Dedicated short-range communications

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Dedicated short-range communications are one-way or two-way short- to medium-range wireless communication channels specifically designed for automotive use and a corresponding set of protocols and standards. In October 1999, the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated in the USA 75MHz of spectrum in the 5.9GHz band for DSRC to be used by Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS. Also, in Europe in August 2008 the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has allocated 30 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9GHz band for ITS. Currently its main use in Europe and Japan is in electronic toll collection. DSRC systems in Europe, Japan and U.S. are not, at present, compatible. Other possible applications are: Other short range wireless protocols are IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth and CALM. In the European standardization organisation CEN, sometimes in co-operation with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) the following DSRC standards have been developed: Each standard addresses different layers in the OSI model communication stack. Short Range Agent Communications (SRAC) was also adopted by Western intelligence agencies during the Cold War yet in the

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