High Energy Radio Frequency weapons (HERF) or High Power Radio Frequency weapons (HPRF) are weapons that use high intensity radio waves to disrupt electronics. They are a type of directed-energy weapon. They operate similarly to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) devices, by inducing destructive voltage within electronic wiring. They are usually directional and can be focused on a specific target using a parabolic reflector. Faraday cages may be used to provide protection from most HERF and EMP effects. Loren Thompson, chief operating officer of the Lexington Institute in Virginia states that: “The relevant [electromagnetic weapon] technology is well within the grasp of some countries and transnational terrorist groups," and further states that U.S. hardware is susceptible to microwave and other directed-energy weapons. Suitable materials and tools to create electromagnetic weapons are commonly available. "The threat of electromagnetic bomb proliferation is very real." In the United States of America, the University of Texas-Austin Institute for Advanced Technology (IAT) conducts basic research to advance electrodynamics and hypervelocity physics related to electromagnetic weapons.