Tyne and Wear), England of Scottish parents, Seton's family migrated to Canada in 1866. Most of his childhood was spent in Toronto. As a youth, he retreated to the woods to draw and study animals as a way of avoiding his abusive father. He won a scholarship in art to the Royal Academy in London, England.
He later rejected his father and changed his name to Ernest Thompson Seton. He believed that Seton had been an important name in his paternal line. He developed a fascination with wolves while working as a naturalist for Manitoba. He became
Guillaume Adam de Félice, 4th Comte de Panzutti (1803–71) was a Savoy nobleman, theologian and abolitionist.
Félice was born on 12 March 1803 in Otterberg and died on 23 October 1871 in Lausanne and was the grandson of Fortunato de Felice by his son Bernard. Guillaume grew up in a French environment as the family settled in Lille in 1804, and inherited his grandfather's vigour for radicalism and academia. He studied theology at Strasbourg and Lausanne universities and was accepted into the Church in 1827. He became a pastor at the Reformed Church of Bolbec, in Normandy Seine-Maritime, then a professor of theology in Montauban, occupying the chair 'de morale et d'éloquence sacrée' (of morality and holy speech). In later life he settled in his family town of Yverdon and married Joséphine Rivier, the daughter of a local aristocrat.
Whilst at Bolbec, it is thought that his interest in abolitionism was heightened due to its proximity to the slave-port of Le Havre. Félice started the movement against the French slave camps in Guadeloupe, at the time a very controversial subject. It was through his religious beliefs that he pursued his struggle against slavery, resulting in him drafting
William Rees, FRSC (born December 18, 1943), is a professor at the University of British Columbia and former director of the School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) at UBC.
Rees has taught at the University of British Columbia since 1969-70. His primary interest is in public policy and planning relating to global environmental trends and the ecological conditions for sustainable socioeconomic development. He is the originator of the "ecological footprint" concept and co-developer of the method.
William Rees received his PhD degree in population ecology from the University of Toronto. He founded SCARP’s ‘"Environment and Resource Planning" concentration and from 1994 to 1999 served as director of the School. Rees’ book on ecological footprint analysis, Our Ecological Footprint (co-authored with then PhD student Dr Mathis Wackernagel), was published in 1996 and is now available in English, Chinese, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, and Spanish.
Much of Rees' work is in the realm of ecological economics and human ecology. He is best known in these fields for the co-development of ecological footprint analysis with his then PhD student Mathis Wackernagel.
Alice Moore Hubbard (June 7, 1861 – May 7, 1915) was a noted American feminist, writer, and, with her husband, Elbert Hubbard was a leading figure in the Roycroft movement – a branch of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England with which it was contemporary.
Born Alice Luann Moore in Wales, New York to Welcome Moore and Melinda Bush, she was a schoolteacher before meeting her future husband, the married soap salesman and philosopher Elbert Hubbard whom she married in 1904 after a controversial affair in which she bore the illegitimate, Miriam Elberta Hubbard (1894–1985).
Her works include Justinian and Theodora (1906; with Elbert Hubbard), Woman's Work (1908), Life Lessons (1909), and The Basis of Marriage (1910). The latter includes an interview with Alice Hubbard by Sophie Irene Loeb.
The couple perished in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania during the First World War while on a voyage to Europe to cover the war and ultimately interview Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany.
Bayard Rustin (pronunciation: /ˈbaɪərd/; March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights.
In the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), Rustin practiced nonviolence. He was a leading activist of the early 1947–1955 civil-rights movement, helping to initiate a 1947 Freedom Ride to challenge with civil disobedience racial segregation on interstate busing. He recognized Martin Luther King, Jr.'s leadership, and helped to organize the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to strengthen King's leadership; Rustin promoted the philosophy of nonviolence and the practices of nonviolent resistance, which he had observed while working with Gandhi's movement in India. Rustin became a leading strategist of the civil rights movement from 1955–1968. He was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which was headed by A. Philip Randolph, the leading African-American labor-union president and socialist. Rustin also influenced young activists, such as Tom Kahn and Stokely Carmichael, in organizations like the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student
Franco Grillini (born March 14, 1955) is an Italian politician and Italy's most prominent gay rights activist.
He was born in Pianoro, Province of Bologna. During the 1970s, he took part in student political movements. He attended the University of Bologna, graduating in 1979 with a degree in education, and subsequently became a psychologist, psychotherapist, and journalist. He was 27 years old and engaged to a woman when he came out.
Grillini entered politics in the 1970s with the Proletarian Unity Party; in 1985 he ran as a Communist Party candidate in the province of Bologna. From 1991 to 2001 he held continuous membership of the Ministry of Health’s “National Council for the Fight against AIDS”. He was elected for the first time to the Council of the Province of Bologna in 1990, and subsequently re-elected in 1995 and 1999. In 1999 he was named president of the Italian Ministry for Equal Opportunities’ “Commission for the Rights and Equal Opportunities of Homosexual People”. Following the dissolution of the Communist Party, he joined the Democratic Party of the Left, which later became Democrats of the Left. He was first elected to the Italian Parliament in 2001, and re-elected
Lee Kyung Hae (1947 – September 10, 2003) was a South Korean farmer and activist who opposed neo-liberal globalization and protested for the local farmers and fishermen of his home country whose jobs were threatened. He was also president of the Federation of Farmers and Fishermen of Korea.
Lee Kyung Hae was born in Jangsu, Jeollabuk-do, in what was then a united Korea. He graduated from Seoul Agricultural College in 1974 and pursued farming as a career, even though farming was not seen at that time as a logical career for college graduates. He established a dairy farm on what had been a deserted wasteland, and developed it to a capacity of seventy cows. He also developed vegetable farms and opened all of his farms to agricultural students seeking real-life experience. It was during that time that Lee married Kim Baek-i, a journalist for the local Mountains magazine.
In 1979, he was elected president of the Jangsu Livestock Breeders Association. Throughout the 1980s he worked to improve the situation of farmers nationwide, and as a result of his efforts he was elected to many prominent agricultural positions. He became president of the Jangsu Young Farmers Association in 1983 and
Yehuda HaKohen (Hebrew: יהודה הכהן, born 1979) is an Israeli alternative peace activist and critic of government corruption, globalization and Westernization in the Middle East. He is a vocal member of the Semitic Action movement for grassroots dialogue and an outspoken opponent of the two-state solution, Israel's West Bank barrier and Jewish cooperation with America's Christian right.
Yehuda HaKohen immigrated to Israel from New York in 2001 and studied in Jerusalem’s Machon Meir institute. During this time, he founded Am Segula and organized weekend programs for American students in Israel to visit Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Am Segula also held weekly classes in central Jerusalem where veteran activist Elie Yossef taught Zionist history.
Am Segula launched a series of non-violent protests and hunger strikes in order to pressure the Israeli government to demand the release of Jonathan Pollard from American imprisonment. In early 2003, Am Segula merged into Magshimey Herut and teamed up with the K’Cholmim group to settle on a hilltop near Kochav HaShachar in Samaria. HaKohen lived there until he was drafted into the Israel Defense Forces in June 2003.
Julia Ward Howe (May 27, 1819 – October 17, 1910) was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, poet, and the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic".
Born Julia Ward in New York City, she was the fourth child of banker Samuel Ward and occasional poet Julia Rush Cutler. Among her siblings was Samuel Cutler Ward. Her father was a well-to-do banker. Her mother, granddaughter of William Greene (August 16, 1731 – November 30, 1809), Governor of Rhode Island and his wife Catharine Ray, died when Julia was five after having borne seven children by the age of 27.
In 1843, she married Samuel Gridley Howe (1801–1876), a physician and reformer who founded the Perkins School for the Blind in Boston, Massachusetts. They announced their engagement quite suddenly on February 21; though Howe had courted Julia for a time, he had more recently shown an interest in her sister Louisa.
Her book, Passion-Flowers, was published in December 1853. The book collected intensely personal poems and was written without the awareness of her husband, who was then editing the Free Soil newspaper The Commonwealth.
Julia Ward Howe was inspired to write "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" after she and
Cleve Jones (born October 11, 1954) is an American AIDS and LGBT rights activist. He conceived of the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt which has become, at 54 tons, the world's largest piece of community folk art as of 2009. In 1983, at the onset of the AIDS pandemic Jones co-founded the San Francisco AIDS Foundation which has grown into one of the largest and most influential People with AIDS advocacy organizations in the United States.
Jones was born in West Lafayette, Indiana, and raised in Scottsdale, Arizona. His career as an activist began in San Francisco during the turbulent 1970s when he was befriended by pioneer gay rights leader Harvey Milk. He worked as a student intern in Milk’s office while studying political science at San Francisco State University. In 1978, Milk was assassinated along with San Francisco’s Mayor George Moscone. Jones went to work in the district office of State Assemblyman Art Agnos.
In 1983, when AIDS was still a new and poorly understood threat, Jones co-founded the San Francisco AIDS Foundation. Jones conceived the idea of the AIDS Memorial Quilt at a candlelight memorial for Harvey Milk in 1985 and in 1987 created the first quilt panel in honor
Constance Georgine Markievicz, Countess Markievicz (Polish: Markiewicz; née Gore-Booth; 4 February 1868 – 15 July 1927) was an Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette and socialist. In December 1918, she was the first woman elected to the British House of Commons, though she did not take her seat and along with the other Sinn Féin TDs formed the first Dáil Éireann. She was also one of the first women in the world to hold a cabinet position (Minister for Labour of the Irish Republic, 1919–1922).
She was born Constance Georgine Gore-Booth at Buckingham Gate in London, the elder daughter of the Arctic explorer and adventurer Sir Henry Gore-Booth, 5th Baronet, an Anglo-Irish landlord who administered an 100 km (39 sq mi) estate, and Lady Georgina née Hill. During the famine of 1879–80, Sir Henry provided free food for the tenants on his estate at Lissadell House in the north of County Sligo in the north-west of Ireland. Their father's example inspired in Gore-Booth and her younger sister, Eva Gore-Booth, a deep concern for the poor. The sisters were childhood friends of the poet W. B. Yeats, who frequently visited the family home Lissadell
Stephen Donaldson (July 27, 1946 – July 18, 1996), born Robert Anthony Martin, Jr and also known by the pseudonym Donny the Punk, was an American bisexual-identified LGBT political activist. He is best known for his pioneering activism in gay liberation and prison reform, but also for his writing about punk rock and subculture.
The son of a career naval officer, Donaldson spent his early childhood in different seaport cities in the eastern United States and in Germany. Donaldson later described his father Robert, the son of Italian and German immigrants, as a man who "frowned on display of emotion" and his mother Lois as "an English, Scottish Texan, artistic, free-spirited, emotional, impulsive." After his parents' divorce in 1953 when he was seven years old, Donaldson's mother was diagnosed with a mental disorder and abandoned her two sons. She did not contact them again until 1964.
At age 12, Donaldson was expelled from the Boy Scouts for consensual sexual behavior with other boys (who, as recipients, were not punished). "The disgrace triggered a family crisis, resolved by sending the boy to live in Germany, where he could be watched over by his stepmother's relatives." He
Inez Milholland Boissevain (August 6, 1886 – November 25, 1916) was a suffragist, labor lawyer, World War I correspondent, and public speaker who greatly influenced the women's movement in America.
Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, she grew up in a wealthy family. She was the eldest daughter of John Elmer and Jean (Torrey) Milholland. She had one sister and one brother. Her father was a New York Tribune reporter and editorial writer who eventually headed a pneumatic tubes business that afforded his family a privileged life in both New York and London. Her father supported many reforms, among them world peace, civil rights, and women suffrage. Her mother exposed her children to cultural and intellectual stimulation.
On July 14, 1913, she was married in London, England to Eugen Jan Boissevain, a Dutch importer. She admitted to proposing to Boissevain first, and she referred to this initiative as being a woman's "new freedom." They never had children.
Inez Milholland received her early education at the Comstock School in New York and Kensington High School in London. After finishing school, she decided to attend Vassar but when the college wouldn't accept her graduation
Jane Scharf is social activist from Ottawa Ontario Canada. She was arrested for her part in a tent city action on the ground of Ottawa city hall. She was also instrumental in the creation of the Ottawa Panhandlers Union. She is a former member of the Ottawa-Ouataouais branch of the Industrial Workers of the World. In 2006 she ran for mayor and finished fourth. She is running for the position of mayor again in Ottawa municipal election, 2010.
Kate Cooper Austin (1864–1902) was an American journalist and advocate of feminist and anarchist causes.
Austin was raised in a Universalist and spiritualist family in Hook's Point, Iowa, where she married in August 1883. Around the same time, her father discovered Lucifer, an anarchist/free love journal published by Moses Harman. Austin and her entire family were influenced by Hamon's writings, but it was the Haymarket Riot of 1886 and the ensuing reaction which brought Austin to anarchism.
A member of the American Press Writers' Association, Austin wrote for many working-class and radical newspapers. She also contributed to Lucifer and to anarchist periodicals such as The Firebrand, Free Society, Discontent, and The Demonstrator. Austin's interests included sexual reform and the economic status of working people. In 1897 and 1899, Emma Goldman visited Austin at her home in Caplinger Mills, Missouri, where she gave several well-attended lectures.
"Her devotion to liberty made her an anarchist; her hostility to patriarchy made her a feminist. She was too much the former to join the organized women’s movements of her day, and too much the latter to ally with mainline political
Robert Underwood Ayres (born June 29, 1932) is an American-born physicist and economist. His career has focused on the application of physical ideas, especially the laws of thermodynamics, to economics; a long-standing pioneering interest in material flows and transformations (industrial ecology or industrial metabolism) - a concept which he originated. He has most recently been challenging held ideas on the economic theory of growth.
Trained as a physicist at the University of Chicago, University of Maryland, and King's College London (PhD in Mathematical Physics), Ayres has dedicated his entire professional life to advancing the environment, technology and resource end of the sustainability agenda. His major research interests include technological change, environmental economics, "industrial metabolism" and "eco-restructuring". He has worked at the Hudson Institute (1962–67), Resources for the Future Inc (1968) and International Research and Technology Corp (1969–76). From 1979 until 1992 he was Professor of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, except for two years (and six summers) on leave at the International Institute for Applied
Amal Hijazi (Arabic: أمل حجازى) is a Lebanese singer, model and pop icon. She is currently one of the most active Lebanese singers and has given a number of concerts throughout the world and has made countless TV appearances. After her lengthy career as a fashion model, Hijazi released her debut album, Akher Gharam in 2001 to commercial success. It became one of the biggest selling albums of the year, ranking on number eight Official Sales charts published by the Chart Magazine. She released her second album Zaman in mid 2002 with even greater success. The album released four number one hit singles, Zaman, Oulhali, Einak and Romansyia catapulting her to phenomenal success. A third album Bedawwar A Albi was released in early 2004 followed by the release of her fourth album Baya al Ward in 2006. The album's breakthrough of the same name caused the entertainer to face negative critical publicity and a number of controversies.
Hijazi continued to remain in the forefront of pop music with the release of her much awaited Gulf single Nefsy Tefhamny in 2007. She released her fifth studio album Keef el Amar in 2008, thus bringing her back on the spotlight once again.
Hijazi's personal life
Elizabeth (Betsy) Fry (21 May 1780 – 12 October 1845), née Gurney, was an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons".
Fry was a major driving force behind new legislation to make the treatment of prisoners more humane, and she was supported in her efforts by the reigning monarch. Since 2001, she has been depicted on the Bank of England £5 note.
Elizabeth (Betsy) Gurney was born in Gurney Court, off Magdalen Street, Norwich, Norfolk, England to the Quaker family of the Gurneys. Her family home as a child was Earlham Hall, which is now part of the University of East Anglia. Her father, John Gurney (1749–1809), was a partner in Gurney's bank. Her mother, Catherine, was a part of the Barclay family, who were among the founders of Barclays Bank. Her mother died when Elizabeth was only twelve years old. As one of the oldest girls in the family, Elizabeth was partly responsible for the care and training of the younger children, including her brother Joseph John Gurney, a philanthropist. One of her sisters was Louisa Gurney Hoare (1784–1836), a writer on education.
At the age of 18,
George Head Head ( - 1876) was a mayor, magistrate, banker in Carlisle. The bank was started by his father, but was improved and rebuilt in his lifetime. He attended an important convention in 1840 on Anti-Slavery, where a painting records his involvement.
George Head Head was born to a successful banker (J.M.Head) who had a private bank called J.M.Head and Co.. His father had started the banks in his grocers shop and it was passed on to George who continued to run it at its original location on Botchersgate in Carlisle. Eventually Head had the first building built that was intended to be a bank.
In 1840, Head journeyed to London to attend the World's anti-slavery convention on 12 June 1840. The picture above shows him in a painting made to commemorate the event which attracted delegates from America, France, Haiti, Australia, Ireland, Jamaica and Barbados.
He was the High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1851 and Deputy Lieutenant in 1852.
Head married Sarah Gurney on 1 May 1858 in West Ham. Sarah's late father was Samuel Gurney ("The Bankers' Banker") or Upton, Essex
His bank was demolished in 1865 when Head's bank was amalgamated with the Cumberland Union Bank.
He owned Rickerby Hall
Lucy Burns (July 28, 1879 – December 22, 1966) was an American suffragist and women's rights advocate. She was a passionate activist in the United States and in the United Kingdom. Burns was a close friend of Alice Paul, and together they ultimately formed the National Woman's Party.
Lucy Burns was born in Brooklyn, New York to an Irish Catholic family. She was described by fellow National Woman’s Party member Inez Haynes Irwin as “blue-eyed and fresh-complexioned; dimpled; and her head is burdened, even as Alice Paul’s, with an enormous weight of hair.” She was extremely beautiful, and lewd men always treated her disrespectfully. She was a gifted student and first attended Packer Collegiate Institute, or what was originally known as the Brooklyn Female Academy, for second preparatory school in 1890. Packer Collegiate Institute prided itself on “teaching girls to be ladies,” and they emphasized religious education while advocating more liberal ideals such as educating “the mind to habits of thinking with clearness and force.” Burns also met one of her lifelong role models, Laura Wylie, while attending Packer Collegiate Institute. Wylie was one of the first women to go to Yale
Nellie McClung, born Nellie Letitia Mooney (20 October 1873 – 1 September 1951), was a Canadian feminist, politician, and social activist. She was a part of the social and moral reform movements prevalent in Western Canada in the early 1900s. In 1927, McClung and four other women: Henrietta Muir Edwards, Emily Murphy, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby, who together came to be known as "The Famous Five" (also called "The Valiant Five"), launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that current law did not recognize them as such. However, the case was won upon appeal to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council—the court of last resort for Canada at that time.
Born in Chatsworth, Ontario in 1873, she later moved with her family to a homestead in the Souris Valley of Manitoba. Between 1904 and 1911, Nellie McClung, her husband Wesley (a pharmacist) and their five children resided in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The women’s rights movement in Winnipeg embraced her. An effective speaker with a sense of humour, she played a leading role in the successful Liberal campaign in 1914. She lived
William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was a leading American politician from the 1890s until his death. He was a dominant force in the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as its candidate for President of the United States (1896, 1900 and 1908). He served in Congress briefly as a Representative from Nebraska and was the 41st United States Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1915), taking a pacifist position on the World War. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a supporter of popular democracy, and an enemy of the Gold Standard as well as banks and railroads. He was a leader of the silverite movement in the 1890s, a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, and an opponent of Darwinism on religious and humanitarian grounds. With his deep, commanding voice and wide travels, he was one of the best known orators and lecturers of the era. Because of his faith in the wisdom of the common people, he was called "The Great Commoner."
In the intensely fought 1896 and 1900 elections, he was defeated by William McKinley but retained control of the Democratic Party. With over 500 speeches in 1896, Bryan invented the national stumping tour, in an
Alice Christiana Gertrude Thompson Meynell (22 September 1847 - 27 November 1922) was an English writer, editor, critic, and suffragist, now remembered mainly as a poet.
Meynell was born in Barnes, London, to Thomas James and Christiana (née Weller) Thompson. The family moved around England, Switzerland, and France, but she was brought up mostly in Italy, where a daughter of Thomas from his first marriage had settled. Her father was a friend of Charles Dickens.
Preludes (1875) was her first poetry collection, illustrated by her elder sister Elizabeth (the artist Lady Elizabeth Butler, 1850–1933, whose husband was Sir William Francis Butler). The work was warmly praised by Ruskin, although it received little public notice. Ruskin especially singled out the sonnet Renunciation for its beauty and delicacy.
After Alice, the entire Thompson family converted to the Roman Catholic Church (1868 to 1880), and her writings migrated to subjects of religious matters. This eventually led her to the Catholic newspaper publisher and editor Wilfrid Meynell (1852–1948) in 1876. A year later (1877) she married Meynell, and they settled in Kensington. They became proprietor and editor of The Pen, the
Ernestine Louise Rose (January 13, 1810 – August 4, 1892) was an atheist feminist, individualist feminist, and abolitionist. She was one of the major intellectual forces behind the women's rights movement in nineteenth-century America.
She was born on January 13, 1810, in Piotrków Trybunalski, Russia-Poland, as Ernestine Louise Polowsky. Her father was a wealthy rabbi and her mother the daughter of a wealthy businessman.
At the age of five, Rose began to "question the justice of a God who would exact such hardships" as the frequent fasts that her father performed. As she grew older, she began to question her father more and more on religious matters, receiving only, "A young girl does not want to understand the object of her creed, but to accept and believe it." in response. By the age of fourteen, she had completely rejected the idea of female inferiority and the religious texts that supported that idea.
When she was sixteen her mother died and her father, without her consent, betrothed her to a young Jew who was a friend of his. Rose, not wanting to enter a marriage with a man she neither chose nor loved, confronted him, professing her lack of affection towards him and begging
Francis Murphy (1836–1907) was an American temperance evangelist, born in County Wexford, Ireland. He served in the Federal army during the Civil War. Beginning in 1870 at Portsmouth, N. H., he started temperance reform clubs throughout that state and was their first president. His headquarters were in Pittsburgh, Pa., and after his first address there in 1876, 65,000 people signed the pledge he wrote: "With malice toward none, with charity for all, I hereby pledge my sacred honor that, God helping me, I will abstain from the use of all intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and that I will encourage others to abstain." Source: The New York Times, July 1, 1907, page 7. This is where he adopted the blue ribbon badge, inspired by a line from The Bible.
He labored also in Britain and was a chaplain in the Spanish-American War. In 1900, he went to Honolulu and held a series of meetings. From there he went to Australia, where he obtained a great many more signatures. In 1901 he returned to California to tour there and then established himself in Los Angeles, where he lived the rest of his life.
During the course of his temperance labors in America and abroad, Murphy is said to have induced
Mary Barr Clay (1839–1924) was a leader of the American women’s suffrage movement. She also was known as Mary B. Clay and Mrs. J. Frank Herrick.
A daughter of Cassius Marcellus Clay and his wife Mary Jane Warfield, Clay married John Francis “Frank” Herrick, of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1866. The couple had three sons and then divorced.
In 1878, Clay’s parents also divorced, leaving her mother Mary Jane Clay homeless after she had managed White Hall, the family estate, for 45 years. This inequality galvanized Clay into joining the women’s rights movement, and she soon brought her three younger sisters with her. Laura Clay, the youngest, also became very active in the movement.
In 1879, Mary Clay Herrick went to St. Louis, Missouri to attend the tenth anniversary of the National Woman Suffrage Association. There she met Susan B. Anthony and arranged for the suffrage leader to speak in Richmond, Kentucky.
Herrick was elected president of the American Woman Suffrage Association in 1883. She corresponded with Anthony, Lucy Stone, Alice Stone Blackwell and other leading suffragists. She is credited with drawing her younger sister Laura Clay into the women’s rights movement. The younger Clay
Ariel Serena Hedges Bowen (1862—1904) was a writer, Temperance movement activist, and professor of music at Clark University (Atlanta) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Twentieth Century Negro Literature (1902) noted that "she is regarded as one of the foremost and best cultured women of her race."
Ariel Serena Hedges was born in Newark, New Jersey where her father was a Presbyterian clergyman who had graduated from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and had organized churches in New York State. Her mother represented one of the oldest Presbyterian families of that State. Her grandfather was a bugler in the Mexican war, and was a Guard of Honor when Lafayette revisited the United States. Her parents moved to Pittsburgh, PA, where she attended the Avery Institute and completed the academic course at this school. Her parents then moved to Baltimore, MD, where her father became pastor of Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, and finally of Grace Presbyterian Church. She was sent to high school in Springfield, Massachusetts where she remained and graduated with honor in 1885. She also took the Teachers' Course and Examination and passed a creditable examination and was favorably
Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (/ˈfʊlər/; July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American systems theorist, architect, engineer, author, designer, inventor, and futurist.
Fuller published more than 30 books, inventing and popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", ephemeralization, and synergetic. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, the best known of which is the geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their resemblance to geodesic spheres.
Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, Massachusetts, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews, and also the grandnephew of the American Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller. He attended Froebelian Kindergarten. Spending much of his youth on Bear Island, in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine, he had trouble with geometry, being unable to understand the abstraction necessary to imagine that a chalk dot on the blackboard represented a mathematical point, or that an imperfectly drawn line with an arrow on the end was meant to stretch off to infinity. He often made items from materials he brought home from the woods, and sometimes made
Elizabeth Southerden Thompson, Lady Butler (3 November 1846 – 2 October 1933) was a British painter, one of the few female painters to achieve fame for history paintings, especially military battle scenes, at the end of that tradition. She was married to Lieutenant General Sir William Butler.
Born at Villa Claremont in Lausanne, Switzerland, she specialized in painting scenes from British military campaigns and battles, including the Crimean War and the Battle of Waterloo. The Roll Call (purchased by Queen Victoria), The Defence of Rorke's Drift, and Scotland Forever featuring the Scots Greys (Leeds Art Gallery) are among her better-known works. She wrote about her military paintings in an autobiography published in 1922: "I never painted for the glory of war, but to portray its pathos and heroism".
She was the daughter of Thomas James Thompson (1812–1881) and his second wife Christiana Weller (1825–1910). Her sister was the noted essayist and poet Alice Meynell. Elizabeth began receiving art instruction in 1862, while growing up in Italy. In 1866 she went to South Kensington, London and entered the Female School of Art. She became a Roman Catholic along with the rest of the family
James E. Hansen (born March 29, 1941) heads the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City, a part of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. He has held this position since 1981. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University.
After graduate school, Hansen continued his work with radiative transfer models, attempting to understand the Venusian atmosphere. Later he applied and refined these models to understand the Earth's atmosphere, in particular, the effects that aerosols and trace gases have on Earth's climate. Hansen's development and use of global climate models has contributed to the further understanding of the Earth's climate.
Hansen is best known for his research in the field of climatology, his testimony on climate change to congressional committees in 1988 that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his advocacy of action to avoid dangerous climate change. In recent years, Hansen has become an activist for action to mitigate the effects of climate change, which on a few occasions has led to his arrest.
In 2009 his first book, Storms of My Grandchildren, was
Sidney Perham (March 27, 1819 – April 10, 1907) was a U.S. Representative and the 33rd Governor of Maine and was an activist in the temperance movement.
Born in Woodstock, Maine to Joel and Sophronia Bisbee Perham, Perham attended common schools as a child and later engaged in agricultural pursuits. He was elected a member of the Maine Board of Agriculture in 1853, was a member of the Maine House of Representatives in 1854, serving as Speaker of the House that one year, and was clerk of the courts of Oxford County, Maine from 1859 to 1863. He was elected a Republican to the United States House of Representatives in 1862, serving from 1863 to 1869, not being a candidate for renomination in 1868. There, Perham served as chairman of the Committee on Invalid Pensions from 1865 to 1869. He served as president of the board of trustees of Westbrook Seminary in Deering, Maine from 1865 to 1880, was elected Governor of Maine in 1870, serving from 1871 to 1874 was president of the board of trustees of Maine Industrial School in Hallowell, Maine from 1873 to 1898 and was Secretary of State of Maine in 1875. Perham served as a fellow at Bates College from 1871 to 1873. Perham served as
Vera Mary Brittain (29 December 1893 – 29 March 1970) was a British writer, feminist and pacifist, best remembered as the author of the best-selling 1933 memoir Testament of Youth, recounting her experiences during World War I and the beginning of her journey towards pacifism.
Born in Newcastle-under-Lyme, Brittain was the daughter of a well-to-do family who owned paper mills in Hanley and Cheddleton. She had an uneventful childhood with her only brother her closest companion. At 18 months her family moved to Macclesfield, Cheshire and when she was 11 they moved again, to Buxton in Derbyshire. From the age of thirteen she attended boarding school at St Monica's, Kingswood in Surrey where her aunt was principal. Studying English Literature at Somerville College, Oxford, she delayed her degree after one year in the summer of 1915 in order to work as a V.A.D. nurse for much of the First World War. Her fiancé Roland Leighton, two other close friends Victor Richardson and Geoffrey Thurlow, and her brother Edward Brittain MC were all killed during the war. Their letters to each other are documented in the book Letters from a Lost Generation.
Returning to Oxford after the war to read
William Jennings Demorest (aka W. Jennings Demorest) (1822–1895), from New York City, was an American magazine publisher, national prohibition leader, and, in collaboration with his second wife, Ellen Demorest, née Curtis, attained international success from his wife's development of paper patterns for sewing fashion apparel of the day. Together, he and his wife built a fashion manufacturing and merchandising empire from it.
He and his wife launched five magazines. He, as individual, patented a sewing machine and a velocipede. He and his wife started a cosmetic business.
Demorest harbored lifelong political and religious aspirations. He is widely known for being a Prohibition activist and ran for Mayor of New York City on the Prohibition ticket. He also organized the Anti-Nuisance League.
In 1889, a group of people from Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Indiana moved to Georgia to found a community which would have high moral standards. They decided that anyone who permitted drinking alcoholic beverages, gambling, or prostitution would forfeit their property. [William Jennings] Demorest formed the Demorest Home, Mining, and Improvement Company to make that dream a reality. On
Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President. She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year. She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women's rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.
Susan B. Anthony was born to Daniel Anthony (1794–1862) and Lucy Read (1793–1880) and raised in West Grove, Adams, Massachusetts. She was the second oldest of seven children—Guelma Penn (1818–1873), Hannah Lapham (1821–1877), Daniel Read (1824–1904), Mary Stafford (1827–1907), Eliza Tefft (1832–1834), and Jacob Merritt (1834–1900). One brother, publisher Daniel Read Anthony, would become active in the anti-slavery movement in Kansas, while a sister, Mary Stafford Anthony, became a teacher and a woman's rights activist. Anthony remained close to her sisters throughout her
Berta Maria Júlia Lutz (August 2, 1894, São Paulo – September 16, 1976, Rio de Janeiro) was a zoologist, and scientist who became a leading figure of the feminist movement in Brazil.
She was born in São Paulo. Her father, Adolfo Lutz (1855–1940), was a famous physician and epidemiologist of Swiss origin, and her mother, Amy Fowler, was a British nurse. Berta Lutz studied natural sciences, biology and zoology at the University of Paris - Sorbonne. After returning to Brazil, she dedicated herself to the study of amphibians, especially poison dart frogs and frogs of the family Hylidae. The Lutz's Rapids Frog (Paratelmatobius lutzii, Lutz and Carvalho, 1958), was described by her. In 1919, she was hired by the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, a fact which achieved great repercussion in the country, because the access to public offices was barred to women at that time. She later became a naturalist at the Section of Botany at the same institution.
In 1918, Berta returned to Brazil and spoke out for a feminist movement to begin. After seeing the advancements made by European and American women towards the feminist movements, she could see that Brazilian women could also help out with
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, refers to methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. Planning and provision of birth control is called family planning. Safe sex, such as the use of male or female condoms, can also help prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Contraceptive use in developing countries has cut the number of maternal deaths by 44% (about 270,000 deaths averted in 2008) but could prevent 73% if the full demand for birth control were met. Because teenage pregnancies are at greater risk of adverse outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight and infant mortality, adolescents need comprehensive sex education and access to reproductive health services, including contraception. By lengthening the time between pregnancies, birth control can also improve adult women's delivery outcomes and the survival of their children.
Effective birth control methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, and the contraceptive sponge; hormonal contraception including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injectable contraceptives; and intrauterine devices (IUDs). Emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy after unprotected
Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, DBE (23 April 1858 – 8 May 1944) was an English composer and a leader of the women's suffrage movement.
Smyth was born in Woking, Surrey. J. H. Smyth, her father, was a Major-General in the Royal Artillery. She was one of eight siblings. Her family was opposed to her making a career in music. She studied with Alexander Ewing when she was seventeen and took an interest in Wagner and Berlioz. After a major battle with her family about it, she was allowed to study music in Leipzig, with Carl Reinecke, amongst others, and then, after leaving the conservatoire, privately with Heinrich von Herzogenberg. While at the conservatory she met some important composers including Dvořák, Grieg and Tchaikovsky, but she considered the tuition substandard and left after a year. Through Herzogenberg she met Clara Schumann and Brahms. Later she wrote her Mass in D in 1891 (in spite of being an atheist), which is very much in the style of Brahms's A German Requiem. She also wrote some German songs in his style and the Seven Short Chorale Preludes.
Ethel Smyth's works included chamber pieces, symphonies, choral works and operas (most famously The Wreckers).
In 1910 Smyth joined
Gideon Tabor Stewart (August 7, 1824 – 1909) was an American lawyer as well as a newspaper owner and editor. He was very active in promoting the temperance movement. He was elected three timess as grand worthy chief templar of the Good Templars of Ohio. Throughout the 1850s he attempted to organize a permanent prohibition party.
Stewart was born at Johnstown, New York. He studied at Oberlin College, but left before graduating to study law in Norwalk, Ohio. He later studied under Noah Haynes Swayne in Columbus, Ohio for more than a year, and spent two years in Florida with his brother, before returning to Norwalk, where he was admitted to the bar in 1846.
During the American Civil War he published Union newspapers in Iowa and then Toledo, Ohio, before returning to law practice in Norwalk in 1866.
In 1869, Stewart was one of the delegates to the convention that established the national Prohibition Party. Afterward, he served as the party candidate three times for governor of Ohio, seven times for judge on that state's Supreme Court, once for circuit court judge, once for Congress, and once (1876) for vice-president of the United States.
Stewart wrote widely on prohibition and related
Grigore Alexandru Ghica or Ghika (1803 or 1807 – August 24, 1857) was a Prince of Moldavia between October 14, 1849 and June 1853, and again between October 30, 1854 and June 3, 1856. His wife was Helena, a member of the Sturdza family and daughter of Ioan Sturdza, who had been Prince of Moldavia from 1822 to 1828.
Born sometime between 1800 and 1810, Grigore Alexandru was a member of the Ghica family of boyars, and a descendant of Phanariotes. After being educated in France and the German Confederation, he returned to his native country and rallied with the nationalist and liberal opposition to Prince Mihail Sturdza under the Regulamentul Organic regime. Following the 1848 Revolution and Sturdza's deposition, despite his political choices, with Russia's approval, the Moldavian Divan appointed Ghica as ruler for a seven-year term (recognition from the Ottoman Empire, the country's other overseer, was obtained through the Treaty of Balta Liman).
Soon after receiving the throne in Iaşi, Ghica carried out a series of moderate reforms, and prepared to implement more radical ones. He was responsible for creating a corps of Gendarmes (April 3, 1850), which was to serve as an embryo for
Henry Morgentaler, CM (born March 19, 1923, in Łódź, Poland) is a Canadian physician and prominent pro-choice advocate who has fought numerous legal battles for that cause. His youth was shadowed by World War II and incarceration at Dachau for being Jewish. After he was released after the war's end, Morgentaler emigrated to Canada where he went into medical practice. After learning of the high number of desperate women who want abortions, Dr. Morgentaler deliberately challenged anti-abortion laws first in Quebec and then in other provinces. He succeeded in having the laws struck down as harmful to women and against women's rights. In 2008, Dr. Morgentaler was awarded the Order of Canada.
Heniek (Henry) Morgentaler was born in Łódź, Poland, about 120 kilometres southwest of Warsaw. His parents were Golda Nitka and Josef Morgentaler. Morgentaler's father, Joseph, was active in the socialist Jewish Labour Bund. Josef Morgentaler was a City Councillor for the Bund.
Anti-Semitic prejudice was common. Henry's future wife, Chava Rosenfarb, recalled that Henry was afraid to go to school:
“Polish kids ran after him and threw stones at him. It was a normal thing. It was a general attitude, a
Lydia Ernestine Becker (24 February 1827 – 18 July 1890) was a leader in the early British suffrage movement, as well as an amateur scientist with interests in biology and astronomy. She is best remembered for founding and publishing the Women's Suffrage Journal between 1870 and 1890.
Born in Chadderton, Lancashire, the eldest daughter of Hannibal Leigh Becker, whose father, Ernst Becker, emigrated from Ohrdruf, Thuringia. Lydia Becker was educated at home, like many girls at the time. Intellectually curious, she studied botany and astronomy, winning a gold medal for an 1862 scholarly paper on horticulture. Five years later, she founded the Ladies' Literary Society in Manchester; she began a correspondence with Charles Darwin soon afterwards and convinced him to send a paper to the society.
In the autumn of 1866 Becker attended the annual meeting of the National Association for the Advancement of Social Science, where she was excited by a paper from Barbara Bodichon entitled "Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women". She dedicated herself to organizing around the issue, and in January 1867 convened the first meeting of the Manchester Women's Suffrage Committee. It was the first
Shirin Ebadi (Persian: شيرين عبادى Širin Ebādi; born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran. On 10 October 2003, Ebadi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially women's, children's, and refugee rights. She was the first ever Iranian to receive the prize.
In 2009, Ebadi's award was allegedly confiscated by Iranian authorities, though this was later denied by the Iranian government. If true, she would be the first person in the history of the Nobel Prize whose award has been forcibly seized by state authorities.
Ebadi lives in Tehran, but she has been in exile in the UK since June 2009 due to the increase in persecution of Iranian citizens who are critical of the current regime. In 2004, she was listed by Forbes magazine as one of the "100 most powerful women in the world". She is also included in a published list of the "100 most influential women of all time."
Ebadi was born in Hamadan from an ethnic Persian family, Iran. Her father, Mohammad Ali Ebadi, was the city's chief notary public and a professor of
Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American computer programmer, author and open source software advocate. After the 1997 publication of The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Raymond was for a number of years frequently quoted as an unofficial spokesman for the open source movement. He is also known for his 1990 edit and later updates of the Jargon File, currently in print as the The New Hacker's Dictionary.
Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1957, Raymond lived in Venezuela as a child. His family moved back to Pennsylvania in 1971. Raymond said in an interview that his cerebral palsy motivated him to go into computing. Raymond has spoken in more than fifteen countries on six continents, including a lecture at Microsoft.
He wrote CML2, a source code configuration system; while originally intended for the Linux kernel, it was rejected by kernel developers. Raymond attributed this rejection to "kernel list politics". Linus Torvalds on the other hand said in a 2007 mailing list post that as a matter of policy, the development team preferred more incremental changes.
In 2000–2002 Raymond wrote a number of HOWTOs still included in the Linux Documentation
Irene Parlby (born Irene Marryat; 9 January 1868 – 12 July 1965) was a Canadian women's farm leader, activist and politician.
Born in London, England, Parlby came to Canada in 1896. In 1913, Parlby helped to found the first women's local of the United Farmers of Alberta. In 1921, she was elected to the Alberta Legislature for the riding of Lacombe, holding the riding for 14 years. Appointed as minister without portfolio, she was the first woman Cabinet minister in Alberta.
Parlby was one of the Famous Five or Valiant Five, who by means of a court battle known as the Persons Case established that women were "qualified Persons" in the meaning of the Constitution of Canada and therefore entitled to sit in the Senate of Canada.
A lifelong advocate for rural Canadian women and children, Parlby was president of the United Farm Women of Alberta from 1916 to 1919. On behalf of the UFWA, she pushed to improve public health care services and establish municipal hospitals as well as mobile medical and dental clinics. In 1921, Parlby was elected to the provincial legislature and made a cabinet minister (the second woman in Canada to hold a provincial cabinet post).
She was once quoted saying:
Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889) was a First Lady of the United States and the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes.
Historians have christened her "Lemonade Lucy" due to her staunch support of the temperance movement; however, contrary to popular belief, she was never referred to by that nickname while living, and it was her husband who banned alcohol from the White House.
Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, the daughter of James Webb, a doctor, and Maria Cook-Webb, Lucy was descended from seven veterans of the American Revolution. Her father died when she was a child. With her mother, she moved to Ohio where in 1847 she met Rutherford B. Hayes. Later that year, she enrolled at Wesleyan Women’s College (now Ohio Wesleyan University) (class of 1850); she was the first first lady to have graduated from college and was a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. Hayes was by this time practicing law in Cincinnati, and the two began dating seriously. He proposed in June 1851.
Rutherford Hayes, aged 30, married Lucy Webb, aged 21, on December 30, 1852, at the home of the bride’s mother in Cincinnati, Ohio. After the wedding, performed by Dr. L.D. McCabe of Delaware, the
Moses Alexander (November 13, 1853 – January 4, 1932) was the second elected Jewish governor of a US state, serving as the 11th Governor of Idaho from 1915 until 1919. He was Idaho's first and so far only Jewish Governor.
Alexander was born in Obrigheim, then Bavaria, now Rhineland-Palatinate. He emigrated to the United States in 1867 and settled in New York City, but within a year accepted an invitation from his cousin to work in a clothing store in Chillicothe, Missouri. Alexander showed a talent for the business and was made a partner in the store in 1874. In 1876, he married Helena (née Hedwig) Kaestner, a Christian immigrant from Germany who converted to Judaism.
In Chillicothe Alexander showed an early interest in Democratic politics, particularly within the progressive wing of the party. In 1886, he was elected to the Chillicothe City Council. The next year, Alexander was elected mayor and served two terms. His primary concern as mayor was addressing the city's dire financial situation.
In 1891, Alexander left Chillicothe with the intention of moving to Alaska. While en route, he made a stop in Boise, Idaho, to look at its investment opportunities. Based on that, he
Sara Jane Lippincott (1823–1904) was better known by the pseudonym Grace Greenwood. She was an American author, poet, and lecturer. One of the first women to gain access into the Congressional press galleries, she used her questions to advocate for social reform and women's rights.
Sara Jane Clarke was born on September 23, 1823 at Pompey, New York to parents Deborah Baker Clarke (c. 1791–1881) and Dr. Thaddeus C. Clarke (1770–1854). Her family moved to New Brighton, Pennsylvania, where her father practiced as a physician. There she attended the Greenwood Institute, a ladies' academy, from which she may have taken her pseudonym. On October 17, 1853 she married Leander K. Lippincott, and they had a daughter, Annie Grace, born October 3, 1855. Her husband left the country in 1876 after indictment for land fraud. Later she lived with her daughter in New Rochelle, New York, where she died of bronchitis on April 20, 1904. Grace Greenwood is buried in the Civil War section of Grove Cemetery in New Brighton.
Grace Greenwood's earliest writing was poetry and children's stories, which she published in local papers. In 1844, she drew national attention, at age 21, with a poem published in
Jenny Julia Eleanor "Tussy" Marx (16 January 1855 – 31 March 1898), also known as Eleanor Marx Aveling, was the English-born youngest daughter of Karl Marx. She was herself a socialist activist, who sometimes worked as a literary translator. In March 1898, after discovering that her partner and prominent British atheist, Edward Aveling, had secretly married a young actress in June the previous year, she committed suicide by poison. She was 43.
Eleanor Marx was born in London on 16 January 1855, the sixth child and fourth daughter of Marx and his wife Jenny von Westphalen. She was called "Tussy" from a young age. She showed an early interest in politics, even writing to political figures during her childhood. The hanging of the Manchester Martyrs when she was twelve, for example, horrified her and shaped her lifelong sympathy for the Fenians. Her father's story-telling also inspired an interest in literature in her, she could recite passages by William Shakespeare at the age of three. By her teenage years this love of Shakespeare led to the formation of the 'Dogberry Club' at which she, her family and the family of Clara Collet, all recited Shakespeare whilst her father watched.
Peter William Geoffrey Newman (born 1945) is an environmental scientist, author and educator based in Perth, Western Australia. He is currently Professor of Sustainability at Curtin University and since 2008 member of Infrastructure Australia.
He has a PhD degree in Chemistry (1972, University of Western Australia) and completed post doctoral studies in Environmental Science, Delft University, Dip EST, Environmental Science, 1972.
Peter Newman is best known internationally for popularizing the term ‘automobile dependence’ in the second half of the 1980s. He was closely associated with the redevelopment of Perth's rail system from 1979 to the present, which is now seen as a model for how car dependent cities can change towards more sustainable transport. He is author of numerous publications on sustainable cities.
Peter Newman is best known internationally for popularizing the term ‘automobile dependence’ in the second half of the 1980s to explain how the cities of the time based on sprawling suburbs were inevitably leading to the growth in automobile use. (The term had actually existed since 1911.) He led an international research with colleague Jeff Kenworthy of transport
Szymon Niemiec (b 5 October 1977 in Warsaw) is a Polish photographer, gay rights activist, journalist and politician. He is the founder of the first Polish Gay Pride parade, held in 2001. From 2000 to 2006, Niemiec held the post of Cultural Ambassador of Poland to the International Lesbian and Gay Culture Network. From 2001 to 2005, he was President of the International Lesbian and Gay Culture Association in Poland.
Niemiec has been a member of the Left since 2002, and on 6 May 2005 he was elected vice president of Union of the Left party. Since 2008 he is also a pastor of Free Reformed Church of Poland, a progressive Christian denomination. Since 2010 he serve as Elder in Full Connection and Dean of Missionary Conference for Europe in Christian United Church At 25 August 2012 Niemiec was consecrated for a Bishop of the Church by Archbishop Terry Flynn
In 1991, Niemiec received a diploma as an instructor of theater. In May 2007 he published his first book: Rainbow Humming Bird on the Butt.
From 2008, Niemiec become a member of the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association, and president of the board of "Friends of Szymon" foundation.
Franklin Edward "Frank" Kameny (May 21, 1925 – October 11, 2011) was "one of the most significant figures" in the American gay rights movement. In 1957, Kameny was dismissed from his position as an astronomer in the U.S. Army Map Service in Washington, D.C. because of his homosexuality, leading him to begin "a Herculean struggle with the American establishment" that would "spearhead a new period of militancy in the homosexual rights movement of the early 1960s".
Kameny protested his firing by the U.S. Civil Service Commission due to his homosexuality, and argued this case to the United States Supreme Court in 1961. Although the court denied his petition, it is notable as the first civil rights claim based on sexual orientation.
Kameny was born to Ashkenazi Jewish parentage in New York City on May 21, 1925. He attended Richmond Hill High School and graduated in 1941. In 1941, at age 16, Kameny went to Queens College to learn physics and at age 17 he told his parents that he was an atheist. He was drafted into the United States Army before completion. He served in the Army throughout World War II in Europe and served 20 years on the Selective Service board. After leaving the Army, he
Hans Carl von Carlowitz, originally Hannß Carl von Carlowitz, (December 24, 1645 - March 3, 1714) was a German tax accountant and mining administrator. His book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht (1713) was the first comprehensive treatise about forestry. He is considered to be the father of sustainable yield forestry.
Hans Carl von Carlowitz was born in Oberrabenstein bei Chemnitz. He was the son of forest master Georg Carl von Carlowitz. He studied law and public administration in Jena, learned foreign languages, travelled to France, Russia and Italy in his youth and was engaged in the natural and mining sciences.
1677 he became a mining administrator and in 1711 he became in charge of mining at the court of Kursachsen in Freiberg (Sachsen). Freiberg, which is located in the foot hills of the Erzgebirge, was known for its silver mines. In this post, he was responsible, among other things, for the supply of timber to the mining industry, which employed about ten thousand miners at the time. He died in Freiberg (Sachsen).
The idea of sustainability, wherever it occurs in the history, emerges in time of crisis and
Janet Scudder (October 27, 1869, Terre Haute, Indiana – June 9, 1940) was an American sculptor.
Born as Netta Deweze Frazee, Scudder's childhood was marred by tragedy. Her father was a hardworking Terre Haute, Indiana confectioner who was active in community affairs. Her mother died, aged 38, on September 6, 1874. Four of her seven siblings died before they reached adulthood. As a result of these tragedies, Scudder was raised by Hannah Hussey, the family maid, cook and nurse, but she resented her stepmother.
Scudder studied drawing as a child under Professor William Ames of Rose Polytechnic Institute of Technology, now Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Despite his fragile financial resources, her father enrolled her in the Cincinnati Art Academy so she could study sculpture with Louis Rebisso but woodcarving became her primary interest. While enrolled there she adopted the given name "Janet". Her father, William Scudder, died September 15, 1888, while his precocious daughter was teaching woodcarving at Coates College for Women in Terre Haute.
Three years later, she moved to Chicago where she was briefly employed as a furniture carver before being asked by Lorado Taft to join the
Louisa Lawson (née Albury) (17 February 1848 – 12 August 1920) was an Australian poet, writer, publisher, suffragist, and feminist. She was the mother of the poet and author Henry Lawson.
Louisa Lawson was born on 17 February 1848 at Guntawang Station near Gulgong, New South Wales, the daughter of Henry Albury and Harriet Winn. She was the second of 12 children in a struggling family, and like many girls at that time left school at 13. On 7 July 1866 aged 18 she married Niels Larsen (Peter Lawson), a Norwegian sailor, at the Methodist parsonage at Mudgee, New South Wales. He was often away gold mining or working with his father-in-law, leaving her on her own to raise four children — Henry 1867, Charles 1869, Peter 1873 and Gertrude 1877, the twin of Tegan who died at eight months. Louisa grieved over the loss of Tegan for many years and left the care of her other children to the oldest child, Henry. This led to ill feelings on Henry's part towards his mother and the two often fought. In 1882 she and her children moved to Sydney where she managed boarding houses.
Lawson used the money saved while running her boarding houses to purchase shares in the radical pro-federation newspaper
Mikoto Usui is a Japanese born, US educated (MIT Faculty of Economics, PhD program) development economist and international scholar whose life work has centered on multilateral environmental diplomacy, sustainable development governance and science & technology for economic and social development. His recent research and writings have concentrated on the role of the private business sector in sustainable development governance and Corporate social responsibility.
Usui is a Professor Emeritus at University of Tsukuba, and a Professor at the Graduate School of International Business & Cultural Studies, Shukutoku University. Formerly he taught at the Graduate School of Media & Governance at Keio University from 1991 to 1995, as well as at the Graduate School of Management & Public Policy Studies, University of Tsukuba from 1976 to 1991.
Earlier, he served as Director of Research, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in Vienna from 1986 to 1989; Head of the Industrialization & Technology Program, OECD Development Center, Paris from 1972 to 1976; and Economic Affairs Officer with the Department of Economic & Social Affairs, United Nations, New York from 1960 to
Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, (Bengali: বেগম রোকেয়া), (1880 – December 9, 1932) was a prolific writer and a social worker in undivided Bengal in the early 20th century. She is most famous for her efforts on behalf of gender equality and other social issues. She established the first school aimed primarily at Muslim girls, which still exists today. She was a notable Muslim feminist; modern feminist writers such as Taslima Nasrin cite her as an influence. Begum Rokeya also wrote short stories and novels. Her important books are Sultana's Dream and Paddorag.
She was born Roquia Khatun but achieved prominence as Begum Roquia Sakhawat Hussain. Begum is an honorific, that is, a title of respect in addressing a woman. When she wrote in English, she transliterated her name as Roquia.
Roquia Khatun was born in 1880 in the village of Pairabondh,Mithapukur, Rangpur, in what was then the British Indian Empire and is now Bangladesh. Her father, Jahiruddin Muhammad Abu Ali Haidar Saber, was a highly educated zamindar (landlord). Roquia had two sisters, Karimunnesa Khatun and Humayra Khatun; and three brothers, one of whom died in childhood. Roquia's eldest brother Ibrahim, and her immediate elder
Albert Jacquard (born in Lyon on 23 December 1925) is a French geneticist and essayist. He is well known for defending ideas related to the concept of degrowth.
He was born in a catholic and conservative family from the region of Franche-Comté (east of France). At the age of nine, he was disfigured after a car accident in which his brother died. In 1943, he earned two baccalaureates in mathematics and philosophy. In 1948, he earned a master degree in public factory engineering from the French Polytechnical School and joined the French Institute of statistics.
In 1951, he entered the French tobacco monopoly SEITA (which merged with its Spanish counterpart Tabacalera to form Altadis in 1999) as an organisation and method engineer. Then, he worked as a rapporteur in the French Court of Financial Auditor (equivalent to the US Government Accountability Office) and as a senior executive in the French Health ministry. In 1966, he went to Stanford University to study population genetics as a Research worker. Back in France in 1968, he joined French Institute for Demographic Studies as supervisor of the genetics department. In 1973, he was appointed expert in genetics in the World Health
Carl Malamud (born 1959) is a technologist, author, and public domain advocate, currently known for his foundation public.resource.org. He was the founder of the Internet Multicasting Service. During his time with this group, he was responsible for creating the first Internet radio station, for putting the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR database on-line, and for creating the Internet 1996 World Exposition.
Malamud is the author of eight books, including Exploring the Internet and A World's Fair. He was a visiting professor at the MIT Media Laboratory and was the former chairman of the Internet Software Consortium. He also was the co-founder of Invisible Worlds, was a fellow at the Center for American Progress, and was a board member of the non-profit Mozilla Foundation.
Most recently, Malamud has set up the nonprofit public.resource.org, headquartered in Sebastopol, California, to work for the publication of public domain information from local, state, and federal government agencies. Among his achievements have been digitizing 588 government films for the Internet Archive and YouTube, publishing a 5 million page crawl of the Government Printing Office, and
David Monk is an Australian emigrant who has been living in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, since 1961. He is the founder of the Heartland Pathways organization. He also leads the Educational Resources in Environmental Science (ERES), for which he acts as executive director and president. This is a non-for-profit organization that, since its creation in 1969, educates and promotes a relationship between habitat and community that promotes environmental dignity. He is a dedicated environmental activist.
Monk attended college at the University of Sydney in his native land, attaining a degree in agriculture. He first came to Illinois in 1961 seeking an assistantship at to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has been known to frequent the local Farmer's Markets on Saturday mornings, and work on many a project as artist, eduator and scientist. He is also quite charismatic.
A self proclaimed "citizen of the world", Monk grew up in Australia. His mother was an artist and his father a school teacher. His grandfather was a tailor and moved with his mother from England to Australia. He had a pet joey growing up! As a child, he lived on a small farm with 6 or 7 cows and chickens.
Emily Wilding Davison (11 October 1872 – 8 June 1913) was a militant women's suffrage activist. On 4 June 1913, she stepped in front of King George V's horse running in the Epsom Derby, sustaining injuries that resulted in her death four days later. Emily Davison's funeral was on 8 June 1913 and she was buried in the church yard that was near Longhorsley. Some have claimed that she was trying to disturb the derby rather than commit suicide.
Davison was born in Blackheath, London, the daughter of Charles Davison (of Morpeth, Northumberland) and Margaret Davison (of Longhorsley, Northumberland). She had two sisters, a brother and half-siblings from her father's first marriage including a half-brother, retired naval captain Henry Jocelyn Davison, who gave evidence at her inquest.
She later attended Kensington High School and won a bursary to Royal Holloway College in 1891 to study literature. Subsequently she was forced to drop out when her father died and her recently widowed mother could not afford the fees of £20 a term. She then took up employment as a private governess after which she became a school teacher in Edgbaston and Worthing, raising enough money to study Biology,
Sojourner Truth ( /soʊˈdʒɜrnər ˈtruːθ/; c. 1797 – November 26, 1883) was the self-given name, from 1843 onward, of Isabella Baumfree, an African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist. Truth was born into slavery in Swartekill, Ulster County, New York, but escaped with her infant daughter to freedom in 1826. After going to court to recover her son, she became the first black woman to win such a case against a white man. Her best-known extemporaneous speech on gender inequalities, Ain't I a Woman?, was delivered in 1851 at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio. During the Civil War, Truth helped recruit black troops for the Union Army; after the war, Truth tried unsuccessfully to secure land grants from the federal government for former slaves.
Truth was one of the ten or twelve children born to James and Elizabeth Baumfree. James Baumfree was an African captured from the Gold Coast in modern-day Ghana. Elizabeth Baumfree, also known as Mau-Mau Bet to children who knew her, was the daughter of enslaved Africans from the Coast of Guinea. The Baumfree family were enslaved by Colonel Hardenbergh. The Hardenbergh estate was in a hilly area called by the Dutch name
Dorothea Beale LLD (21 March 1831 – 9 November 1906) was a suffragist, educational reformer, author and Principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College.
Born in Bishopsgate, England, she was the founder of St Hilda's College, Oxford.
Her name is associated with that of Frances Buss in a satirical rhyme:
The lines refer to their unmarried state and their dedication to the cause of women's education. Miss Beale was appointed headmistress of the Clergy Daughters' School in Lancashire in 1857, but soon moved on to become Principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College, a post which she held until her death. In 1885, she founded a new institution, St Hilda's College, Cheltenham - a teachers' training college. In 1893, she founded St Hilda's Hall at Oxford, later St Hilda's College, Oxford. She was an active supporter of the suffragette movement. In 1865 she was one of the co-founders of the Kensington Society, a discussion group that became the London Society for Women's Suffrage.
After her death she was cremated in Birmingham before being buried at Gloucester Cathedral.
Ellen Karolina Sofia Key (Swedish: [kej]; December 11, 1849 – April 25, 1926) was a Swedish difference feminist writer on many subjects in the fields of family life, ethics and education and was an important figure in the Modern Breakthrough movement. She was an early advocate of a child-centered approach to education and parenting, and was also a suffragist.
She is best known for her book on education, Barnets århundrade (1900), which was translated in English in 1909 as The Century of the Child.
Ellen Key was born at Sundsholm mansion in Småland, Sweden, on December 11, 1849. Her father was Emil Key, the founder of the Swedish Agrarian Party and a frequent contributor to the Swedish newspaper Aftonposten. Her mother was Sophie Posse Key, who was born into an aristocratic family from the southernmost part of Skåne County. Emil bought Sundsholm at the time of his wedding; twenty years later he sold it for financial reasons.
Ellen was mostly educated at home, where her mother taught her grammar and arithmetic and her foreign-born governess taught her foreign languages. She cited reading Amtmandens Døtre (The Official's Daughters, 1855) by Camilla Collett and Henrik Ibsen's plays
Jean Kilbourne, Ed.D. (born January 4, 1943) is a feminist author, speaker, and filmmaker who is internationally recognized for her work on the image of women in advertising and her critical studies of alcohol and tobacco advertising. She is also credited with introducing the idea of educating about media literacy as a way to prevent problems she viewed as originating from mass media advertising campaigns. She also lectures about the topic, and her documentaries based on these lectures are viewed around the world.
She is a graduate of Wellesley College and holds a doctorate in education from Boston University, as well as an honorary doctorate from Westfield State College, for her “research [and] insights [that] lead us from consumerism to consciousness.”
In the late 1960s, Jean Kilbourne began her exploration of the connection between advertising and several public health issues, including violence against women, eating disorders, and addiction, and launched a movement to promote media literacy as a way to prevent these problems. A radical and original idea at the time, this approach is now mainstream and an integral part of most prevention programs.
Kilbourne has spoken at about
Jeremy Bentham ( /ˈbɛnθəm/; 15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Bentham became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated individual and economic freedom, usury, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery and the death penalty, and for the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children. Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts".
Bentham's students included his secretary and collaborator James Mill, the latter's son, John Stuart Mill, the legal philosopher John Austin, as well as influential political figures such as Robert Owen, one of the founders of modern socialism. Bentham has been described as the "spiritual founder" of University College London, though he played little direct part in its
Annie Besant (/ˈbɛsənt/; née Wood, 1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a prominent British socialist, Theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self rule.
She was married at 19 to Frank Besant but separated from him over religious differences. She then became a prominent speaker for the National Secular Society (NSS) and writer and a close friend of Charles Bradlaugh. In 1877 they were prosecuted for publishing a book by birth control campaigner Charles Knowlton. The scandal made them famous and Bradlaugh was elected Member of Parliament for Northampton in 1880.
She became involved with Union organisers including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888 and was a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the Marxist Social Democratic Federation (SDF). She was elected to the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, topping the poll even though few women were qualified to vote at that time.
In 1890 Besant met Helena Blavatsky and over the next few years her interest in Theosophy grew while her interest in secular matters waned. She became a member of the Society and a highly successful lecturer in
Carrie Chapman Catt (January 9, 1859 – March 9, 1947) was a women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920. Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women.
She was born Carrie Clinton Lane in Ripon, Wisconsin. Catt spent her childhood in Charles City, Iowa and graduated from Iowa State College (later called Iowa State University) in Ames, Iowa, graduating in three years. She was a member of Pi Beta Phi, the valedictorian of her class, and the only woman. She became a teacher and then superintendent of schools in Mason City, Iowa in 1885.
In 1885 Carrie married newspaper editor Leo Chapman, but he died in California soon after. Eventually she landed on her feet but only after some harrowing experiences in the male working world. In 1890, she married George Catt, a wealthy engineer. Their marriage allowed her to spend a good part of each year on the road campaigning for women's suffrage, a cause she had become involved with in Iowa during the late 1880s. Catt also
Earl E. Bakken (born Hennepin County, Minnesota, January 10, 1924) is an American engineer, businessman and philanthropist of Dutch and Norwegian American ancestry. He founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, transistorized, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957.
Born in Columbia Heights, Minnesota, Bakken had a long-held fascination with electricity and electronics; a self-described "nerd", Bakken designed a rudimentary electroshock weapon in school to fend off bullies. After earning a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering in 1948, he studied electrical engineering with a minor in mathematics at the University of Minnesota Graduate School. Post-World War II hospitals were just starting to employ electronic equipment, but did not have staff to maintain and repair them. Sensing an opportunity, Bakken and his brother-in-law, Palmer Hermundslie, formed Medtronic (the combination of "medical" and "electronic") in a small garage, primarily working with the University of Minnesota hospital.
In the 1950s, Dr. C. Walton Lillehei was performing life-saving surgery on children with blue baby syndrome. That surgery often left the children needing to
Jennifer Baumgardner (born 1970) is an author, filmmaker, and third-wave feminist activist.
Baumgardner grew up in Fargo, North Dakota and attended Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin, graduating in 1992. While at Lawrence University she helped organize “Guerrilla Theater,” a feminist group on campus, and started an alternative newspaper called The Other that focused on issues of women’s liberation. She moved to New York City after graduation and in 1993 began working as an unpaid intern for Ms. Magazine. By 1997 she had become the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine.
While working at Ms. Magazine Baumgardner fell in love with a fellow woman intern by the name of Anastasia. They broke up in 1996, but the relationship inspired her to write the memoir Look Both Ways: Bisexual Politics. In 1997 she began dating Amy Ray of the Indigo Girls; the couple broke up in 2002. She currently lives in New York with her husband Michael and two sons Skuli and Magnus.
In 1998 Jennifer Baumgardner left Ms. Magazine and began writing independently for a variety of magazines and news organizations. She has since written for numerous magazines, including Glamour, The Nation, Babble, and Maxim. Her
Joe Solmonese was the president of the Human Rights Campaign of the United States and its affiliate the Human Rights Campaign Foundation. He was appointed to this position on March 9, 2005, replacing Cheryl Jacques. A native of Attleboro, Massachusetts, Solmonese lives in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Boston University in 1987 with a Bachelor of Science degree in communications.
Solmonese is the former Chief Executive Officer of EMILY's List, where he oversaw one of the nation's prominent pro-choice Democratic political action committees, including its Political Opportunity Program.
Solmonese has worked for numerous campaigns and in government positions. He held top fundraising positions at the 1992 Senate campaign of Les AuCoin and Barney Frank's 1990 Congressional campaign. Solmonese began his career as an aide in the office of Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis.
Solmonese hosted The Agenda with Joe Solmonese on XM Satellite Radio.
In February 2008, Solmonese appeared on two episodes of The Colbert Report.
On August 27, 2011, the Human Rights Campaign announced that Solomonese would step down as president of HRC on March 31, 2012. On February 22, 2012, the Obama 2012
The Hon. Sir Jonathon Espie Porritt, 2nd Baronet, CBE (born 6 July 1950), is a British environmentalist and writer, perhaps best known for his championing of Green issues and his advocacy of the Green Party of England and Wales. Porritt appears frequently in the media, writing in magazines, newspapers and books, and appearing on radio and television regularly. He has also written a number of books on Green issues, including "Seeing Green".
He was born in London, and educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. Despite training as a barrister, he decided to become an English teacher at St Clement Danes Grammar School (later Burlington Danes School) in Shepherd's Bush, West London, in 1974.
Porritt is the son of The Rt. Hon. The Lord Porritt, 11th Governor-General of New Zealand. Lord Porritt, who served as a senior officer in the Royal Army Medical Corps during World War II, was also the bronze medalist in the Olympic Chariots of Fire 100 metres race. As well as receiving a non-hereditary life peerage, Lord Porritt had previously been awarded a baronetcy. Jonathon Porritt is entitled to claim the baronetcy, becoming The Hon. Sir Jonathon Porritt, 2nd Baronet, but has so
Josephine Elizabeth Butler (née Grey) (13 April 1828 – 30 December 1906) was a Victorian era British feminist who was especially concerned with the welfare of prostitutes. She led the long campaign for the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts both in Britain and internationally from 1869 to 1886.
Josephine Elizabeth Grey was born at Milfield House, Milfield, Northumberland and was the seventh child of John Grey (1785–1868, b. Milfield, Northumberland) and Hannah Eliza Annett (b. 1792, Alnwick, d. 15 May 1860). The couple married in 1815. John Grey, son of George Grey (d. 1793) and Mary Burn, was an internationally respected agricultural expert, and the cousin of the reformist British Prime Minister Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey and a slavery abolitionist himself. He played a significant role in Catholic emancipation, and also worked for the Reform Act 1832. In 1833 he was appointed manager of the Dilston Estate (Greenwich Hospital), near Corbridge, Northumberland, and the family moved there. He lost most of his savings in the fall of 1857, with the failure of the New Castle Bank.
Josephine married George Butler (1819-1890 b. Harrow, Middlesex), a scholar and cleric, in 1852, they
The Famous Five or The Valiant Five were five Canadian women who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?" in the case Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General). The petition was filed on August 27, 1927, and on 24 April 1928, Canada's Supreme Court summarized its unanimous decision that women are not such "persons". The last line of the judgement reads, "Understood to mean 'Are women eligible for appointment to the Senate of Canada,' the question is answered in the negative." This judgement was overturned by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for women's rights but also because in overturning the case, the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine".
The five women were:
None of the five became senators; the first female senator was Cairine Reay Wilson, appointed four months after the ruling. Nearly 80 years later, on 8 October
Tully Meehan Satre (born May 17, 1989 in Dover, Delaware) is an American artist, writer and former gay rights youth activist based in Chicago and London. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in 2011 and is a current candidate for a postgraduate diploma from the Royal Academy of Arts in London, though he was refused a student visa.
Satre was known for his involvement at a young age in gay rights activism in Virginia, which he put behind after moving to Chicago in 2007 for school, though he still wrote for The Advocate at the time.
During the Summer of 2006, Satre attended the NYU Tisch School of the Arts CAP 21 Studio for Musical Theatre.
In 2007, he attended one semester at the The Theatre Conservatory of Chicago College of Performing Arts at Roosevelt University, majoring in Musical Theater.
In June 2005, Tully Satre founded Equality Fauquier-Culpeper in the rural suburbs of Greater Washington. From its founding, Equality Fauquier-Culpeper gained wide media coverage in numerous national and local publications including The Washington Post, The Washington Blade, and The Advocate. Satre served as the Executive Director of Equality
Joseph J. Romm (born June 27, 1960) is an American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert who concentrates on methods of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and increasing energy security through energy efficiency, green energy technologies and green transportation technologies. In December 2008, Romm was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In March 2009, Rolling Stone magazine named Romm to its list of "100 People Who Are Changing America". In September 2009, Time magazine named him one of its "Heroes of the Environment (2009)", calling him "The Web's most influential climate-change blogger".
Romm is a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress, where he writes and maintains their climate blog, Climate Progress. In 2008, Time magazine named Romm's blog one of the "Top 15 Green Websites". In 2009, Thomas L. Friedman, in his column in The New York Times, called Climate Progress "the indispensable blog", and in 2010, Time included it in a list of the 25 "Best Blogs of 2010". Romm also writes regularly for several energy and news websites.
In the 1990s, Romm served as Acting Assistant Secretary of the U.S.
Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 19, 1893) was a prominent American abolitionist and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women. In 1847, Stone was the first woman from Massachusetts to earn a college degree. She spoke out for women's rights and against slavery at a time when women were discouraged and prevented from public speaking. Stone was the first recorded American woman to retain her own last name after marriage.
Stone's organizational activities for the cause of women's rights yielded tangible gains in the difficult political environment of the 19th century. Stone helped initiate the first National Women's Rights Convention and she supported and sustained it annually along with a number of other local, state and regional activist conventions. Stone spoke in front of a number of legislative bodies to promote laws giving more rights to women. She assisted in establishing the Woman's National Loyal League to help pass the Thirteenth Amendment and thereby abolish slavery, after which she helped form the largest group of like-minded women's rights reformers, the politically-moderate American Woman Suffrage Association, which worked for decades
Marie Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) was a British author, palaeobotanist, campaigner for women's rights and pioneer in the field of birth control. She was the wife of Humphrey Verdon Roe, with whom she founded the first birth control clinic in Britain. Stopes edited the newsletter Birth Control News which gave explicit practical advice. Her sex manual Married Love, which she wrote while legally a virgin, was controversial and influential, while her book, Wise Parenthood, was written before she'd become a parent. She was never in favour of abortion, arguing that prevention of conception was sufficient.
Marie was born in Edinburgh, the daughter of Henry Stopes, a brewer, engineer, architect and palaeontologist and the Shakespeare scholar and women's rights campaigner Charlotte Carmichael Stopes. Both her parents were members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science—where they had met—and Marie was brought to meetings where she met the famous scholars of the day. She was at first home schooled, then from 1892 to 1894 she attended St. George's School in Edinburgh. Stopes was later sent to the North London Collegiate School, where she was a close
Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, GBE (11 June 1847 – 5 August 1929) was an English suffragist (one who campaigned for women to have the vote) and an early feminist.
She was born Millicent Garrett in Aldeburgh, Suffolk. As a suffragist, as opposed to a suffragette, she took a moderate line, but was a tireless campaigner. She concentrated much of her energy on the struggle to improve women's opportunities for higher education and in 1871 co-founded Newnham College, Cambridge. She later became president of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (the NUWSS), a position she held from 1890 until 1919. In July 1901 she was appointed to lead the British Government's commission to South Africa to investigate conditions in the concentration camps that had been created there in the wake of the Second Boer War. Her report corroborated what the campaigner Emily Hobhouse had said about conditions in the camps.
Millicent Garrett was born on 11 June 1847 in Aldeburgh to Newson Garrett, a warehouse owner, and his wife Louise Dunnell. Newson and Louise had six daughters and four sons, including Millicent and Elizabeth, later famous as the first woman in the United Kingdom to qualify as a
Rola A. Al-Dashti (born 1964) is a Kuwaiti activist advocating democratic reform, gender equality and increased roles for women in public life. Dashti lobbied for the May 2005 decree permitting Kuwaiti women to vote and run for parliamentary elections for the first time. She was the first woman to file her papers at the election department, when the registration opened, and she herself was a candidate in the 2006 parliamentary election. In the 2009 parliamentary elections, she and three other women won seats to become the first women to enter the Kuwaiti parliament.
Rola Al-Dashti holds a Ph.D. in Population Economics from Johns Hopkins University. She has lectured, conducted and managed research in development and applied economics particularly in regard to the country's recent quest for modernizing its economic, financial, and social processes.
She has held positions in the R&D institution Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Manager, Economics Department), worked as Senior Economist at the National Bank of Kuwait and provided consultancy to the World Bank. She also managed all the contracts signed on behalf of the government of Kuwait for the Emergency and Reconstruction
Francis Place (3 November 1771, London – 1 January 1854, London) was an English social reformer.
Born in the debtor's prison which his father oversaw near Drury Lane, Place was schooled for ten years before being apprenticed to a leather-breeches maker. At eighteen he was an independent journeyman, and in 1790 was married and moved to a house near the Strand. In 1793 he became involved in and eventually the leader of a strike of leather-breeches makers, and was refused work for several years by London's master tailors; he exploited this time by reading avidly and widely. In 1794, Place joined the London Corresponding Society, a reform club, and for three years was prominent in its work, before resigning his post as chairman of the general committee in 1797 in protest at the violent tactics and rhetoric of some group members. In 1799 he became the partner in a tailor's shop, and a year later set up his own highly successful business at 16 Charing Cross.
Withdrawing from politics whilst he established his business, he devoted three hours an evening after work to studying, eventually establishing such a large personal library in the back of his shop that it soon became a meeting place
Jane Elizabeth Hodgson (b. January 23, 1915, Crookston, Minnesota – d. October 23, 2006, Rochester, Minnesota) was an American obstetrician and gynecologist. She is the only person ever convicted in the United States of performing an abortion in a hospital. Hodgson received a bachelor's degree from Carleton College and her M.D. from the University of Minnesota. She trained at the Jersey City Medical Center and at the Mayo Clinic. Hodgson's 50 year career focused on providing reproductive health care to women, including abortions. She opened her own clinic in St Paul, Minnesota and co-founded the Duluth Women's Health Center. In addition to providing medical care to women, Hodgson was also an advocate for women's rights, challenging state laws that restricted access to abortion.
Hodgson received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Carleton College in 1934 and her medical degree from the University of Minnesota in 1939. Hodgson met her future husband, Frank W. Quattlebaum, when they were both interns in Jersey City, New Jersey. Together they completed their medical training at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. They both gave time and talent to Project Hope, serving in
Joseph Lemuel Chester (1821–1882) was an American genealogist.
Chester was born in Norwich, Connecticut on the April 30, 1821. His father, Joseph Chester, was a grocer, who, after dying in 1832, left little property to his family. His mother was Prudee, the daughter of Major Eleazer Tracy. After the death of her first husband, she married the Reverend John Hall, of Ohio's Ashtabula Episcopal Church. At an early age, Chester became a teacher at a school in Ballston, New York, and in 1837 he was appointed clerk of a land agency office in Warren, Ohio. In 1838, at age seventeen, he moved to New York in order to study law. But he ended that pursuit and became employed as a clerk by Tappan & Co., a silk merchant firm.
Joseph Chester's literary tastes developed at an early age. While in New York he contributed articles to newspapers and magazines of his day with a poetic character. The Knickerbocker for January 1843 contains a poem by him, entitled Greenwood Cemetery, and signed Julian Cramer, his best known pseudonym. The same year his first volume, Greenwood Cemetery and Other Poems, was published in New York and Boston.
He also lectured and visited many of the States as an advocate of
Olympe de Gouges (French pronunciation: [olɛ̃p də ɡuʒ]; 7 May 1748 – 3 November 1793), born Marie Gouze, was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. As political tension rose in France, de Gouges became increasingly politically involved. She became an outspoken advocate for improving the condition of slaves in the colonies as of 1788. At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. Today she is perhaps best known as an early feminist who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror for attacking the regime of Maximilien Robespierre and for her close relation with the Girondists.
Marie Gouze was born into a petit bourgeois family in 1748 in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, in southwestern France. Her father was a butcher and her mother was the daughter of a cloth merchant. She believed, however, that she was the
Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, DBE (22 September 1880 – 13 February 1958), was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913. In 1914 she supported the war against Germany. After the war she moved to the United States, where she worked as an evangelist for the Second Adventist movement.
Christabel Pankhurst was the daughter of the lawyer Dr. Richard Pankhurst and women's suffrage movement leader Emmeline Pankhurst and sister to Sylvia Pankhurst and Adela Pankhurst. Her family had not been wealthy; her father was a lawyer and her mother owned a small shop. Christabel assisted her mother, who worked as the Registrar of Births and Deaths in Manchester. Despite their financial struggles, her family had always been encouraged by their firm belief in their devotion to causes rather than comforts.
Nancy Ellen Rupprecht wrote, “She was almost a textbook illustration of the first child born to a middle-class family. In childhood as well as adulthood, she was beautiful, intelligent, graceful, confident, charming, and charismatic.” Christabel enjoyed a
Eleanor Florence Rathbone (12 May 1872 – 2 January 1946) was an independent British Member of Parliament (MP) and long-term campaigner for women's rights. She was a member of the noted Rathbone family of Liverpool.
Rathbone was the daughter of the social reformer William Rathbone VI and his second wife, Emily Lyle. Her family encouraged her to concentrate on social issues. Rathbone went to Kensington High School, London, and later studied in Somerville College, Oxford, over the protests of her mother. After graduation, she worked alongside her father to investigate social and industrial conditions in Liverpool until William Rathbone died in 1902. They also opposed the Second Boer War. In 1903 Rathbone published their Report on the results of a Special Inquiry into the conditions of Labour at the Liverpool Docks. In 1905 she assisted her father in establishing the School of Social Science at the University of Liverpool, where she lectured in public administration. Her connection with the University is still recognised by the Eleanor Rathbone building, lecture theatre and Chair of Sociology.
Rathbone was elected as an independent member of Liverpool City Council in 1909 for the seat
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, LSA, MD (9 June 1836 – 17 December 1917), was an English physician and feminist, the first Englishwoman to qualify as a physician and surgeon in Britain, the co-founder of the first hospital staffed by women, the first dean of a British medical school, the first woman M.D. in France, the first woman in Britain to be elected to a school board and, as Mayor of Aldeburgh, the first female mayor and magistrate in Britain.
Elizabeth Garrett was born on 9 June 1836 in London, the second of eleven children of Newson Garrett (1812–1893), from Leiston, Suffolk, and his wife, Louisa née Dunnell (1813–1903), from London.
The Garrett ancestors had been ironworkers in East Suffolk since the early seventeenth century. Newson was the youngest of three sons and not academically inclined, although he possessed the family’s entrepreneurial spirit. When he finished school, the town of Leiston offered little to Newson, so he left for London to make his fortune. There, he fell in love with his brother’s sister-in-law, Louisa Dunnell, the daughter of an innkeeper of Suffolk origin. After their wedding, the couple went to live in a pawnbroker’s shop at 1 Commercial Road,
Gavin Christopher Newsom (born October 10, 1967) is an American politician who is the 49th and current Lieutenant Governor of California. Previously, he was the 42nd Mayor of San Francisco and was elected in 2003 to succeed Willie Brown, becoming San Francisco's youngest mayor in 100 years. Newsom was re-elected in 2007 with 72 percent of the vote. In 2010, Samepoint released a study that measured the social media influence of mayors around the country and ranked the top 100 most social mayors. Newsom was named the Most Social Mayor in America according to the Samepoint study.
Newsom graduated from Redwood High School in Larkspur, California, in 1985, and in 1989 from Santa Clara University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science. His PlumpJack Wine Shop, founded in 1992, grew into a multimillion-dollar enterprise, and now includes bars, restaurants, and a Lake Tahoe hotel called Squaw Valley Inn. He was first appointed by Willie Brown to serve on San Francisco's Parking and Traffic Commission in 1996 and was appointed the following year as Supervisor. Newsom drew voter attention with his Care Not Cash program, designed to move homeless people into city assisted care.
Handrij Zejler (1 February 1804 – 15 October 1872) was a Sorbian writer, pastor and national activist. He co-founded the Lusatian cultural and scientific society Maćica Serbska.
Zejler was born on February 1, 1804 in Słona Boršć (German: Salzenforst), now a part of Budyšin (Bautzen). He was an author of popular religious, love and patriotic poems, as well as the Sorbian national anthem Rjana Łužica, linguistic works, publicist works, ballads, satires, fables. He died on October 15, 1872 in Łaz (Lohsa) near Wojerecy (Hoyerswerda).
Zejler is seen today as one of the founders of Sorbian national literature.
Houzan Mahmoud (1973- ), is a renowned Kurdish women rights and anti-war activist born in Iraqi Kurdistan. She was the main speaker at the anti-war rally in March 2003 in London and the Co-founder of Iraqi Women’s Rights Coalition. She has led an international campaign against Sharia law and oppression of women in Iraq. Her articles have been published in The Guardian and The Independent. She has also been interviewed by CNN, NBC, Sky News and BBC.
Dr. Louisa Garrett Anderson CBE (28 July 1873 – 15 November 1943) was a medical pioneer, a member of the Women's Social and Political Union, a suffragette, and social reformer. She was the daughter of the founding medical pioneer Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. Her aunt, Dame Millicent Fawcett was a British suffragist. Anderson was the Chief Surgeon of the Women's Hospital Corps (WHC) and a Fellow of Royal Society of Medicine
She was one of the three children of James George Skelton Anderson of the Orient Steamship Company co-owned by his uncle Arthur Anderson, and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson who was the first woman to qualify as a doctor, co-founder of the London School of Medicine for Women and Britain's the first elected woman Mayor (of Aldeburgh).
She was educated at St Leonards School in St. Andrews, Fife and at the London School of Medicine for Women located at the Royal Free Hospital, where she worked as a doctor in private practice and hospitals. In 1912, she was imprisoned, briefly, for her suffragette activities. She wrote many medical articles and published a biography of her mother in 1939.
In the First World War she served in France with the Women's Hospital Corps. Along
Albert Allen Bartlett (born 1923 in Shanghai) is an emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA. As of July 2001 Professor Bartlett had lectured over 1,600 times since September, 1969 on Arithmetic, Population, and Energy. Bartlett regards the word combination "sustainable growth" as an oxymoron, since even modest annual percentage population increases will inevitably equate to huge exponential growth over sustained periods of time. He therefore regards human overpopulation as "The Greatest Challenge" facing humanity.
Bartlett joined the faculty of the University of Colorado in Boulder in September 1950. He has a B.A. degree in physics from Colgate University (1944), and M.A. (1948) and Ph.D. (1951) degrees in physics from Harvard University. In 1978 he was national president of the American Association of Physics Teachers. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1969 and 1970 he served two terms as the elected Chair of the four-campus Faculty Council of the University of Colorado.
Professor Bartlett often explains how sustainable growth is a contradiction. His view is based
Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Russian: Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — née Domontovich, Домонто́вич) (March 31 [O.S. March 19] 1872 – March 9, 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1914 on as a Bolshevik. In 1919 she became the first female government minister in Europe. In 1923, she was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Norway, becoming the world's first female ambassador in modern times.
Alexandra Mikhailovna Domontovich was born on March 31 [O.S. March 19] 1872 in St. Petersburg, the capital of the Russian empire. Her father, General Mikhail Alekseevich Domontovich, from a Ukrainian family which traced its ancestry back to the 13th Century, served as a cavalry officer in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 and as an advisor to the Russian administration in Bulgaria after the war until 1879. He entertained liberal political views, favoring a constitutional monarchy like that of the United Kingdom, and in the 1880s had written a study of the Bulgarian war of independence which was confiscated by the Tsarist censors, presumably for showing insufficient Russian nationalist zeal. Alexandra's mother, Alexandra Androvna
Brenda Howard (December 24, 1946 – June 28, 2005) was an American bisexual rights activist and sex-positive feminist. Howard was an important figure in the modern LGBT rights movement.
Brenda Howard was born in the Bronx and grew up in Syosset, Nassau County, New York. She graduated from Syosset High School and from Borough of Manhattan Community College with an AAS degree in Nursing.
In the late 1960s, Howard was active in the movement against the Vietnam War. In 1969 she lived in an urban commune of anti-war activists and draft resisters in downtown Brooklyn New York. Like many other women in the US anti-war movement at the time, Howard became critical of its domination by men, and she soon became involved in the feminist movement as well.
A militant activist who helped plan and participated in LGBT rights actions for over three decades, Howard was an active member of the Gay Liberation Front and for several years chair of the Gay Activists Alliance's Speakers Bureau in the post-Stonewall era.
She is known as the "Mother of Pride", for her work in coordinating a rally and then the "Christopher Street Liberation Day March" to commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation (November 25, 1846 – June 9, 1911) was a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol in pre-Prohibition America. She is particularly noteworthy for promoting her viewpoint through vandalism. On many occasions Nation would enter an alcohol-serving establishment and attack the bar with a hatchet. She has been the topic of numerous books, articles and even an opera.
Nation was a large woman, almost 6 feet (180 cm) tall and weighing 175 pounds (79 kg) and of a somewhat stern countenance. She described herself as "a bulldog running along at the feet of Jesus, barking at what He doesn't like," and claimed a divine ordination to promote temperance by destroying bars.
The spelling of her first name is ambiguous and both Carrie and Carry are considered correct. Official records say Carrie, which Nation used most of her life; the name Carry was used by her father in the family Bible. Upon beginning her campaign against liquor in the early 20th century, she adopted the name Carry A. Nation mainly for its value as a slogan, and had it registered as a trademark in the state of Kansas.
Carrie Nation was born Carrie Amelia Moore in Garrard County,
Emily Hobhouse (9 April 1860 – 8 June 1926) was a British welfare campaigner, who is primarily remembered for bringing to the attention of the British public, and working to change, the deprived conditions inside the British concentration camps in South Africa built for Boer women and children during the Second Boer War.
Born in St Ive, near Liskeard in Cornwall, she was the daughter of Caroline Trelawny and Reginald Hobhouse, an Anglican rector and the first Archdeacon of Bodmin. She was the sister of Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, the noted social liberal. She was a second cousin of the important British peace activist Stephen Henry Hobhouse and was a major influence on him.
Her mother died when she was 20, and she spent the next fourteen years looking after her father who was in poor health. When her father died in 1895 she went to Minnesota to perform welfare work amongst Cornish mineworkers living there, the trip having been organised by the wife of the Archbishop of Canterbury. There she became engaged to John Carr Jackson and the couple bought a ranch in Mexico but this did not prosper and the engagement was broken off. She returned to England in 1898 after losing most of her
Igor Vamos, born April 15, 1968, is an internationally known multimedia artist, leading member of The Yes Men (using the alias Mike Bonanno), and an associate professor of media arts at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is also a co-founder of RTmark and the recipient of a 2003 Guggenheim Fellowship, granted for a project that used Global Positioning System (GPS) and other wireless technology to create a new medium with which to "view" his documentary Grounded, about an abandoned military base in Wendover, Utah.
Vamos earned an undergraduate degree in Studio Art from Reed College and an MFA in Visual Arts from the University of California, San Diego. While at Reed, Vamos organized a student group called Guerrilla Theater of the Absurd. They performed and documented "culture jamming" acts of protest, including Reverse Peristalsis Painters, where 24 people in suits stood outside the downtown venue of Dan Quayle's fundraiser for Oregon senator Bob Packwood and drank ipecac, forcing themselves to vomit the red, white and blue remains of the mashed potatoes and food coloring they had consumed earlier; and a middle of the night contribution to the debate over renaming Portland's
James Carlile (1795–1841) was a Scottish clergyman from Paisley. He was a joint minister of a Scots church in Dublin and an Irish commissioner of education. He introduced a different style of education in Ireland whereby children of different denominations could go to the same school.
Carlile was born in Paisley and became a Doctor of Divinity. He was educated at Paisley Grammar School and then at the universities in Glasgow and Edinburgh. He was licensed in 1811 by the Paisley Presbyterians and in 1815 at the Scots' Church, Mary's Abbey, in Dublin.
On 1 July 1813 he published the constitution of a Purgatorian Society, which was an unusual concept. The constitution took a tract from the Bible as their guide. They agreed to pay one penny a week, and in exchange prayers would be offered for their souls at 10 a.m. every month. The tract they chose was It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from their sins. The idea was that members would spend less time in Purgatory. The rules of the society laid down that all members would be entitled to a mass in their honour assuming that they had a natural death and there were no fees owing to the
Mary Henrietta Kingsley (13 October 1862 – 3 June 1900) was an English ethnographic and scientific writer and explorer whose travels throughout West Africa and resulting work helped shape European perceptions of African cultures and British imperialism.
Kingsley was born in Islington, London on 13 October 1862, the daughter and oldest child of doctor, traveller, and writer George Kingsley and Mary Bailey. She came from a family of writers, as she was also the niece of novelists Charles Kingsley and Henry Kingsley. The family moved to Highgate less than a year after her birth, the same home where her brother Charles George R. ("Charley") Kingsley was born in 1866, and by 1881 were living in Southwood House, Bexley in Kent.
Her father was a doctor and worked for George Herbert, 13th Earl of Pembroke and other aristocrats, so he was regularly away from home on his excursions. During these voyages he collected information for his studies. Dr. Kingsley accompanied Lord Dunraven on a trip to North America in 1870-1875. During this trip, Dr. Kingsley was invited to accompany Custer's U.S. Army expedition against the Sioux Indians. The reported massacre of Custer's force terrified the
Michael Dowd (born 1958) is an American evolutionary theologian, bestselling author, and evangelist for Big History and Religious Naturalism.
His evangelizing to over 1,600 audiences starting in 2002 provided material for Thank God for Evolution in 2008. This book is noteworthy for its breadth and depth of endorsements; it includes six Nobel Prize-winning scientists. On April 2, 2009, Dowd at the United Nations addressed the lack of an evolutionary worldview which he maintains has resulted in a global integrity crisis that requires a deep-time view of human nature, values and social systems to provide a solution for going forward. He maintains a Christian perspective and accepts the theory of evolution.
Dowd expanded his outreach program with the founding of EvolutionaryChristianity.com in 2010. Thirty-eight religious leaders from diverse backgrounds joined him in an audio seminar introduction. In spite of their dissimilar religious orientations and backgrounds, they hold many perspectives in common; such as valuing Big History (deep time), a global ethos, and realistic expectations grounded in an understanding of scientific (Evidence of common descent), historical (History of the
Phoebe Palmer (December 17, 1807 – November 2, 1874) was an evangelist and writer who promoted the doctrine of Christian perfection. She is considered one of the founders of the Holiness movement in the United States of America and the Higher Life movement in the United Kingdom.
Palmer was born Phoebe Worrall in New York City. Her father was a devout Methodist named Henry Worrall. He had experienced a religious conversion during the Wesleyan Revival in England before immigrating to the United States. Phoebe’s mother was Dorothea Wade Worrall.
In 1827 Phoebe Worall married Walter Palmer, a homeopathic physician, who was also a devout Methodist. As Methodists the couple became interested in the writings of the founder of Methodism, John Wesley. They developed a particular interest in Wesley’s doctrine of Christian perfection, which is the belief that a Christian can live a life free of serious sin. At some point in the year 1837 Phoebe Palmer experienced what she called “entire sanctification.” Her family experienced this "sanctification" soon thereafter. They felt that they should teach others about that experience and teach them how to have it for themselves.
In 1835 Palmer’s
Roefie Hueting is a Dutch economist (born December 16, 1929), pianist and leader of the Down Town Jazz Band.
He has analyzed the environment from the neoclassical point of view of scarcity and developed the concept of Sustainable National Income (SNI). The implication of the SNI is that the statistical measure of economic growth is revised.
The concept of sustainability was presented for the first time at The World Conservation Strategy, IUCN, 1980: "This is the kind of development that provides real improvements in the quality of human life and at the same time conserves the vitality and diversity of the Earth. The goal is development that will be sustainable. Today it may seem visionary but it is attainable. To more and more people it also appears our only rational option". (UNEP, IUCN, WWF)
There are various possible descriptions of this area of research but a good one is provided as follows:
Examples of ecological suicide are given by Jared Diamond in his book Collapse.
Interestingly, neoclassical economics finds opposition from ecological economics, while that opposition would be less needed due to Hueting's more neoclassical analysis of the environment. The neoclassical SNI
Henry "Harry" Hay, Jr. (April 7, 1912 – October 24, 2002) was a labor advocate, teacher and early leader in the American LGBT rights movement. He is known for his roles in helping to found several gay organizations, including the Mattachine Society, the first sustained gay rights group in the United States.
Hay was exposed early in life to the principles of Marxism and to the idea of same-sex sexual attraction. He drew upon these experiences to develop his view of homosexuals as a cultural minority. A longtime member of the Communist Party USA, Hay's Marxist history led to his resignation from the Mattachine leadership in 1953. Hay's involvement in the gay movement became more informal after that, although he did co-found the Los Angeles chapter of the Gay Liberation Front in 1969. Following a move to New Mexico with his longtime companion John Burnside in 1970, Hay's ongoing interest in Native American spirituality led the couple to co-found the Radical Faeries.
Hay's belief in the cultural minority status of homosexuals led him to take a stand against assimilationism. This stance led him to offer public support to controversial groups like the North American Man Boy Love
Kevin Danaher is an author and anti-globalization activist. With his wife Medea Benjamin and activist Kirsten Irgens-Moller, he co-founded Global Exchange, a social justice and anti-globalization non-governmental organization based in San Francisco, California. He is the founder and executive co-producer of the Green Festivals and he is executive Director of the Global Citizen Center. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of California, Santa Cruz.
Lillian M. N. Stevens (1844-1914) was an American temperance worker, born at Dover, Maine She was educated at Foxcroft Academy and taught school for a time., She was married to Michael Stevens of Portland, Maine, in 1865. In 1874 she assisted in founding the Maine Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of which she was treasurer in 1874-77 and thenceforth president until her death. She was vice president of the National W.C.T.U. in 1894-98, and after the death of Miss Frances Willard in the latter year was president until her own death. Mrs. Stevens was a lady manager of the Chicago Exposition in 1892-93, and served as Maine representative on the National Conference of Charities and Correction for many years. In 1911 she received the honorary degree of A.M. from Bates College.
Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (5 May 1882 – 27 September 1960) was an English campaigner for the suffragist movement in the United Kingdom. She was for a time a prominent left communist who then devoted herself to the cause of anti-fascism.
Sylvia Pankhurst was born in Manchester, a daughter of Dr. Richard Pankhurst and Emmeline Pankhurst, members of the Independent Labour Party and (especially Emmeline) much concerned with women's rights. She and her sisters attended the Manchester High School for Girls. Her sister Christabel would also become an activist.
Sylvia trained as an artist at the Manchester School of Art, and in 1900 won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in South Kensington.
In 1906 Sylvia Pankhurst started to work full-time with the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) with her sister and her mother. In contrast to them she retained an affiliation with the labour movement, and unlike them she concentrated her activity on local campaigning with the East London Federation of the WSPU, rather than leading the national organisation. Sylvia Pankhurst contributed articles to the WSPU's newspaper, Votes for Women, and in 1911 she published a propagandist history of
Timothy Fridtjof Flannery (born 28 January 1956) is an Australian mammalogist, palaeontologist, environmentalist and global warming activist. He is the Chief Commissioner of the Australian Climate Commission, an independent body providing information on climate change to the Australian public.
Flannery was named Australian of the Year in 2007 and is currently a professor and holds the Chair in Environmental Sustainability at Macquarie University. He is also the chairman of the Copenhagen Climate Council, an international climate change awareness group. His sometimes controversial views on shutting down conventional coal fired power stations for electricity generation in the medium term are frequently cited in the media.
Flannery was raised in a Catholic family in the Melbourne suburb of Sandringham, close to Port Philip Bay, where he learned to fish and scuba dive and became aware of marine pollution and its effects on living organisms. He completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in English at La Trobe University in 1977, and then took a change of direction to complete a Master of Science degree in Earth Science at Monash University in 1981. He then left Melbourne for Sydney, enjoying
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favour of men and boys.
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights.
The status of women in China was low, largely due to the custom of foot binding. About 45% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, it was almost 100%. In 1912, the Chinese government ordered the cessation of foot-binding. Foot-binding involved alteration of the bone structure so that the feet were only about 4 inches long. The bound feet
Diocletian Lewis (March 3, 1823 – May 21, 1886), commonly known as Dr. Dio Lewis, was a prominent temperance leader and physical culture advocate who practiced homeopathy and was the inventor of the beanbag.
He was born on a farm near Auburn, New York. He left school at 12 to work in a cotton factory. He later worked at a hoe, axe and scythe factory and went back to attending school.
He started teaching school at 15. At 18, he organized a school in Lower Sandusky, Ohio (now Fremont). He extended the curriculum to include algebra, geometry, Greek and Latin. This so impressed the townsfolk that they constructed a building for the school, and when a certificate of incorporation was obtained for it, they named the school the Diocletian Institute in his honor. He had to work hard at his own studies to stay ahead of his pupils. Severe illness obligated him to give up the school after a year, and he never went back.
He decided to go into medicine, and worked for three years in the office of the physician for the Auburn State Prison. He then studied at the Harvard Medical School. Apparently a lack of funds prevented him from finishing the course there, and upon leaving he immediately
Jessie Mary Grey Street (née Lillingston; born Chota Nagpur, Bihar, India, 18 April 1889; died 2 July 1970) was an Australian suffragette, feminist and human rights campaigner.
She was a key figure in Australian political life for over 50 years, from the women's suffrage struggle in England to the removal of Australia's constitutional discrimination against Aboriginal people in 1967. She is recognised both in Australia and internationally for her activism in women's rights, social justice and peace.
Apparently inspired by the British Anti-Slavery Society when visiting England in the 1950s, Jessie Street was the initiator of the 1967 "Aboriginal" amendment of the Australian Constitution with fellow activist Faith Bandler. She "masterminded the formation of the Aboriginal Rights Organisation, which led to the successful" Australian referendum, 1967 (Aboriginals) and even drafted petitions calling for the Referendum.
Jessie Street published a number of papers relating to Aboriginal people based on her observations during her numerous visits to Aboriginal Settlements. These include a Report on Aborigines in Australia, May 1957, Report of visit to Pindar Camps,'Report of visit to West
Joel Kovel (born 27 August 1936) is an American scholar and author.
In 1936, Kovel was born in Brooklyn, New York to "an immigrant Ukrainian-Jewish family." He received his B.S. Summa cum laude from Yale University in 1957. In 1961 he received his M.D. from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and in 1977 was a graduate of the Psychoanalytic Institute, Downstate Medical Center Institute, Brooklyn, New York.
From 1977-83 he was Director of Residency Training, Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine (where he was also Professor of Psychiatry from 1979-1986). From 1980 to 1985, he was an Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at the New School for Social Research and from 1986-7 a Visiting Professor of Political Science and Communications, University of California, San Diego. He also held short-term positions as a Visiting Lecturer at San Diego State University in the spring of 1990 and another Visiting Professor position at UCSD in Winter 1993.
In 1988, Kovel was appointed Alger Hiss Chair of Social Studies, a non-tenured position, at Bard College. In February 2009, he was informed that his position would not be renewed after the contract ended
Marguerite Durand (January 24, 1864 – March 16, 1936) was a French stage actress, journalist, and a leading suffragette.
Born into a middle-class family, Marguerite Durand was sent to study at a Roman Catholic convent. After finishing her primary education, she entered the Conservatoire de Paris before joining the Comédie Française.
In 1888, she gave up her career in the theatre to marry an up-and-coming young lawyer, Georges Laguerre. A friend and follower of the politically ambitious army general Georges Boulanger, her husband introduced her to the world of radical politics and involved her in writing pamphlets for the "Boulangists" movement. However, the marriage was short-lived and in 1891 the couple separated after which Durand took a job writing for Le Figaro, the leading newspaper of the day. In 1896, the paper sent her to cover the Congrès Féministe International (International Feminist Congress) ostensibly to write a humorous article. She came away from the event a greatly changed person, so much so that the following year on December 9, 1897 she founded a feminist daily newspaper, La Fronde to pick up where Hubertine Auclert's La Citoyenne left off.
Nawal El Saadawi (Arabic: نوال السعداوى, born October 27, 1931) is an Egyptian feminist writer, activist, physician and psychiatrist. She has written many books on the subject of women in Islam, paying particular attention to the practice of female genital cutting in her society.
She is founder and president of the Arab Women's Solidarity Association and co-founder of the Arab Association for Human Rights. She has been awarded honorary degrees on three continents. In 2004, she won the North-South prize from the Council of Europe. In 2005, the Inana International Prize in Belgium.
Nawal el Saadawi has held positions of Author for the Supreme Council for Arts and Social Sciences, Cairo; Director General of the Health Education Department, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Secretary General of Medical Association, Cairo, Egypt, and Medical Doctor, University Hospital and Ministry of Health. She is the founder of Health Education Association and the Egyptian Women Writer’s Association; she was Chief Editor of Health Magazine in Cairo, Egypt and Editor of Medical Association Magazine.
Saadawi was born in the small village of Kafr Tahla, the second eldest of nine children. Her father was a
Deeyah (Urdu: دیا, pronounced [d̪iːaː]), born August 7, 1977 in Oslo, Norway, is a Norwegian singer, music producer, composer, film maker and human rights activist of Punjabi/Pashtun descent. She is an outspoken supporter of women's rights, freedom of expression and peace. She often uses social media like Myspace, Facebook and Twitter to raise awareness of honour killings and other women centric issues. Since 2006/07, Deeyah completely stopped performing as an artist, instead turning her focus to producing and composing music.
In collaboration with FREEMUSE, she is the co-creator and co-producer of international compilation album Listen To The Banned which features banned and censored music artists from The Middle East, Africa and Asia. In 2010 she started her social purpose company Fuuse Media encompassing Fuuse Mousiqi and Fuuse Films for her music and film productions.
In 2011 she established AVA Projects a registered non profit public charity, working to reduce the marginalization of women and young people of South Asian and Middle Eastern descent. AVA means "voice" in Persian. Deeyah is also the founder of digital media initiatives Sisterhood, Memini, I Have A Voice and
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee, which Dustin Goltz called "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights."
Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg, Poland) in a Jewish family, the son of a highly regarded physician and 'Medizinalrat' Hermann Hirschfeld. In 1887-1888 he studied philosophy and philology in Breslau, then from 1888-1892 medicine in Strasbourg, Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin. In 1892 he took his doctoral degree. After his studies, he traveled through the United States for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. Then he started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg; in 1896 be moved his practice to Berlin-Charlottenburg.
Magnus Hirschfeld's career successfully found a balance between medicine and writing. After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet Sappho and Socrates, on homosexual love (under the pseudonym Th. Ramien). In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific
Richard Tapper Cadbury (1768 – 13 March 1860) came to Birmingham in 1794 and started a linen draper's business in partnership with a fellow Quaker His children included John Cadbury who was given help to start a tea and coffee business that would develop into Cadbury's.
Cadbury came from Exeter and he was born around 1768. His father was a maker of serge and he was apprenticed to a draper in Gloucester, after which he worked for others in the town. He entered into partnership with Joseph Rutte in Birmingham from 1794, and he married Elizabeth Head from Ipswich in 1796. Two years later the partnership with Rutte was dissolved.
They had ten children: John, James, Ann, Maria, Lucretia, Sarah, Emma Joel, Elizabeth Head, Richard, Benjamin Head, and Joel. In addition, Elizabeth ran the business in his absence. They had a sizable house in the city centre and in 1824, Cadbury senior financed John Cadbury to start a tea and coffee business next door; Benjamin ran the main business from 1829. Richard was given a wage and was able to take on good works.
Cadbury continued to develop the business, but also took a role in civil affairs. He served on Birmingham General Hospital's Board and that
Sister (Spanish: Sor) Juana Inés de la Cruz, O.S.H. (English: Joan Agnes of the Cross) (12 November 1651 – 17 April 1695), was a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school, and nun of New Spain. Although she lived in a colonial era when Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, she is considered today a Mexican writer, and stands at the beginning of the history of Mexican literature in the Spanish language.
She was born Juana Inés de Asbaje y Ramírez de Santillana in San Miguel Nepantla (now called Nepantla de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz in her honor) near Mexico City. She was the illegitimate child of a Spanish Captain, Pedro Manuel de Asbaje, and a Criollo woman, Isabel Ramírez. Her father, according to all accounts, was absent from her life. She was baptized 2 December 1651 and described on the baptismal rolls as "a daughter of the Church". She was raised in Amecameca, where her maternal grandfather owned a hacienda.
Juana was a devoutly religious child who often hid in the hacienda chapel to read her grandfather's books from the adjoining library, something forbidden to girls. She learned how to read and write at the age of three. By age five, she reportedly could do
Abigail Scott Duniway (October 22, 1834 – October 11, 1915) was an American women's rights advocate, newspaper editor and writer, whose efforts were instrumental in gaining voting rights for women.
Duniway was born Abigail Jane Scott near Groveland, Illinois, to John Tucker Scott and Anne Roelofson Scott. Of the nine children in her family who survived infancy, she was the second. She grew up on the family farm and attended a local school intermittently. In March 1852, against the wishes of Anne, who had concerns about her health, John organized a party of 30 people and 5 ox-drawn wagons to emigrate to Oregon, 2,400 miles (3,900 km) away by trail. Anne died of cholera near Fort Laramie, on the Oregon Trail, in June, and Willie, age 3, the youngest child in the family, died in August along the Burnt River in Oregon. In October, the emigrants reached their destination, Lafayette, in the Willamette Valley. After teaching school in Eola in early 1853, Abigail married Benjamin Charles Duniway, a farmer from Illinois, on August 1. They had six children: Clara Belle (b. 1854), Willis Scott (1856), Hubert (1859), Wilkie Collins (1861), Clyde Augustus (1866), and Ralph Roelofson (1869).
Hubertine Auclert (April 10, 1848 – August 4, 1914) was a leading French feminist and a campaigner for women's suffrage.
Born in the Allier département in the Auvergne area of France into a middle-class family, Hubertine Auclert's father died when she was thirteen years old and her mother sent her to live and study in a Roman Catholic convent. As a young girl she planned to become a nun but left the convent at age 16. Estranged from her mother, she lived with her uncle for a time but had to return to the convent a few years later, She left the convent for good in 1869 and moved to Paris. There, the ousting of Emperor Napoleon III and the establishment of the Third Republic opened the door to activism on the part of women who began demanding changes to the Napoleonic Code that would provide education and economic independence for women and the legalization of divorce.
Inspired by the high-profile activities of Maria Deraismes and Léon Richer, Hubertine Auclert became involved with feminist work and eventually took a job as Richer's secretary. Influenced by her life in a Catholic convent, and like many of the leading republican feminists at the time, Hubertine Auclert was a militant
The Reverend Dr. Anna Pauline (Pauli) Murray (November 20, 1910 – July 1, 1985) was an American civil rights activist, women's rights activist, lawyer, and writer. She was also the first black woman ordained as an Episcopalian priest.
She was born in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1914 her mother Agnes Fitzgerald Murray died of a cerebral hemorrhage; since her father was unable to care for her, she went to Durham, North Carolina, where she was raised by her aunt, Pauline Fitzgerald Dame, and her maternal grandparents, Robert and Cornelia Fitzgerald. In 1923 her father was murdered.
In 1933 Pauli Murray graduated from Hunter College; she had previously been rejected from Columbia University because they did not admit women at that time. After her graduation from Hunter College, she was rejected from the University of North Carolina because she was African-American. She attempted to challenge this with the help of the NAACP, but they rejected the case due to her being a resident of New York.
In 1941 she began attending Howard University law school with hopes of becoming a civil rights lawyer. In 1942, while still in law school, she became one of the founders of the Congress of Racial
Clinton Bowen Fisk (December 8, 1828 – July 9, 1890), for whom Fisk University is named, was a senior officer during Reconstruction in the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. He endowed Fisk University with $30,000. In addition, he helped establish the first free public schools in the South for white and African-American children.
Fisk was born in York, Livingston County, New York, the son of Benjamin and Lydia Fisk. As part of the 19th-century westward migration, his family soon moved to Coldwater, Michigan. He studied in the preliminary course at Albion Seminary before becoming one of the five students to matriculate on the opening day of Michigan Central College (now Hillsdale College) in 1844. Fisk later became a merchant, miller, and banker in Coldwater. He suffered financial disaster in the Panic of 1857. He moved to St. Louis, Missouri where he started working in the insurance business.
An abolitionist, Fisk was appointed colonel of the 33rd Missouri Infantry of the Union Army on September 5, 1862. He organized a brigade and was commissioned brigadier general November 24, 1862. He served most of the American Civil War in Missouri and Arkansas, commanding first
Doris Stevens (26 October 1892 – 22 March 1963) was an American suffragist and author of Jailed for Freedom.
Born in Omaha, Nebraska, Doris Stevens graduated from Oberlin College in 1911. She worked as a teacher and social worker in Ohio and Michigan before she became a regional organizer with the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). In New York, she was friends with leading members of the Greenwich Village radical scene, including Louise Bryant and John Reed.
Doris Stevens joined with Alice Paul, Lucy Burns, Mabel Vernon, Olympia Brown, Mary Ritter Beard, Belle Case La Follette, Helen Keller, Maria Montessori, Dorothy Day and Crystal Eastman to form the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CUWS) in 1913. In 1914 Stevens became a full-time organizer, as well as executive secretary, for the CUWS in Washington, D.C. After working on the East Coast, including in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1913-14, she moved west to Colorado (1914), and then to California (1915). In 1916, the CUWS became the National Woman's Party (NWP). She organized the first convention of women voters at the Panama Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 1915 and the NWP election campaign in
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
Before Stanton narrowed her political focus almost exclusively to women's rights, she was an active abolitionist together with her husband, Henry Brewster Stanton and cousin, Gerrit Smith. Unlike many of those involved in the woman's rights movement, Stanton addressed various issues pertaining to women beyond voting rights. Her concerns included women's parental and custody rights, property rights, employment and income rights, divorce, the economic health of the family, and birth control. She was also an outspoken supporter of the 19th-century temperance movement.
After the American Civil War, Stanton's commitment to female suffrage caused a schism in the woman's rights movement when she, together with Susan B. Anthony, declined to support passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Howshua Amariel is a translator of the Biblical Hebrew (also known as Ancient Hebrew or the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet) and the author of the interlinear style Paleo-Hebrew text, entitled “THIS REPORT: The Hebrew/Phoenician History called the Bible”. Aside from Amariel's claims, his work, which is referred to in the Library of Congress, is also currently respected by the Igbo Jewish communities of Israel as being the first translation of the Biblical Hebrew Tanakh into an extensive formal equivalence English translation of the Bible.
Howshua Amariel is involved in Biblical Archaeology and research of the House of Yahweh (Biblical term). In 1986 the Metropolitan Museum of Art special presentation "Treasures of the Holy Land", displayed a unique artifact concerning inscription of the biblical House of Yahweh for the first time in the United States. The show was hosted by the Director of the Metropolitan Museum Phillip Demarbilo, with the help of Martin Weyl, the director of the Israel Museum. After becoming aware of the house of Yahweh artifacts from the exhibit, Research Minister Howshua Amariel began studying biblical archaeology and artifacts pertaining to the House of Yahweh.
John Bidwell (August 5, 1819 – April 4, 1900) was known throughout California and across the nation as an important pioneer, farmer, soldier, statesman, politician, prohibitionist and philanthropist. He is famous for leading one of the first emigrant parties, known as the Bartleson-Bidwell Party, along the California Trail, and for founding Chico, California.
Bidwell was born in Chautauqua County, New York. The Bidwell family moved to Erie, Pennsylvania in 1829, and then to Ashtabula County, Ohio in 1831. At age 17, he attended and shortly thereafter became Principal of Kingsville Academy.
In 1841 Bidwell became one of the first emigrants on the California Trail. John Sutter employed Bidwell as his business manager shortly after Bidwell's arrival in California. Shortly after the James W. Marshall's discovery at Sutter's Mill, Bidwell also discovered gold on the Feather River establishing a productive claim at Bidwell Bar in advance of the California Gold Rush. Bidwell obtained the four square league Rancho Los Ulpinos Mexican land grant in 1844, and the two square league Rancho Colus grant on the Sacramento River in 1845; later selling that grant and buying Rancho Arroyo Chico on
Judith Ellen (Horton) Foster (1840–1910) was an American lecturer, born in Lowell, Massachusetts. She moved to Clinton, Iowa in 1869 with her small son and second husband, studied law, and was admitted to the State bar in 1872. She was the first woman to practice law in Iowa, and was one of the first women to be admitted to practice in the Iowa Supreme Court. She also became superintendent of the Legislative Department of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and when that organization was affiliated with the Prohibition Party, identified herself with the Non-Partisan Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of which she became president. She was a popular lecturer on various topics and published a Constitutional Amendment Manual (1882). In 1907 she was appointed a special agent of the Federal Department of Justice.
Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and a social reformer.
Lucretia Coffin was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, the second child of six by Anna Folger and Thomas Coffin. At the age of thirteen, she was sent to the Nine Partners Quaker Boarding School in what is now Millbrook, Dutchess County, New York, which was run by the Society of Friends. There she became a teacher after graduation. Her interest in women's rights began when she discovered that male teachers at the school were paid three times as much as the female staff. After her family moved to Philadelphia, she and James Mott, another teacher at Nine Partners, followed.
On April 10, 1811, Lucretia Coffin married James Mott at Pine Street Meeting in Philadelphia. They had six children. Their second child, Thomas Coffin, died at age two. Their surviving children all became active in the anti-slavery and other reform movements.
Like many Quakers, Mott considered slavery an evil to be opposed. Inspired in part by minister Elias Hicks, she and other Quakers refused to use cotton cloth, cane sugar, and other slavery-produced goods. In 1821 Mott
Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet, and a prominent political activist. For many years, Eastman was a supporter of socialism, a leading patron of the Harlem Renaissance and an activist for a number of liberal and radical causes. In later life, however, his views turned sharply, and he became an advocate of free market economics and an anti-Communist.
Eastman was born in Canandaigua, Ontario County, New York. Both his parents, Samuel Elijah Eastman and Annis Bertha Ford, were Congregational Church clergy and together served as pastors at the church of Thomas K. Beecher near Elmira, New York. (In 1889, his mother had become one of the first women ordained as an American minister.) This area was part of the "Burned-over district," which earlier in the 19th century had generated much religious excitement, including the formation of the Mormon movement, and social causes, such as abolitionism and support for the Underground Railroad. Through his parents, he became acquainted with the famous author Samuel Clemens, better known as "Mark Twain," in his youth.
Eastman graduated with a bachelor's
Sophia Louisa Jex-Blake (21 January 1840 – 7 January 1912) was an English physician, teacher and feminist. She was one of the first female doctors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a leading campaigner for medical education for women and was involved in founding two medical schools for women, in London and in Edinburgh, where she also started a women's hospital.
Sophia Jex-Blake was born at 3 Croft Place Hastings, England on 21 January 1840, daughter of retired lawyer Thomas Jex-Blake, a proctor of Doctors' Commons, and Mary Jex-Blake née Cubitt. Her brother was Thomas Jex-Blake, future Dean of Wells Cathedral. She attended various private schools in southern England and in 1858 enrolled at Queen's College, London, despite her parents' objections. In 1859, while still a student, she was offered a post as mathematics tutor at the college where she stayed until 1861, living for some of that time with Octavia Hill's family. She worked without pay: her family did not expect their daughter to earn a living, and indeed her father refused her permission to accept a salary.
Jex Blake spent a few months studying with private tutors in Edinburgh. Elizabeth Garrett, whom
William Eugene "Pussyfoot" Johnson (25 March 1862 – 2 February 1945) was an American Prohibition advocate and law enforcement officer. In pursuit of his campaign to outlaw intoxicating beverages, he openly admitted to drinking liquor, bribery, and lying. He gained the nickname "Pussyfoot" due to his cat-like stealth in the pursuit of suspects in the Oklahoma Territory.
Born in Coventry, New York, Johnson was educated at the University of Nebraska. Following college, he stayed in Lincoln, Nebraska and worked at The Lincoln Daily News before becoming manager of the Nebraska News Bureau. He met Lillie M. Trevitt while in Lincoln and the two were married in 1886. Johnson's first wife died in 1927 and he married May B. Stanley of Washington D.C. in 1928.
During his time in Nebraska, Johnson's views on temperance were formed and he gained a reputation as a Prohibitionist. In 1889, while Nebraska was engaged in a debate over state-wide prohibition, Johnson posed as an anti-Prohibitionist to obtain information from brewery and saloon owners. He then published information which was detrimental to the "wet" cause.
Johnson's temperance activities earned him governmental notice and he was
Green Clay Smith (July 4, 1826 – June 29, 1895) was a U.S. soldier and politician. He served as a major general during the Civil War, was a congressman from Kentucky and was the Territorial Governor of Montana from 1866 to 1869.
Smith was born in Richmond, Kentucky to John Speed Smith. Smith pursued academic studies as a young man. During the U.S.-Mexican War, he enlisted in the Army and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the First Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Infantry on June 9, 1846. He graduated from Transylvania University in 1849, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1852, commencing practice in Covington, Kentucky. From 1853 to 1857, Smith worked as a school commissioner.
Smith was a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives from 1861 to 1863. On April 4, 1862, he was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Regiment of the Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry. He later advanced to brigadier general of volunteers on July 2, 1862. In 1862, Smith was elected an Unconditional Unionist to the thirty-eighth congress, resigning from his military post on December 1, 1863. He served as chairman of the Committee on Militia from 1865 to 1866. He was brevetted major general of
Frances Mary Buss (16 August 1827 – 24 December 1894) was a headmistress and an English pioneer of women's education.
The daughter of Robert William Buss, a painter and etcher, and his wife, Frances Fleetwood, Buss was one of six of their ten children to survive into adulthood. Her grandparents, whom she was visiting in Aldersgate, sent her to a private school housed in the most basic accommodation "...to get me out of the way". Next she was sent to a similar school in Kentish Town which she remembered as simply consisting of children learning Murray's Grammar. Aged 10 she attended a more advanced school in Hampstead; by the age of fourteen she herself was teaching there and by sixteen she was occasionally left in charge of the school.
Her father's career as an artist being at times unsuccessful, to help the family finances her mother set up a private school in Clarence Road, Kentish Town, in 1845, at which Frances assisted, and which was based on the ideas of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. During 1848–9, she attended evening lectures at the newly opened Queen's College in Harley Street, London. She was taught by F. D. Maurice, Charles Kingsley, and R. C. Trench, and gained
Paul Ekins (born 1950) is a prominent British academic in the field of sustainable economics. He is a former member of the Green Party.
Ekins was a prominent member of the UK Green Party (now the Green Party of England and Wales) in the 1970s and 80s. He left in 1987 after controversy over his involvement in the Tactical Voting campaign TV87, of which he was a co-founder, which followed earlier controversy over reforms he and others were promoting to streamline Green Party structures. This group, known as 'Maingreen', was seen as a forerunner of the moves to reform the party’s internal structures by a later group known as Green 2000.
Ekins has been a prominent green academic in the field of sustainable economics. He has also worked as a consultant.
He has extensive experience consulting for business, government and international organisations, which has included over 50 projects and consultancies over the last ten years, and many advisory positions. He has also been a consultant to the Government’s Sustainable Development Commission, and an adviser to the UK Government’s Advisory Committee on Business and the Environment and Round Table on Sustainable Development, and has been a
William Andrews McDonough is an American architect, founding principal of William McDonough + Partners, co-founder of McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) with German chemist Michael Braungart as well as co-author of 'Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things also with Braungart. McDonough's career is focused on designing environmentally sustainable buildings and transforming industrial manufacturing processes.
McDonough was born in Tokyo, the son of an American Seagram's executive, and trained at Dartmouth College and Yale University. In 1981 McDonough founded his architectural practice, and his first major commission was the 1984 Environmental Defense Fund Headquarters. The EDF's requirement of good indoor air quality in the structure exposed McDonough to the need for sustainable development.
McDonough's practice is located in Charlottesville, Virginia, with a small office in San Francisco, California and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. McDonough moved his practice from New York City to Charlottesville in 1994, when he was appointed as the Dean of the School of Architecture at the University of Virginia. He relinquished this position in 1999 to focus on expanding his
Josephine Chuen-juei Ho (Chinese: 何春蕤; pinyin: Hé Chūnruí) (born 16 June 1951) is the chair of the English department of National Central University, Taiwan, and coordinator of its Center For the Study of Sexualities. She has withstood lawsuits directed at her outspokenness on gender and rights issues. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from the National Chengchi University, a Master of Science degree from the University of Pennsylvania, a Doctor of Education degree from the University of Georgia and a Doctor of Philosophy degree from Indiana University. She has published many books.
Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs (born 28 August 1825 in Aurich, died in L'Aquila, 14 July 1895), is seen today as the pioneer of the modern gay rights movement.
Ulrichs was born in Aurich, then part of the Kingdom of Hanover, in north-western Germany. Ulrichs recalled that as a young child he wore girls' clothes, preferred playing with girls, and wanted to be a girl. His first homosexual experience was in 1839 at the age of fourteen, in the course of a brief affair with his riding instructor. He graduated in law and theology from Göttingen University in 1846. From 1846 to 1848, he studied history at Berlin University, writing a dissertation in Latin on the Peace of Westphalia.
From 1849 to 1857 Ulrichs worked as an official legal adviser for the district court of Hildesheim in the Kingdom of Hanover. He was dismissed when his homosexuality became open knowledge.
In 1862, Ulrichs took the momentous step of telling his family and friends that he was, in his own words, an Urning, and began writing under the pseudonym of "Numa Numantius". His first five essays, collected as Forschungen über das Rätsel der mannmännlichen Liebe (Researches on the Riddle of Male-Male Love), explained such love as
Luisa Capetillo (October 28, 1879 – October 10, 1922) was one of Puerto Rico's most famous labor organizers. She was also a writer and an anarchist who fought for workers and women's rights.
Capetillo was born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, to Luis Capetillo Echevarria and Luisa Margarita Perone, a French immigrant from Corsica. In Arecibo she was raised and home schooled by her parents, who were both very liberal in regard to their philosophical and political ideologies.
In 1898, Capetillo had the first of her two children out of wedlock. She found a job as a reader in a cigar making factory in Arecibo. After the Spanish-American War, the American Tobacco Company gained control of most of the islands tobacco fields, who would hire people to read novels and current events to the workers. It was in the tobacco factory that Capetillo had her first contact with labor unions. In 1904, Capetillo began to write essays, titled "Mi Opinión" (My Opinion), about her ideas, which were published in radical and union newspapers.
During a farm workers' strike in 1905, Capetillo wrote propaganda and organized the workers in the strike. She quickly became a leader of the "FLT" (American Federation of
Daniel Keenan "Dan" Savage (born October 7, 1964) is an American author, media pundit, journalist and newspaper editor. Savage writes the internationally syndicated relationship and sex advice column Savage Love. Its tone is frank in its discussion of sexuality, often humorous, and hostile to social conservatives and Rick Santorum's views on homosexuality. Savage has clashed with cultural conservatives on the right, and the gay establishment, on the left. He has also worked as a theater director, both under his real name and under the name Keenan Hollahan, using his middle name and his grandmother's maiden name. In 2010, Savage and his husband Terry Miller began the It Gets Better Project to help prevent suicide among LGBT youth.
Dan Savage was born to William and Judy Savage in Chicago, Illinois. He is of Irish ancestry. The third of four children, Savage was raised as a Roman Catholic and attended Quigley Preparatory Seminary North, which he has described as "a Catholic high school in Chicago for boys thinking of becoming priests." Though Savage has stated that he is now "a wishy-washy agnostic" and an atheist, he has said that he still considers himself "culturally
Felix Dodds is an author, futurist and activist. He has been instrumental in developing new modes of stakeholder engagement with the United Nations, particularly within the field of sustainable development. Mr. Dodds was the Executive Director of Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future from 1992-2012. He is probably best known as the author of How to Lobby at Intergovernmental Meetings: Mine is a Café Latte, written with co-author Michael Strauss.
Dodds' most recent book, is Only One Earth - The Long Road via Rio to Sustainable Development written with Michael Strauss and Maurice Strong outlines the last forty years and the challenges for the future. His previous books include Biodiversity and Ecosystem Insecurity edited with Dr. Ahmed Djoghlaf UN Convention on Biological Diversity Executive Secretary this is a companion book to Climate Change and Energy Insecurity edited volume with Andrew Higham and Richard Sherman and Human and Environmental Security: An Agenda for Change they argue that the new paradigm facing the world is the interface between environmental, human, economic security considerations. Dodds argues that this is due to the failure of developed countries to
Gloria Marie Steinem (born March 25, 1934) is an American feminist, journalist, and social and political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader of, and media spokeswoman for, the women's liberation movement in the late 1960s and 1970s. A prominent writer and political figure, Steinem has founded many organizations and projects and has been the recipient of many awards and honors. She was a columnist for New York magazine and co-founded Ms. magazine. In 1969, she published an article, "After Black Power, Women's Liberation" which, along with her early support of abortion rights, catapulted her to national fame as a feminist leader. In 2005, Steinem worked alongside Jane Fonda and Robin Morgan to co-found the Women's Media Center, an organization that works to amplify the voices of women in the media through advocacy, media and leadership training, and the creation of original content. Steinem currently serves on the board of the organization. She continues to involve herself in politics and media affairs as a commentator, writer, lecturer, and organizer, campaigning for candidates and reforms and publishing books and articles.
Steinem was born in Toledo, Ohio. Her
Sir John Jeremie (1795 – 23 April 1841) was a British judge and diplomat, Chief Justice of Saint Lucia and Governor of Sierra Leone. He was given an award in 1836 for advancing "negro freedom" after accusing the judges in Mauritius of bias. He understood that colour prejudice and slavery were different problems.
Jeremie was born to John Jeremie, a barrister, on the British island of Guernsey in 1795. He went to Blundell's School in Devon before studying law in Dijon. His father died in Malta in 1810. He was called to the bar in his home island where he was successful, and published a posthumous legal work of his father's.
Jeremie was appointed in 1824 to be Chief Justice of Saint Lucia, a post he held until 1831. During this time he was called upon to administer the slave laws that applied in the British Empire at that time. Although the slave trade had been abolished in the British Empire, slavery per se continued to be legal in some form during this time. The issue of slavery continued to be a subject that Jeremie was associated with throughout his life. He wrote four essays on Colonial Slavery pointing out the problems of slave communities and the improvements made in their
Support for the legalization of abortion is centered on the pro-choice movement (also known as the abortion-rights movement), a sociopolitical movement supporting the ethical view that a woman should have the legal right to elective abortion, meaning the right to terminate her pregnancy.
The opposing countermovement of pro-life campaigners (also called anti-abortion campaigners) generally argue for the rights of fetuses and for prohibition or restriction of abortion. Subscribing to different moral grounds than the pro-choice movement, pro-lifers hold the view that the human fetus (and in most cases the human embryo) is a person and therefore has a right to life.
A key point in the development of the movement in the U.S. was the decriminalization and legalization of elective abortion in various states following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, which struck down most state laws restricting abortion.
Abortion-rights advocates argue that whether or not to continue with a pregnancy is an inviolable personal choice, as it involves a woman's body, personal health, and future. They believe that both parents' and children's lives are better when abortions are legal,
Derrick N. Ashong, also known as "DNA", (born 1975 in Accra, Ghana), is a musician, artist, activist, and entrepreneur.
Born in Accra, Ghana in 1975, Derrick Ashong is the son of a pediatrician. He attended school in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Voorhees, New Jersey before attending Harvard University in 1997 through a Paul and Daisy Soros Fellowship for New Americans, where he studied Afro-American studies and was awarded the Hoopes Prize for his senior thesis. He returned to Harvard and is currently studying for a PhD in Ethnomusicology and Afro-American studies. Ashong was a founding member of the Harvard Black Alumni Society.
Ashong's musical career started while at Harvard. He produced a musical entitled Songs We Can't Sing, for which he won awards, before forming a band called "Black Rose". The band later became known as Soulfège. Ashong has worked with such established artists as Debbie Allen, Janet Jackson, & Bobby McFerrin, and is MC and leader of the pan-African band Soulfège, under the name "DNA", producing works that have aired globally via outlets including MTV Africa, MNet Africa and BBC World Service.
In 1997, Ashong had a role in the Steven Spielberg-produced movie
Ellen Cicely Wilkinson (8 October 1891 – 6 February 1947) was the Labour Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough and later for Jarrow, on Tyneside. She was one of the first women in Britain to be elected as a Member of Parliament.
Wilkinson was born in Ardwick, Manchester, the daughter of Richard Wilkinson and Ellen Wood, both Methodists. Richard Wilkinson was employed as a Manchester textile worker then became an insurance clerk. Ellen won several scholarships and was thus able to progress her education, mainly at the Ardwick School. In 1910 she became a student at the University of Manchester, where she studied history. She was a very small woman, under five feet in height, with a shock of red hair, pale skin and arresting blue eyes.
Wilkinson developed an interest in socialism after reading Merrie England by Robert Blatchford. At 16, she joined the Independent Labour Party. At university, she became active in various organisations including the Fabian Society and the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, the latter for which she became an organiser in 1913. In 1915, she was employed by the Amalgamated Union of Co-operative Employees to organise the Co-operative Employees,
Emily Murphy (born Emily Gowan Ferguson; 14 March 1868 – 17 October 1933) was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author. In 1916, she became the first female magistrate in Canada, and in the British Empire. She is best known for her contributions to Canadian feminism, specifically to the question of whether women were "persons" under Canadian law.
Murphy is known as one of the "The Famous Five" (also called "The Valiant Five")—a group of Canadian women’s rights activists that also included Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby. In 1927, the women launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that they were not. However, upon appeal to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council, the court of last resort for Canada at that time, the women won their case.
Emily Murphy was born the third of six children in Cookstown, Ontario to wealthy landowner and businessman Isaac Ferguson and his wife – also named Emily. As a child, Murphy frequently joined her two older brothers Thomas and Gowan in their adventures; their father encouraged this
Francis Piol Bol Bok (born February 1979), a Dinka tribesman and native of South Sudan, was a slave for ten years but is now an abolitionist and author living in the United States. On May 15, 1986, he was captured and enslaved at age seven during an Arab militia raid on the village of Nymlal in South Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Bok lived in bondage for ten years before escaping imprisonment in Kurdufan, Sudan, followed by a journey to the United States by way of Cairo, Egypt.
Bok was aided by people of diverse cultures and faiths in his journey to freedom. His earliest steps towards the United States were helped by a Northern Sudanese Muslim family that believed that slavery was wrong and provided him a bus ticket to Khartoum. Upon arriving in Khartoum, Bok was aided by a fellow Dinka tribesman and members of the Fur people, and his trip to the United States was paid for by members of the Lutheran church. His first point of contact in the United States was a refugee from Somalia who helped him get settled in Fargo, North Dakota.
Bok has testified before the United States Senate and met with George W. Bush, Madeleine Albright and Condoleezza Rice, telling them his
Heather Rose Brooke (born 1970) is an American journalist and freedom of information campaigner. Resident since the 1990s in the UK, she is best known for her role in helping to expose the 2009 United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal, which culminated in the resignation of House of Commons Speaker Michael Martin.
Brooke is a visiting professor at City University's Department of Journalism in London. She is the author of Your Right to Know (2006), The Silent State (2010), and The Revolution Will Be Digitised (2011).
Brooke was born in Pennsylvania in the United States to parents originally from Liverpool, England, and has dual United States/United Kingdom citizenship. She grew up in Seattle, Washington (where her mother worked for Boeing) and graduated from Federal Way High School.
According to The Scotsman, she briefly moved to England as a teenager, but returned to the United States when she was 15. She attended the University of Washington Department of Communication, where she graduated in 1992 with a double major degree in journalism and political science. While there, she wrote for the student newspaper, The Daily, covering news stories and acting as the paper's sex
Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian geneticist and international administrator, renowned for his leading role in India’s "Green Revolution," a program under which high-yield varieties of wheat and rice seedlings were planted in the fields of poor farmers.
Swaminathan is known as the "Father of the Green Revolution in India", for his leadership and success in introducing and further developing high-yielding varieties of wheat in India. He is the founder and Chairman of the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation. His stated vision is to rid the world of hunger and poverty. Dr. Swaminathan is an advocate of moving India to sustainable development, especially using environmentally sustainable agriculture, sustainable food security and the preservation of biodiversity, which he calls an "evergreen revolution"
From 1972 to 1979 he was director general of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and he was minister of Agriculture from 1979 to 1980. He served as director general of the International Rice Research Institute (1982–88) and became president of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1988.
In 1999, Time
Margaret Grace Bondfield (17 March 1873 – 16 June 1953) was an English Labour politician and feminist, the first woman Cabinet minister in the United Kingdom and one of the first three female Labour MPs. Like many other figures of the Labour movement, Bondfield was a Non-Conformist, (in her case, a member of the Congregational church).
Bondfield was born in Chard, Somerset, the eleventh child of Anne (née Taylor) and William Bondfield, a textiles worker with left-wing views. She began an apprenticeship at the age of 14 in a draper's shop in Brighton, where a customer, Louisa Martindale, befriended her; Martindale took her under her wing, helped educate her, and lent her books on left-wing politics.
In 1894, she moved to London and was elected to the Shop Assistants' Union district council.
In 1896, the Women's Industrial Council commissioned her to investigate the pay and conditions of shop workers, and she published a report on this in 1898. In 1898, she was elected assistant secretary of the Shop Assistants' Union and in 1908 became secretary of the Women's Labour League. She was President of the Trades Union Congress General Council in 1923.
In 1923, Bondfield was elected Labour
Maude Victoria Barlow (born May 24, 1947) is a Canadian author and activist. She is the National Chairperson of the Council of Canadians, a citizens’ advocacy organization with members and chapters across Canada. She is also the co-founder of the Blue Planet Project, which works internationally for the human right to water. Maude chairs the board of Washington-based Food & Water Watch, is a founding member of the San Francisco–based International Forum on Globalization, and a Councillor with the Hamburg-based World Future Council. In 2008/2009, she served as Senior Advisor on Water to the 63rd President of the United Nations General Assembly. She has authored and co-authored 16 books.
Maude Barlow is the recipient of 11 honorary doctorates as well as many awards, including the 2005 Right Livelihood Award (known as the “Alternative Nobel”), the Citation of Lifetime Achievement which she received at the 2008 Canadian Environment Awards, the 2009 Earth Day Canada Outstanding Environmental Achievement Award, the 2009 Planet in Focus Eco Hero Award, and the 2011 EarthCare Award, the highest international honour of the Sierra Club (U.S.).
Barlow is in the feature documentary Blue Gold:
Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess Astor, CH, (19 May 1879 – 2 May 1964) was the first woman to sit as a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) in the British House of Commons. She was the wife of Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor.
Astor was born Nancy Witcher Langhorne in Danville, Virginia, in the United States. Her father was Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and her mother was Nancy Witcher Keene. Her father's earlier business venture had depended at least in part upon slave labour, and the outcome of the American Civil War caused the family to live in near-poverty for several years before Nancy was born. After her birth her father began working to regain the family wealth, first with a job as an auctioneer and later with a job that he obtained with the railroad by using old contacts from his work as a contractor. By the time she was thirteen years old, the Langhornes were again a rich family with a sizeable home. Chiswell Langhorne later moved the family to their estate, known as Mirador, in Albemarle County, Virginia.
Nancy Langhorne had four sisters and three brothers. All of the sisters were known for their beauty; her sister Irene later married the artist Charles Dana Gibson and
Vittorio Emanuele Agnoletto (born on 6 March 1958 in Milan) is an Italian politician and Member of the European Parliament for the Southern Italy constituency. He was first elected in the 2004 European Parliament elections on the Communist Refoundation Party (Italian: Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) list, part of the European Left. He was re-elected in the 2009 European Parliament elections.
Agnoletto sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs and is a substitute for the Committee on International Trade, substitute for the Delegation for relations with the United States.
A graduate in medicine and surgery at the University of Milan (1985), he specialized in occupational medicine, and became co-founder (1987) and national chairman (1992–2001) of LILA - Italian League against AIDS. Since 1992, Agnoletto has been a lecturer and director of studies for training courses on AIDS at the Higher Institute of Health in Rome.
Between 1993 and 2001, he served as member of the National Committee on AIDS of the Italian Ministry of Health, and member of the National Coordinating Committee for action to combat drugs established under the Italian Prime Minister's
Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.
Alice Paul received her undergraduate education from Swarthmore College, and then earned her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. Paul received her LL.B from the Washington College of Law at American University in 1922. In 1927, she earned an LL.M, and in 1928, a Doctorate in Civil Laws from American University.
After her graduation from the University of Pennsylvania, Paul joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and was appointed Chairwoman of their Congressional Committee in Washington, DC. Her initial work was to organize a parade in Washington the day before President Wilson's inauguration, which was a success. After months of fundraising and raising awareness for the cause, membership numbers went up in 1913. Their focus was lobbying for a constitutional amendment to secure the right to vote for women. Such an amendment had originally been sought by suffragists Susan B.
Emma Miller (26 June 1839 - 22 January 1917) was a pioneer trade union organiser, suffragist, and founder of the Australian Labor Party in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
Miller was born in Chesterfield, England, to a family with Unitarian beliefs and activism in the Chartist movement. She married three times and had four children, migrating to Queensland with her second husband in 1879. In Queensland she worked as a gentlemen's shirt maker and seamstress. In 1888 she helped found a local Freethought Association, where she first became known for her radical opinions, and articulated her opinions on equal pay and equal opportunity for women in the workplace.
Along with May Jordan, she formed the first women's union in Brisbane in September 1890 supported by a campaign by William Lane in the Brisbane Worker newspaper. As a seamstress she gave evidence at the 1891 Royal Commission into Shops, Factories and Workshops, that highlighted the existence of many sweatshops that exploited women workers. Through this period Miller was an active participant in the Early Closing Association.
With the great strikes of the 1890s, Miller was active in supporting the 1891 Australian shearers'
Francis Eric Knight Britton is an American Political Scientist and Sustainability Activist who has lived and worked in Paris, France since 1969. As the main convenor of The Commons: Open Society Sustainability Initiative and its various networks, he is well known for promoting integrated public transport, carsharing and bike sharing.
Britton was born in Boston, Massachusetts on 27 June 1938, and trained in the Physical Sciences and Economics at Amherst College, Columbia University (Graduate Faculties), the International Fellows Program, the University of Rome (La Sapienza), and École pratique des hautes études, Paris.
A former member of the Faculty of Economics at New York University and Mills College, and occasional lecturer at universities in many parts of the world; his work received early support from the Ford Foundation (“Why large transport projects fail and what we can learn from them: Case studies from Paris, London and Zurich”) and a Fulbright Fellowship for his work on “Development Theories and Myths in the Italian South (Mezzogiorno)”.
For many years, Britton has been active in the creation and management of independent, interdisciplinary, cross-cultural peer networks
Marian Leonard Tompson
is one of the seven founders of La Leche League International. She was President of La Leche League for 24 years, from 1956 to 1980, and a member of the Founders Advisory Council. Wife of the late Clement Tompson, she is the mother of seven children, a grandmother and great-grandmother. An early advocate of home birth, four of her children, and many grandchildren and great-grandchildren were born at home.
Mrs. Tompson was instrumental in developing Breastfeeding Seminars for Physicians hosted regularly by La Leche League and held annually since 1973. She has served on many boards, committees and advisory councils, including the International Advisory Council for the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (1996 to present).; the Advisory Board for the National Association of Post Partum Care Services (1995), the Advisory Committee for Perinatal Health, Department of Public Health for the State of Illinois (1983); and served as a consultant for the WHO/UNICEF meeting on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Geneva, Switzerland in 1980.
Mrs. Tompson is an engaging speaker, often representing La Leche League at local, national and international conferences,
The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 or 14 February 1766 – 23 or 29 December 1834) was an English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent.
Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors. The six editions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population, published from 1798 to 1826, observed that sooner or later population gets checked by famine and disease. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. William Godwin and the Marquis de Condorcet, for example, believed in the possibility of almost limitless improvement of society. In a more complex way, so did Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose notions centered on the goodness of man and the liberty of citizens bound only by the social contract—a form of popular sovereignty.
Malthus thought that the dangers of population growth would preclude endless progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As an Anglican
Wayne Bidwell Wheeler (November 10, 1869 – September 5, 1927) was an American attorney and prohibitionist. Using deft political pressure and what might today be called a litmus test, he was able to influence many governments, and eventually the U.S. government, to prohibit alcohol.
Wheeler was born in Brookfield, Ohio, to Mary Ursula Hutchinson Wheeler and Joseph Wheeler. He graduated from Oberlin in 1894 and in law from Western Reserve University in 1898. While a student he engaged in temperance work, and after graduation joined the Anti-Saloon League as a field secretary. In 1902 he became superintendent, and in 1906 led a successful fight against the reelection of Governor Myron T. Herrick. The defeat of the Herrick campaign was the first significant victory of the Anti-Saloon League in American politics. Wheeler became the attorney and general counsel for the National Anti-Saloon League, a member of the executive committee, and its head lobbyist. He became widely known as the "dry boss" because of his influence and power.
Under Wheeler's leadership, the League focused entirely on the goal of achieving Prohibition. It organized at the grass-roots level and worked extensively
Louise Olivian Burfitt-Dons (née Byres, born October 22, 1953) is a British writer, humanitarian and global warming campaigner who is best known for her anti-bullying activism as the founder of the charity Act Against Bullying.
Louise Burfitt-Dons was born to Olive and Ian Byres in a small desert hospital at Magwa, in the Burgan district just south of Kuwait City. Her father worked for Kuwait Oil Company and her mother ran a kindergarten. She had an elder brother Laurence (b. 1952). Burfitt-Dons was educated at the Anglo American School in Kuwait and later at the Hertfordshire and Essex High School and Ashford School for Girls in Kent. From 1975 she rented an attic flat in Belgravia owned by Elspeth Rhys-Williams, a stoic human rights campaigner and daughter of Juliet Rhys-Williams. Both her brother and mother committed suicide and her father died of cancer when she was 26 but while he was ill she obtained a liquor license and took over the running of his pub in East Bergholt so she could care for him.
Burfitt-Dons has two daughters, Brooke (b. 1988), who graduated from University College London in 2010 and works as a radio host, singer and actress, and Arabella (b. 1992), who is a
Annie Arniel (April 24, 1861 – January 7, 1941) was a suffragist and women's rights advocate. Born on Howe Island, Ontario, Canada, Annie played a key role in helping to win the women's vote in the United States. A factory worker, living in downtown Wilmington, Delaware, she was recruited by Mabel Vernon and Alice Paul for membership in the National Woman's Party (NWP). As a member of the Silent Sentinels, she was among the first six suffragists arrested and jailed on June 27, 1917 at the White House. She served a total of eight jail terms for suffrage protesting, including: 3 days June, 1917; 60 days in the Occoquan prison in Virginia, August-September, 1917 for picketing; 15 days for Lafayette Square meeting, and five sentences of 5 days each in January and February, 1919 for the watchfire demonstrations.
Robert Edward "Bob" Wood (born February 1957) is an American author, teacher, activist, and potential candidate for Congress. As a 28 year-old high school history teacher from Kalamazoo, Michigan, (though teaching in Seattle, Washington at the time), he wrote the 1988 best selling book Dodger Dogs to Fenway Franks. In June 2008, the sports blog, Baseball Musings, wrote a story commemorating the 20th anniversary of Dodger Dogs to Fenway Franks.
During the summer of 1985, Wood visited each of the 26 Major League Baseball stadiums. He graded the sites on eight criteria: layout and upkeep, the ball field, seating, the scoreboard, food, courtesy of employees, facilities and atmosphere. Giving grades from A+ to D, Wood concluded that the two best ball parks in the majors were Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles and Royals Stadium in Kansas City. The worst, he decided, were Houston's Astrodome and Toronto's Exhibition Stadium. The book was well known for its humor and Wood's tales from the road. Living on a teacher's salary, Wood sold his old Ford Pinto and bought a 1985 Toyota Tercel for the trip. In order to save money, he would often use Kampgrounds of America during the journey and wrote to
Catherine Helen Spence (31 October 1825 – 3 April 1910) was a Scottish-born Australian author, teacher, journalist, politician and leading suffragette. In 1897 she became Australia's first female political candidate after standing (unsuccessfully) for the Federal Convention held in Adelaide. Known as the "Greatest Australian Woman" and given the epitaph "Grand Old Woman of Australasia", Spence is commemorated on the Australian 5 dollar note issued for the Centenary of Federation of Australia.
Spence was born in Melrose, Scotland, as the fifth child in a family of eight. In 1839, following sudden financial difficulties, the family emigrated to South Australia. Arriving on 31 October 1839 (her 14th birthday), at a time when the colony had experienced several years of drought, the contrast to her native Scotland made her "inclined to go and cut my throat". Nevertheless, the family endured seven months "encampment", growing wheat on an eighty acre (32 ha) selection before moving to Adelaide.
Her father, David Spence, was elected first Town Clerk of the City of Adelaide. Her brother John Brodie Spence was a prominent banker and parliamentarian.
Spence had a talent for writing and an
Edith Dircksey Cowan (née Brown), MBE (2 August 1861 – 9 June 1932) was an Australian politician, social campaigner and the first woman elected to an Australian parliament.
Edith Brown was born and raised in Glengarry (HI) Station near Geraldton, Western Australia on 2 August 1861. The second daughter of Kenneth Brown and Mary Eliza Dircksey née Wittenoom, she was born into an influential and respected family that included her grandfathers Thomas Brown and John Burdett Wittenoom, and an uncle, Maitland Brown. When she was seven years old her mother died in childbirth, and her father sent her to a Perth boarding school run by the Cowan sisters, whose brother James she would later marry. Her father remarried, but the marriage was unhappy and he began to drink heavily. When Edith was fifteen, her father shot and killed his second wife, and was subsequently hanged for the crime.
After her father's death, Edith Brown left her boarding school and moved to Guildford, probably to live with her grandmother. There, she attended the school of Canon Sweeting, a former headmaster of Bishop Hale's School who had taught a number of prominent men including John Forrest and Septimus Burt. According
Peter Gary Tatchell (born 25 January 1952) is an Australian-born British political campaigner best known for his work with LGBT social movements.
Tatchell was selected as Labour Party Parliamentary candidate for Bermondsey in 1981, and was then denounced by party leader Michael Foot for supporting extra-parliamentary action against the Thatcher government. The Labour Party subsequently allowed his selection when he ran in the Bermondsey by-election in February 1983. In the 1990s, he became a prominent LGBT campaigner through the direct action group OutRage!, which he co-founded. He has worked on a wide variety of issues, such as Stop Murder Music, which campaigns against music lyrics that incite violence against LGBT people, and is a frequent contributor on human rights and social justice issues in print and through broadcast media, authoring many articles and six books. In 2006, New Statesman readers voted him sixth on their list of "Heroes of our time". He attracted international attention when he attempted a citizen's arrest of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe in 1999 and again in 2001.
In April 2007 he joined the Green Party of England and Wales prospective parliamentary
Richard Carlile (9 December 1790 – 10 February 1843) was an important agitator for the establishment of universal suffrage and freedom of the press in the United Kingdom.
He was born in Ashburton, Devon, the son of a shoemaker who abandoned the family in 1794 leaving Richard's mother struggling to support her three children on the income from running a small shop. At the age of six he went for free education to the local Church of England school, then at the age of twelve he left school for a seven year apprenticeship to a tinsmith in Plymouth. In 1813 he got married, and shortly afterwards the couple moved to Holborn Hill in London where he found work as a tinsmith. Jane Carlile gave birth to five children, three of whom survived.
His interest in politics was kindled first by economic conditions in the winter of 1816 when Carlile was put on short-time work by his employer creating serious problems for the family: "I shared the general distress of 1816 and it was this that opened my eyes." He began attending political meetings where speakers like Henry Hunt complained that only three men in a hundred had the vote, and was also influenced by the publications of William Cobbett.
Clara Zetkin (née Eissner; 5 July 1857 in Wiederau, Saxony, Germany – 20 June 1933 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a German Marxist theorist, activist, and advocate for women's rights. In 1911, she organized the first International Women's Day.
Until 1917, she was active in the Social Democratic Party of Germany, then she joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) and its far-left wing, the Spartacist League; this later became the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), which she represented in the Reichstag during the Weimar Republic from 1920 to 1933.
Clara Zetkin was born Clara Eissner in Wiederau, a peasant village in Saxony, now part of the municipality Königshain-Wiederau. Her father, Gottfried Eissner, was a schoolmaster and church organist who was a devout Protestant, while her mother, Josephine Vitale Eissner, came from a middle-class family from Leipzig and was highly educated. Having studied to become a teacher, Zetkin developed connections with the women's movement and the labour movement in Germany from 1874. In 1878 she joined the Socialist Workers' Party (Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei, SAP). This party had been founded in 1875 by merging two previous
Clive Charles Hamilton AM FRSA (born 12 March 1953) is an Australian public intellectual and Professor of Public Ethics at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics (CAPPE) and the Vice-Chancellor's Chair in Public Ethics at Charles Sturt University. He is a member of the Board of the Climate Change Authority of the Australian Government, and is the Founder and former Executive Director of the The Australia Institute. He regularly appears in the Australian media and contributes to public policy debates. Hamilton was granted the award of Member of the Order of Australia on 8 June 2009 for "service to public debate and policy development, particularly in the fields of climate change, sustainability and societal trends".
Hamilton graduated from the Australian National University with a BA in history, psychology and pure mathematics in 1975 and completed a Bachelor of Economics with First Class Honours from the University of Sydney in 1979. He was an Overseas Commonwealth Postgraduate Scholar and completed his Doctorate at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex in 1984.
He was a Postdoctoral Fellow and Research Fellow at the Research School of
Dr. Emily Howard Stowe (May 1, 1831 – April 29, 1903) was the first female doctor to practice in Canada, and an activist for women's rights and suffrage. Emily Stowe was born in Norwich Township, Oxford County, Ontario. Emily Stowe was related to John Smith.
Emily’s public struggle to achieve equality for women began in 1852, when she applied for admission to Victoria College, Cobourg, Ontario. Refused on the grounds that she was female, she applied to the Normal School for Upper Canada, which Egerton Ryerson had recently founded in Toronto. She entered in November 1853 and was graduated with first-class honours in 1854. Hired as principal of a Brantford, Ontario public school, she was the first woman to be a principal of a public school in Upper Canada. She taught there until her marriage in 1856.
She married John Fiuscia Michael Heward Stowe in 1856. In the next seven years she had 3 children; 2 sons and a daughter. Shortly after the birth of their third child her husband developed tuberculosis, which in turn developed his wife's interest in herbal remedies and homeopathic medicine, a field in which her mother had also been interested. Emily Howard Stowe then decided to become a
Ida Bell Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931) was an African-American journalist, newspaper editor and, with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett, an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites. She was active in the women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. Wells was a skilled and persuasive rhetorician, and traveled internationally on lecture tours.
Ida B. Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi in 1862, just before President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Her father James Wells was a carpenter and her mother was Elizabeth "Lizzie" Warrenton Wells. Both parents were enslaved until freed under the Proclamation, one year after she was born.
Ida’s father James was a master at carpentry and known as a "race man", someone who worked for the advancement of blacks. He was very interested in politics, and was a member of the Loyal League. He attended public speeches and campaigned for local black candidates, but he never ran for office. Her mother
Barbara Gittings (July 31, 1932 – February 18, 2007) was a prominent American activist for gay equality. She organized the New York chapter of the Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) from 1958 to 1963, edited the national DOB magazine The Ladder from 1963 to 1966, and worked closely with Frank Kameny in the 1960s on the first picket lines that brought attention to the ban on employment of gay people by the largest employer in the US at that time: the United States government. Her early experiences with trying to learn more about lesbianism fueled her lifetime work with libraries. In the 1970s, Gittings was most involved in the American Library Association, forming the first gay caucus in a professional organization, in order to promote positive literature about homosexuality in libraries. She was a part of the movement to get the American Psychiatric Association to drop homosexuality as a mental illness in 1972. Her self-described life mission was to tear away the "shroud of invisibility" related to homosexuality that associated it with crime and mental illness.
She was awarded a lifetime membership in the American Library Association, and the ALA named an annual award for the best gay or
Jane Ellen Harrison (9 September 1850 – 15 April 1928) was a British classical scholar, linguist and feminist. Harrison is one of the founders, with Karl Kerenyi and Walter Burkert, of modern studies in Greek mythology. She applied 19th century archaeological discoveries to the interpretation of Greek religion in ways that have become standard. Contemporary classics scholar Mary Beard, Harrison's biographer, has described her as "in a way ... [Britain's] first female professional 'career academic'".
Harrison was born in Cottingham, Yorkshire and first received tutelage under family governesses in subjects such as the many languages Harrison learned: initially German, Latin, Greek and Hebrew, later expanded to about sixteen languages, including Russian. Harrison spent most of her professional life at Newnham, the progressive, recently-established college for women at Cambridge. At Newnham, one of her students was Hope Mirrlees, the writer and poet, with whom she lived in England and later in Paris. Harrison knew Edward Burne-Jones and Walter Pater, and moved in the Bloomsbury group, with Virginia Woolf (who was one of Harrison's close friends and looked to her as a mentor), Lytton
Joël Gustave Nana Ngongang (born 1982), frequently known as Joel Nana, is a leading African LGBT human rights advocate and HIV/AIDS activist. Nana's career as a human rights advocate has spanned numerous African countries, including Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa, in addition to his native Cameroon. Currently the Executive Director of the African Men for Sexual Health and Rights (AMSHeR)an African thought and led coalition of LGBT/MSM organizations working to address the vulnerability of MSM to HIV, Mr Nana has worked in various national and international organizations. Mr Nana worked as the Africa Research and Policy Associate at the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission(IGLHRC), as a Fellow at Behind the Mask, a Johannesburg-based non-profit media organisation publishing a news website concerning gay and lesbian affairs in Africa, he has written on numerous topics in the area of African LGBT and HIV/AIDS issues and is a frequent media commentator.
Following a raid on a bar in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon, in 2005, eleven men were arrested and imprisoned on charges of suspected homosexuality. Nana has been particularly engaged in this issue, dedicating much
Linda Greenhouse (born January 9, 1947, New York City) is the Knight Distinguished Journalist in Residence and Joseph M. Goldstein Senior Fellow at Yale Law School. She is a Pulitzer Prize winning reporter who covered the United States Supreme Court for nearly three decades for The New York Times.
Greenhouse received her BA degree in government from Radcliffe College in 1968 and a Master of Studies in Law from Yale Law School in 1978.
Greenhouse began her 40-year career at The New York Times covering state government in the paper's bureau in Albany. After completing her Master's degree on a Ford Foundation fellowship, she returned to the Times and covered 29 sessions of the Supreme Court from 1978 to 2007, with the exception of two years during the mid-1980s during which she covered Congress. Since 1981, she has authored over 2,800 articles for The New York Times. She has been a regular guest on the PBS program Washington Week.
In 2008, Greenhouse accepted an offer from the Times for an early retirement at the end of the Supreme Court session in the summer of 2008. Seven of the nine sitting Justices attended a goodbye party for Greenhouse on June 12, 2008.
In 2010, Greenhouse and
Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The Limited voting rights were gained by women in Sweden, Britain, Finland and some western U.S. states in the late 19th century. International organizations were formed to coordinate efforts, especially the International Council of Women (1888) and the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (1904). In 1893, New Zealand became the first nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. The women in South Australia achieved the same right in 1894 but became the first to obtain the right to stand (run) for Parliament. The first European country to introduce women's suffrage was the Grand Duchy of Finland—then a part of the Russian Empire with autonomous powers—which also produced the world's first female members of parliament as a result of the 1907 parliamentary elections.
In most Western nations, women's suffrage came at the end of World War I, with some important late adopters such as France in 1944 and Switzerland in 1971.
Women's suffrage has generally been recognized after political campaigns to obtain it were waged. In many countries it was granted before universal suffrage. Women's
Aletta Henriëtte Jacobs, better known as Aletta Jacobs (9 February 1854 – 10 August 1929) was the first woman to complete a university course in the Netherlands and the first female physician. She was born to a Jewish doctor's family in Sappemeer. She left the local school when she was 13 to study at a ladies' school but did not enjoy the experience, returning home after just two weeks where she was taught housework by her Dutch mother, Anna de Jong, but also learned French and German in the evenings, and later Latin and Greek from her father.
In 1871 she began studying at the University of Groningen, initially on a one year basis, but her request for permanent admission was granted after that year. In 1876 she continued her studies at Amsterdam University, receiving a medical degree in 1878 and a medical doctorate a year later. In her time at university she became increasingly concerned with social injustice and decided to travel to England to see how women's attempts to study medicine were being sabotaged. On her return a few months later she began to practice as a doctor and psychologist.
She began to associate with members of the Dutch General Trade Union and Dutch government
Amelia Jenks Bloomer (May 27, 1818 – December 30, 1894) was an American women's rights and temperance advocate. Even though she did not create the women's clothing reform style known as bloomers, her name became associated with it because of her early and strong advocacy.
Bloomer came from a family of modest means and received only a few years of formal schooling. When she was 22, she married attorney Dexter Bloomer who encouraged her to write for his New York newspaper, the Seneca Falls County Courier.
She spent her early years in Cortland County, New York. Bloomer and her family moved to Iowa in 1852. She died at Council Bluffs, Iowa. She is commemorated together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth and Harriet Ross Tubman in the calendar of saints of the Episcopal Church on July 20. Her home at Seneca Falls, New York, known as the Amelia Bloomer House, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
In 1848, Bloomer attended the Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls. In 1849, Bloomer began publishing her views on temperance and social issues in her own bi-weekly publication, The Lily. While the newspaper initially focused on temperance, Bloomer came
Anna Howard Shaw (February 14, 1847 – July 2, 1919) was a leader of the women's suffrage movement in the United States. She was also a physician and the first ordained female Methodist minister in the United States.
Shaw was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England in 1847. At the age of two, she and her family rode a ship to America and settled in Lawrence, Massachusetts. When Shaw was twelve years old, her father took “up [a] claim of three hundred and sixty acres of land in the wilderness" of northern Michigan "and sent [her] mother and five young children to live there alone.”
Her mother had envisioned their Michigan home to be “an English farm” with “deep meadows, sunny skies and daisies,” but was devastated upon their arrival to discover that it was actually a “forlorn and desolate” log cabin “in what was then a wilderness, 40 miles from a post office and 100 miles from a railroad.” Here the family faced dangers like attacks from Indians and wolves and had several laboring responsibilities such as plowing the land themselves. Shaw became very active during this period, helping her siblings refurbish their home and supporting her mother in her time of shock and despair. Shaw took
Ansar Burney (Urdu: انصار برنی; born 14 August 1956 in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan) is a leading Pakistani human rights and civil rights activist. He is a graduate of Masters and Law from Karachi University and honorary recipient of a PhD. in Philosophy. He is widely accredited as being the first man to introduce the concept of human rights in Pakistan nearly 30 years ago.
Ansar Burney was a prominent student leader with the People’s Student Federation in his youth during the 1970s and was known to raise his voice for justice, human dignity and civil rights. His efforts and movement landed him in trouble with the military government of the time and in 1977, Ansar Burney, then aged 20, was arrested on charges of delivering speeches against martial law and in favour of democracy; and was sentenced to eight months rigorous imprisonment by the Martial Law Court.
Upon release in 1978, the Martial Law Authorities once again arrested Ansar Burney and sentenced him to prison for 2 further months of detention and in 1979, Burney was again arrested for a third time and detained for a month.
During the periods of his detention in different prisons in Pakistan, Ansar Burney witnessed firsthand
Martha Beatrice Webb, Lady Passfield (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943) was an English sociologist, economist, socialist and social reformer. Although her husband became Baron Passfield in 1929, she refused to be known as Lady Passfield. She coined the term collective bargaining.
Along with her husband Sidney Webb and numerous others, she co-founded the London School of Economics and Political Science and played a crucial role in the forming of the Fabian Society.
Beatrice Potter was born in Standish House in the village of Standish, Gloucestershire, the daughter of a businessman Richard Potter and Laurencina Heyworth, daughter of a Liverpool merchant. Her grandfather was Liberal Party MP Richard Potter, co-founder of the Little Circle which was key in creating the Reform Act 1832. From an early age she was self-taught and cited her influences as the cooperative movement and the philosopher Herbert Spencer with whom she became acquainted after an early stay with relatives in Lancashire.
In 1882, she had a relationship with Radical politician Joseph Chamberlain, by then a Cabinet minister. After this relationship failed, she took up Social Work and assisted her cousin
Bella Savitsky Abzug (July 24, 1920 – March 31, 1998) was an American lawyer, Congresswoman, social activist and a leader of the Women's Movement. In 1971, Abzug joined other leading feminists such as Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan to found the National Women's Political Caucus. She notably declared "This woman’s place is in the House—the House of Representatives" in her successful 1970 campaign to join that body. She was later appointed to chair the National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year and to plan the 1977 National Women's Conference by President Gerald Ford and led President Jimmy Carter's commission on women.
Bella Savitsky was born on July 24, 1920, in New York City. Both of her parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants. Her mother, Esther, was a homemaker and her father, Emanuel ran the Live and Let Live Meat Market.
When her father died, Abzug, then 13, was disallowed to say the Mourner's Kaddish for her father in synagogue, where that privilege was reserved for sons of the deceased. However, she did so as one of her first feminist actions because her father had no son.
Abzug graduated from Walton High School in New York City, where she was class
Cameron Sinclair (b. 1973, London, England) is the co-founder and 'chief eternal optimist' (CEO) for Architecture for Humanity, a charitable organization which seeks architectural solutions to humanitarian crisis and brings professional design services to communities in need.
Born and Raised in South East London. Educated at Kingswood School, Bath. In the mid-1990s Sinclair trained as an architect at the University of Westminster and The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London. Having developed an interest in social, cultural and humanitarian design, his postgraduate thesis focused on providing shelter to New York's homeless through sustainable, transitional housing. This thesis served as the basis for starting Architecture for Humanity. Architecture for Humanity was founded by Sinclair in April, 1999 and has grown to include 90,000 design professionals, 5 regional offices around the globe and 70 city based chapters in 14 countries. In 2008 the University of Westminster awarded Sinclair an honorary doctorate for his services to the profession.
After graduating from university in 1997, Sinclair moved to New York City, where he worked as a designer for Steve Blatz
Clara Shortridge Foltz (July 16, 1849 – September 2, 1934) was the first female lawyer on the West Coast. She was the sister of U.S. Senator Samuel M. Shortridge. The Criminal Courts Building in downtown Los Angeles was renamed after her in 2002, and is now known as the Clara Shortridge Foltz Criminal Justice Center.
Foltz was born in Lafayette, Indiana, and was a descendant of Daniel Boone. She moved to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, with her parents and attended Howe's Seminary. She taught in 1863 in Mercer County, Illinois, and in December 1864, at age 15, she eloped with a farmer named Jeremiah D. Foltz, and they began having children. However, he had difficulty supporting his family. The Foltzes moved several times, first to Portland, Oregon and finally to San Jose, California in 1872. During these times, she contributed articles to the New Northwest and the San Jose Mercury.
Around 1876, her husband deserted her and their five children. She began studying law in the office of a local judge, and supported herself by lecturing. She wanted to take the bar examination but California law at the time allowed only white males to become members of the bar. Foltz authored a state bill which
Elizabeth Robins (August 6, 1862 – May 8, 1952) was an actress, playwright, novelist, and suffragette.
Elizabeth Robins, the first child of Charles Robins and Hannah Crow, and was born in Louisville, Kentucky. After financial difficulties, her father left for Colorado, leaving the children in the care of Hannah. When Hannah was committed to an insane asylum, Elizabeth and the other children were divided up between relatives and Elizabeth was sent to live with her grandmother in Zanesville, Ohio, where she was educated. Her father was a follower of Robert Owen and held progressive political views. Because of her intelligence, Elizabeth was one of her father's favorites. He wanted her to attend Vassar College and study medicine. However, when she was eighteen she ran away to become an actress.
She had her early training as an actress with the Boston Museum stock company, and afterwards with Edwin Booth. In 1885 Robins married actor George Richmond Parks. Although her husband struggled to get parts, her own acting career gained momentum and she was soon in great demand. On May 31, 1887, Parks left her a note saying he would 'stay in her light no longer' and committed suicide.
Elsie Inglis (16 August 1864 – 26 November 1917) was an innovative Scottish doctor and suffragist.
She was born in the hill station town of Naini Tal, India, to John Forbes David Inglis who worked in the Indian civil service as Chief Commissioner of Oudh. She had the good fortune to have relatively enlightened parents for the time who considered the education of a daughter as important as that of the son. After a private education her decision to study medicine was delayed by her mother's death in 1885, when she felt obliged to stay in Edinburgh with her father. However, the next year the Edinburgh School of Medicine for Women was opened by Dr Sophia Jex-Blake and Inglis started her studies there. After founding her own breakaway medical college as a reaction to Jex-Blake's uncompromising ways, she completed her training under Sir William Macewen at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
She qualified as a licentiate of both the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, and the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow in 1892. She was appalled by the general standard of care and lack of specialisation in the needs of female patients, but was able to obtain a post at Elizabeth
Emmeline Pankhurst (born Emmeline Goulden) (15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote. In 1999 Time named Pankhurst as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century, stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time; she shook society into a new pattern from which there could be no going back." She was widely criticized for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognized as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain.
Born Emmeline Goulden and raised in Moss Side, Manchester, England by politically active parents, Pankhurst was introduced at the age of 8 to the women's suffrage movement. Although her parents encouraged her to prepare herself for life as a wife and mother, she attended the École Normale de Neuilly in Paris. In 1878 she married Richard Pankhurst, a barrister 24 years her senior known for supporting women's right to vote; they had five children over the next ten years. He also supported her activities outside the home, and she quickly became involved with the Women's Franchise League,
Flora Tristan (7 April 1803 in Paris – 14 November 1844 in Bordeaux, France) was a socialist writer and activist. She was one of the founders of modern feminism. She wrote several works, the best known of which are Peregrinations of a Pariah (1838), Promenades in London (1840), and The Workers' Union (1843).
Tristan was the grandmother of the painter Paul Gauguin.
Her full name was Flore-Celestine-Therèse-Henriette Tristan-Moscoso. Her father, Mariano Tristán y Moscoso,was a colonel of the Spanish Navy, born in Arequipa, the second city of Peru. His family was one of the most powerful in the south of the country; his brother Pío de Tristán became viceroy of Peru. Flora Tristan's mother, Anne Laisney, was French; the couple met in Bilbao, Spain.
When her father died in 1807, before her fifth birthday, the situation of Tristan and her mother changed drastically from the high standards of living they were accustomed to. In 1833 she travelled to his hometown to claim her paternal inheritance, which was in possession of an uncle. She remained in Peru until 16 July 1834. Though she never secured the inheritance that brought her there, Tristan wrote a travel diary about her experiences
Florence Nightingale OM, RRC ( /ˈflɒrəns ˈnaɪtɨŋɡeɪl/; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night. Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King's College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.
Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances
Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was an English social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
Martineau wrote 35 books and a multitude of essays from a sociological, holistic, religious, domestic, and, perhaps most controversial, a feminine perspective; she also translated various works from Auguste Comte. She earned enough to be supported entirely by her writing, a challenging feat for a woman in the Victorian era. Martineau has said of her approach: "when one studies a society, one must focus on all its aspects, including key political, religious, and social institutions". She believed a thorough societal analysis was necessary to understand woman's status.
The novelist Margaret Oliphant said "as a born lecturer and politician she (Martineau) was less distinctively affected by her sex than perhaps any other, male or female, of her generation." While she was commonly described as having a masculine intellect, Martineau introduced feminist sociological perspectives in her writing on otherwise overlooked issues such as marriage, children, domestic and religious life, and race relations.
The sixth of eight children, Harriet Martineau was
Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) was an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Politics and gay activism were not his early interests; he was not open about his homosexuality and did not participate in civic matters until around the age of 40, after his experiences in the counterculture of the 1960s.
Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 amid a migration of gay men to the Castro District. He took advantage of the growing political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and ran unsuccessfully for political office three times. His theatrical campaigns earned him increasing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, part of the broader social changes the city was experiencing.
Milk served almost 11 months in office and was responsible for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city. On November 27, 1978, Milk and Mayor George Moscone were assassinated by Dan White, another city supervisor who had recently resigned but wanted his job back. Milk's election was
Dr. Henry Daniel Cogswell (March 3, 1820 – July 8, 1900) was a dentist and a crusader in the temperance movement. He and his wife Caroline also founded Cogswell College in San Francisco, California. Another campus in Everett, Washington was later dedicated in his honor.
Born in Tolland, Connecticut, as a youth, he worked in the New England cotton mills and studied by night. He became a dentist in Providence, Rhode Island at age 26. When the California Gold Rush started, the Cogswells decided to go west. However, they did not do any mining themselves. Instead, he offered dentistry services to miners and invested in real estate and mining stocks, becoming one of San Francisco's first millionaires. A pioneer in his field, Cogswell designed the vacuum method of securing dental plates and was the first in California to perform a dental operation using chloroform.
Cogswell believed that if people had access to cool drinking water they wouldn't consume alcoholic beverages. It was his dream to construct one drinking fountain for every 100 saloons across the United States and many were built. These drinking fountains were elaborate structures built of granite that Cogswell designed
L. Hunter Lovins (née Sheldon, born 1950) is an author and a promoter of sustainable development for over 30 years, is president of Natural Capitalism Solutions, a 501(c)3 non-profit in Longmont, Colorado and the Chief Insurgent of the Madrone Project. She teaches sustainable business management at Bainbridge Graduate Institute in Seattle, Washington, and Denver University and was a founding professor at Presidio Graduate School's MBA in Sustainable Management program (2002-2010). She also has taught at various universities, consulted for many citizens’ groups, governments and corporations. She co-founded with her then-husband Amory Lovins the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) which she led for 20 years. In demand as a speaker and consultant, she has addressed the World Economic Forum, the U.S. Congress, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and hundreds of major conferences. Named a "green business icon" by Newsweek, a millennium "Hero of the Planet" by Time Magazine, she has also received the Right Livelihood Award, the Leadership in Business Award and dozens of other honors.
Lovins received her undergraduate degree in sociology and political science from Pitzer College, in
Ian Lowe is President of the Australian Conservation Foundation, Professor of Science, Technology and Society and former Head of the School of Science at Griffith University, as well as an adjunct professor at Sunshine Coast University and Flinders University. In 1996 he was chair-person of the advisory council producing the first national report on the state of Australia's environment. He is a patron of Sustainable Population Australia. One of his principal interests is the way policy decisions influence use of science and technology, especially in the fields of energy and environment.
Lowe was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in 2001 for services to science, technology, and the environment. In 2002 he was awarded a Centenary Medal for contributions to environmental science and won the Eureka Prize for promotion of science. His contributions have also been recognised by the Prime Minister's Environment Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement, the Queensland Premier's Millennium Award for Excellence in Science and the University of NSW Alumni Award for achievement in science. Lowe was named Humanist of the Year in 1988. He was elected President of the Australian
Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English actor. He has won multiple Laurence Olivier Awards, a Tony Award, two Academy Award nominations, and five Emmy Award nominations. His work has spanned genres from Shakespearean and modern theatre to popular fantasy and science fiction. He is known for film roles such as Gandalf in the Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit trilogies, Magneto in the X-Men films, and as Sir Leigh Teabing in The Da Vinci Code.
McKellen was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1979, was knighted in 1991 for services to the performing arts, and was made a Companion of Honour for services to drama and to equality, in the 2008 New Year Honours.
McKellen was born in Burnley, Lancashire, England, though he spent most of his early life in Wigan. Born shortly before the outbreak of World War II, the experience had some lasting impact on him. In response to an interview question when an interviewer remarked that he seemed quite calm in the aftermath of the 11 September attacks, he said: "Well, darling, you forget—I slept under a steel plate until I was four years old."
McKellen's father, Denis Murray McKellen, a civil engineer, was a
Jello Biafra (born Eric Reed Boucher; June 17, 1958, Boulder, Colorado, United States) is the former lead singer and songwriter for San Francisco punk rock band Dead Kennedys, and is currently a musician and spoken word artist. After he left Dead Kennedys, he took over the influential independent record label Alternative Tentacles, which he had co-founded in 1979 with Dead Kennedys bandmate East Bay Ray. Although now focused primarily on spoken word, he has continued as a musician in numerous collaborations.
Politically, Biafra is a member of the Green Party of the United States and actively supports various political causes. He ran for the party's Presidential nomination in 2000, finishing second to Ralph Nader. He is a staunch believer in a free society, who utilizes shock value and advocates direct action and pranksterism in the name of political causes. Biafra is known to use absurdist media tactics, in the leftist tradition of the Yippies, to highlight issues of civil rights and social justice.
Eric Boucher was born in Boulder, Colorado, to parents Stanley Boucher, a psychiatric social worker and poet, and Virginia Boucher, a librarian. He also had a sister, Julie J. Boucher,
John Cropper (1797–1876) was a British philanthropist and abolitionist. A businessman, he was known as "the most generous man in Liverpool".
Cropper was renowned for being rich, but also being generous. It is said that a letter addressed to "the most generous man in Liverpool" ended up on his desk. Every year he and his wife would entertain juvenile delinquents who were serving their sentences at the training ship "Akbar". Cropper would also hold a bible class every Sunday at a home the family had set up for "fallen girls." This was in addition to the ragged school they set up for local pauper's children. This school was known as "St. Croppers" and is likely to be the one referred to in the poem below.
In 1836, his father's partner, Robert Rathbone Benson (known as "Robert R"), had resigned membership from the Quakers. This was no small affair as the Quaker church was the centre of its members community. Benson was involved with, and related to, Isaac Crewdson (a leader to the Manchester Quaker meeting). Crewdson had written and published a book in January 1835 called A Beacon to the Society of Friends. The controversy it ignited, which related to the role of evangelism in the
John Pierce St. John (February 25, 1833 – August 31, 1916) was the eighth Governor of Kansas and a candidate for President of the United States.
Born in Brookville, Indiana, St. John served as lieutenant colonel of the 143rd Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. From 1873 he sat in the Kansas Senate, and was the Republican Governor of Kansas from 1879 to 1883. Active in the temperance movement, he successfully promoted a prohibition amendment to that state's constitution. St. John also helped create the Kansas Freedmen's Relief Association during the Great Exodus of African-Americans to Kansas in 1879.
He was the Prohibition Party candidate for President of the United States in the 1884 election. On October 2, 1884 he was nearly shot, with the bullet hitting the window next to him. He received 147,482 votes (about 1.5%) on a ticket with William Daniel. The election was won by Grover Cleveland of the Democratic Party. St. John was also surpassed by two other unsuccessful candidates:
St. John died after suffering heat exhaustion in 1916 in Olathe, Kansas.
The city of St. John, Kansas, is named after him.
Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born Minnie Lee Jones on August 13, 1933) is an American pediatrician and public health administrator. She was a vice admiral in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the first African American appointed as Surgeon General of the United States. Elders is best known for her frank discussion of her views on controversial issues such as drug legalization and distributing contraception in schools. She was fired mid-term in December 1994 amidst controversy.
Elders was born Minnie Lee Jones in Schaal, Arkansas. In college, she changed her name to Minnie Joycelyn Lee. In 1952, she received her B.S. degree in Biology from Philander Smith College in Little Rock, Arkansas. After working as a nurse's aide in a Veterans Administration hospital in Milwaukee for a period, she joined the United States Army in May 1953. During her 3 years in the Army, she was trained as a physical therapist. She then attended the University of Arkansas Medical School, where she obtained her M.D. degree in 1960. After completing an internship at the University of Minnesota Hospital and a residency in pediatrics at the University of Arkansas Medical Center, Elders earned an M.S.
Judith Jarvis Thomson (born 1929) is an American moral philosopher and metaphysician, best known for her use of thought experiments to make philosophical points.
She attended Hunter College High School in New York and taught at MIT for the majority of her career, remaining there as professor emerita. She is well known for thought experiments. Her ex-husband, James Thomson, was also a professor of philosophy at MIT for many years.
One thought experiment for which Thomson is especially well-known occurs in her paper A Defense of Abortion:
The scenario is meant to push back against the concept that human beings possess an unalienable right to not be killed.
In this paper, Thomson argues on the basis of the violinist thought experiment that "the right to life consists not in the right not to be killed, but rather in the right not to be killed unjustly." Therefore, to show that abortion is morally impermissible, "it is by no means enough to show that the fetus is a person and to remind us that all persons have a right to life—we need to be shown also that killing the fetus violates its right to life, i.e., that abortion is unjust killing. And is it?" Thomson's article defends abortion
Katherine Wilson Sheppard (10 March 1847 – 13 July 1934) was the most prominent member of New Zealand's women's suffrage movement, and is the country's most famous suffragette. She also appears on the NZ ten dollar note. Because New Zealand was the first country to introduce universal suffrage, Sheppard's work had a considerable impact on women's suffrage movements in other countries.
Sheppard was born Catherine Wilson Malcolm in Liverpool, England to Scottish parents Jemima Crawford Souter and Andrew Wilson Malcolm. She generally preferred to spell her given name "Katherine", or abbreviate it to "Kate". She received a good education, and was noted for her intellectual ability. Kate's father had a love of music which he passed on to her. For a time she lived with her uncle, a minister of the free church at Nairn. In 1869, several years after the death of her father, Sheppard and her siblings were taken by their mother to Christchurch. She married Walter Allen Sheppard three years later, and their only child Douglas was born on 8 December 1880.
In 1885, Kate Sheppard became involved in establishing the New Zealand Women's Christian Temperance Union, part of the larger temperance
Sarah Margaret Fuller Ossoli, commonly known as Margaret Fuller, (May 23, 1810 – July 19, 1850) was an American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States.
Born Sarah Margaret Fuller in Cambridge, Massachusetts, she was given a substantial early education by her father, Timothy Fuller. She later had more formal schooling and became a teacher before, in 1839, she began overseeing what she called "conversations": discussions among women meant to compensate for their lack of access to higher education. She became the first editor of the transcendentalist journal The Dial in 1840, before joining the staff of the New York Tribune under Horace Greeley in 1844. By the time she was in her 30s, Fuller had earned a reputation as the best-read person in New England, male or female, and became the first woman allowed to use the library at Harvard College. Her seminal work, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, was published in 1845. A year later, she was sent to
Morris Kight (born November 19, 1919, Comanche County, Texas – died January 19, 2003, Los Angeles, California) was a gay rights pioneer and peace activist, based in Los Angeles. He is considered one of the original founders of the gay and lesbian civil rights movement in the United States.
Kight was born and grew up in Comanche County, Texas. He graduated from Texas Christian University and graduated in 1941 with a degree in personnel administration and public administration.
From 1941 until 1958, Kight lived in northern New Mexico, where he and many other gay people were active in Adlai Stevenson's campaign in the 1952 presidential election. The presence of many gay people in Stevenson's campaign led to the spreading of a rumor that Stevenson was gay.
While in New Mexico, Kight married and had two daughters, Carol Kight-Fyfe and Angela Chandler. He only shared that information with his closest friends, apparently believing that would diminish his credibility as a spokesman for gay rights.
Kight also acted while he was in Albuquerque. From 1950 to 1955, he was involved in the "Summerhouse Theater" and the "Old Town Players" in Albuquerque. The two companies brought in many actors
Rico Daniels is an English television presenter who has his own show, The Salvager on Discovery Real Time. A passionate recycler, the second series (similar in content to the first) saw him relocating in France and was called Le Salvager. Born in 1952 Daniels was brought up in Basildon and left school at 15 to become a civil servant, but soon realised this was not for him and enrolled as an art student. Disliking the formal tuition Daniels embarked on a range of jobs before settling for the life of a market trader. In 2002 he was invited to screen test for a new programme about men and their sheds. While he was not quite suitable for this assignment, the producer liked his idiosyncratic style and commissioned him for a series of programmes showcasing his imaginative talent for changing something unwanted into a distinctive piece of furniture.
also The Salvager is aired on Quest (Terrestrial Channel), at 12pm consisting of two episodes. These are shown weekdays.
Yoshioka Yayoi (吉岡 彌生, April 29, 1871 – May 22, 1959) was a physician and women's rights activist, who founded the Tokyo Women's Medical University (東京女子医科大学, Tōkyō Joshi Ika Daigaku) in 1900, as the first medical school for women in Japan. She was also known as Washiyama Yayoi.
Yoshioka was born in what is now part of Kakegawa city, Shizuoka prefecture, where her father, a physician, advocated primary education for the village children. Yayoi grew up in the 19th century when women's education was frowned upon. She graduated from the Saisei-Gakusha school of medicine, and received the 27th medical license granted to a woman in Japan. Realizing the difficulty of this career path for women in Japan, she resolved to start her own school of medicine, which she did before she was 30 years old.
The graduates of the Tokyo Women's Medical School (renamed the Tokyo Women's Medical University in 1998) were not allowed to practice medicine until 1912, when the Japanese government permitted women to enroll in the national medical examination. By 1930, almost a thousand women had gone through Yoshioka's school.
Yayoi was politically active through her life. With many of her colleagues, she